Слова алтайского праязыка (*D)

Здесь представлен реконструированный словарный фонд праалтайского языка, начинающийся на фонему *D- (X корней). из общеалтайской этимологической БД проекта "Вавилонская башня" Московской школы компаративистики.


Proto-Altaic: *dắgá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: near; to follow
Russian Meaning: близкий; следовать
Turkic: *jạgu-
Mongolian: *daɣa-ri-
Tungus-Manchu: *daga
Korean: *ta(h)-
Japanese: *dánká-
Comments: EAS 51, 91, 92, KW 72, Poppe 22, Doerfer MT 241, АПиПЯЯ 15, 26-27, 71, 278, Дыбо 12. Closed vowel in Turkic is unexpected (*jag- would be a normal reflex).
Proto-Altaic: *dằgì
Meaning: enemy, alien
Russian Meaning: враг, чужак
Turkic: *jagɨ
Mongolian: *dajin
Tungus-Manchu: *dagu-r
Korean: *tōi
Japanese: *(d)ìkùsà
Comments: EAS 50, 88, KW 83, Владимирцов 267, Дыбо 7, 15. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. (TMN 4, 101-102, Щербак 1997, 121) is impossible. A suffixed form *dagi-gu (*dagi-u) accounts for labialization in the second syllable (in TM, Jpn. and, originally, in Kor.).
Proto-Altaic: *dagV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shoulder bone, back
Russian Meaning: плечевая кость, спина
Turkic: *jagɨr, *jagrɨn
Mongolian: *dajira / *daɣari
Tungus-Manchu: *daga-
Comments: Владимирцов 318, Колесникова 1972а, 89-91. A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 121 Mong. is not < Turk. Turk. *jagɨr represents in fact a merger of two different original roots (see *ńĕka). See also TMN 4, 177-178 (with unconvincing criticism).
Proto-Altaic: *dáku
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: coverlet
Russian Meaning: покрытие, покрывало
Turkic: *jogurgan
Tungus-Manchu: *dakan-
Japanese: *dúká
Comments: Cf. also Bur. dagadxa 'unworked leather, leather mat'. Turk. -o- must be a result of secondary narrowing in a polysyllabic word < *jagu-rgan.
Proto-Altaic: *dằk`ì
Meaning: follow, near
Russian Meaning: следовать, близкий
Turkic: *jAk-ɨn
Mongolian: *daka-, *daga-
Tungus-Manchu: *daxa-
Japanese: *tìkà-
Comments: KW 73, ОСНЯ 1, 215-216, Doerfer TMN 4, 105 (with some unsubstantial criticism), MT 241, АПиПЯЯ 15, 26-27, 71, 278. Despite Doerfer MT 142, TM is hardly borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *dala ( ~ -e-)
Meaning: a k. of building
Russian Meaning: вид здания
Mongolian: *dal
Japanese: *da
Comments: Street 1985, 640. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dằĺà ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to close, hide
Russian Meaning: закрывать, прятать
Turkic: *jaĺ-
Mongolian: *dal-
Tungus-Manchu: *dal(i)-
Korean: *tjǝ́r
Japanese: *dàsìrǝ̀
Comments: EAS 51, KW 73, Владимирцов 365, Poppe 22-23, 77, Дыбо 12, Miller 1970, 127, Street 1980, 297, JOAL 86. Despite Doerfer MT 18, PTM *dali- cannot be borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *dàli
Meaning: to roast, burn
Russian Meaning: жарить, жечь
Mongolian: *dölü
Tungus-Manchu: *dalga-
Korean: *tàr-
Japanese: *(d)ìr-
Comments: EAS 1, 124, SKE 252. Korean has a usual verbal low tone; Mong. *dölü < *delü (from an earlier *deli-w). On a possible Turkic reflex see under *ǯi̯ale.
Proto-Altaic: *dalo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sweet, tasty
Russian Meaning: сладкий, вкусный
Turkic: *j[ɨ]l-ɨnčga
Mongolian: {*dolgun-čug 'gluttonous, edacious'}
Tungus-Manchu: *dal-{}
Korean: *tằr-
Comments: SKE 253, EAS 51. In Turk. *-a- would be expected; Karakh. jɨlɨnčga is probably an assimilation < *jalɨnčga.
Proto-Altaic: *dalp`V ( ~ -e-, -p-)
Meaning: to shake, sway
Russian Meaning: качать, махать
Turkic: *jelpi- / *jalpɨ-
Mongolian: *delbe- / *dalba-
Comments: KW 87. An expressive Turk.-Mong. isogloss, tending to merge (both in Turk. and Mong.) with the reflexes of *dĕ̀lp`à 'flat, broad' ("to shake, flatter (of flat objects)"). One cannot exclude that a merger indeed took place, and the original shape of the root had been *dalV ( ~ -e-) without the *-p`-: cf. WMong. dalaji- 'to brandish, swing' (see TMN 1, 328-329), dele- 'to wave, flap (wings)'; Karakh. jalŋu 'flip-flap, the swing' (EDT 930), see SKE 258.
Proto-Altaic: *dàma
Meaning: ill, sick, bad
Russian Meaning: больной, плохой
Turkic: *jAman
Tungus-Manchu: *dam-
Japanese: *dàm-
Comments: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic form (MC ja-mạn 'savage, barbarian' is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original meaning of the root was 'ill(ness), sick(ness)').
Proto-Altaic: *dằŋk`V ( ~ t-)
Meaning: blame, guilt
Russian Meaning: вина, обвинение
Tungus-Manchu: *daŋ-
Japanese: *tǝ̀nká
Comments: A Tung.-Jpn. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dari ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to freeze
Russian Meaning: замерзать
Mongolian: *dereji-
Tungus-Manchu: *dar-
Japanese: *(d)ita-
Comments: The root is not widely represented, but seems to be well reconstructable for PA. {Dolg. ND 561 adds OTurk. jarp 'firm, solid' which would support *dari.}
Proto-Altaic: *dărV(mV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back, waist
Russian Meaning: спина, поясница
Turkic: *jarɨn
Mongolian: *dere(me)
Tungus-Manchu: *darama
Comments: A Western isogloss. Somewhat different in Дыбо 305, Лексика 242; for Turkic cf. also PTM *dīre 'shoulderblade' (ТМС 1, 205).
Proto-Altaic: *dasa
Meaning: to regulate, govern
Russian Meaning: управлять, регулировать
Turkic: *jAsa-
Mongolian: *das-
Tungus-Manchu: *dasa-
Korean: *tàs-
Comments: Lee 1958, 107 (TM-Kor.). The combination of meanings in Mong. here is suspiciously similar to PA *či̯ā́tu ( > Mong. dadu-); so one may wonder if Mong. *das- is not actually a derivative of *dad- (*dad-s-). In that case the form should be removed from the present etymology.
Proto-Altaic: *dắsi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a flat cover
Russian Meaning: плоская покрышка
Turkic: *jAs-
Mongolian: *dasinga
Tungus-Manchu: *dasi-
Korean: *tìsài
Comments: The Turk. form can also be derived from *nèse 'to flatten, make even' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *dā́la
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wave, deep place
Russian Meaning: волна; глубокое место
Turkic: *dāl-
Mongolian: *dalaj
Tungus-Manchu: *dal-
Japanese: *dara
Comments: Владимирцов 368, Doerfer MT 125. Despite TMN 1, 325, EDT 502 Mong. cannot be < Turkic (initial d- cannot be explained). See notes to *t`ṑle.
Proto-Altaic: *dā̀li
Meaning: glue; to glue, stick
Russian Meaning: клей; приклеивать, прилипать
Turkic: *jẹli-m
Mongolian: *ǯil-
Tungus-Manchu: *dāl-bu-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 180. A Western isogloss. Turkic must have a secondary narrowing *e > *ẹ here (in a disyllabic structure?).
Proto-Altaic: *dā́lV ( ~ -ē-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: nape, withers
Russian Meaning: загривок, холка
Turkic: *jāl
Mongolian: *dalaŋ
Korean: *tǝr-mi
Comments: KW 73, Poppe 97, Дыбо 306, Лексика 147; TMN 4, 106 ("...unklar"). The root seems to be distinct from *dḗlì (*dḗjlì) q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *dā̀mù
Meaning: only
Russian Meaning: только
Tungus-Manchu: *dāmu
Japanese: *dùmài
Comments: An interesting TM-Jpn. isogloss. It is perhaps worth noting the particle jamu mentioned by MK for contexts like "sen barɣɨl jamu" 'go, will you' (see EDT 934).
Proto-Altaic: *dā̀pà
Meaning: to cross (a mountain)
Russian Meaning: переваливать (через гору)
Mongolian: *daba-
Tungus-Manchu: *dāb-
Japanese: *dàmà
Comments: KW 80, Poppe 23, 45, JOAL 85, 86, Murayama 1962, 108, АПиПЯЯ 15, 104, 109 (with an explanation of Jpn. -m-: *dàmà < *dàpa-(ga)n = Mong. dabaɣan), 276.
Proto-Altaic: *debí ( ~ ǯ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bad, to suffer
Russian Meaning: плохой, страдать
Turkic: *jAb-
Mongolian: *ǯib-
Korean: *jǝ̀búi-
Japanese: *(d)impi-r-
Comments: Finch 1987, 17 (Jpn.-Mong.). One of the few exceptional cases of *ǯ- > *j- in Kor. (cf. *ǯa- 'eight').
Proto-Altaic: *debV
Meaning: young (of birds or animals)
Russian Meaning: детеныш (птиц или животных)
Turkic: *jabrɨ
Mongolian: *deɣü
Tungus-Manchu: *debere
Comments: Poppe AU 105, Дыбо 9, Лексика 169. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *d[é]gì
Meaning: feather, wing
Russian Meaning: перо, крыло
Turkic: *jüg
Mongolian: *ǯiɣür
Tungus-Manchu: *dekte-
Japanese: *(d)íká
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 44, 287, Лексика 150. Labialization in PT is probably secondary (*jüg < *jegü < *jegi-gü, cf. the Mong. form).
Proto-Altaic: *dĕ́kà
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to burn
Russian Meaning: жечь, гореть
Turkic: *jak-
Tungus-Manchu: *deg-ǯe-gi-
Korean: *thằ-
Japanese: *dák-
Comments: Martin 227, JOAL 90-94, АПиПЯЯ 35-36, 90, 279. Korean has a usual vowel reduction between a stop and a fricative.
Proto-Altaic: *dék`à
Meaning: a k. of reed or bamboo
Russian Meaning: вид тростника или бамбука
Turkic: *jEken
Mongolian: *dek-
Tungus-Manchu: *deke-
Korean: *tái
Japanese: *tákái
Comments: Martin 225, Whitman 1985, 188, 215, Дыбо 11. The tone incongruence between Kor. and Jpn. should be explained by contraction in Kor.; however, the zero reflex in Kor. is somewhat strange (one would at least expect *tahi).
Proto-Altaic: *dek`V ( ~ -k-)
Meaning: harness, hook
Russian Meaning: упряжь, крюк
Turkic: *jEk-
Tungus-Manchu: *deken
Comments: Дыбо 12. A Turk.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dĕ̀lp`à
Meaning: flat, wide
Russian Meaning: плоский, широкий
Turkic: *jalpɨ
Mongolian: *dalba-
Tungus-Manchu: *delpi-n
Japanese: *tàpìra
Comments: VEWT 183, KW 75 (Turk.-Mong.), Цинциус 1984, 8, АПиПЯЯ 71, 287. Mong. has also a front vowel variant delbe 'flatness', delbeger 'broad, wide', ǯilbigar id.
Proto-Altaic: *dĕ̀lp`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to burst, break
Russian Meaning: ломать(ся), рвать(ся)
Turkic: *deĺ-
Mongolian: *delbe-
Tungus-Manchu: *delpe-
Japanese: *timpǝ-
Comments: Poppe 44 (Mong.-Tung.), Дыбо 13. Despite Doerfer MT 64, the TM form is hardly borrowed from Mong.
Proto-Altaic: *depo ( ~ -b-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: wet, soak
Russian Meaning: мокрый, мокнуть
Turkic: *jẹbi-
Mongolian: *debte-
Tungus-Manchu: *deb-
Comments: KW 88. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dĕp`a ( ~ *t-)
Meaning: soft, fluffy
Russian Meaning: мягкий, пушистый
Tungus-Manchu: *dep-
Korean: *tàpók-
Comments: An expressive TM-Kor. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *deŕa ( ~ -o)
Meaning: to flatten, flat
Russian Meaning: расплющивать, плоский
Turkic: *jạŕ-
Mongolian: *daru-
Korean: *tàrì-
Comments: SKE 257, 258.
Proto-Altaic: *déru ( ~ -ŕ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to shake, sway
Russian Meaning: качаться, махать
Mongolian: *derbe-
Tungus-Manchu: *der(gi)-
Japanese: *dúr-
Comments: Cf. also PTM *deri(n)- 'jump, run'. {ND 566 adds WMo dorgi- 'tremble, shake, vibrate'}
Proto-Altaic: *dḕ
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to lie
Russian Meaning: лежать
Turkic: *jạt-
Mongolian: *de-b-
Tungus-Manchu: *dē-
Japanese: *dàntǝ̀-r-
Comments: One of the common Altaic monosyllabic verbal roots. Note dental suffixation (probably *dē-ta-) reflected in PT, TM and Jpn.
Proto-Altaic: *dḕgni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: needle, thorn, arrow
Russian Meaning: игла, шип, стрела
Turkic: *(j)igne
Mongolian: *ǯeɣü-wün
Tungus-Manchu: *dēŋgu
Japanese: *(d)inka
Comments: Владимирцов 196. Mong. *ǯeɣü-ɣün must go back to *ǯiɣe-ɣü-n. {An alternative proposition: TM *dēŋgu could be compared with PJ *dùmì 'bow' < PA *dḕŋu; in that case the present root could be reconstructed as *ǯegi.}
Proto-Altaic: *dḗlì
Meaning: mane; collar
Russian Meaning: грива; воротник
Turkic: *jēl
Mongolian: *del
Tungus-Manchu: *delü-n
Japanese: *(d)iárì
Comments: EAS 52, KW 74, 85, Poppe 22, 75, АПиПЯЯ 72, 287, Лексика 147; TMN 4, 106 ("...unklar"). TM is hardly < Mong., despite Doerfer MT 76, Rozycki 58. The diphthong in Jpn. may indicate PA *dḗjlì. Cf. *dā́lV.
Proto-Altaic: *dible
Meaning: hem
Russian Meaning: подол, окантовка
Turkic: *jEl(b)-
Mongolian: *dewel
Tungus-Manchu: *dilbi-
Comments: KW 85, EAS 174 (with several misquoted forms), TMN 1, 328. A Western isogloss. Some rather strange variants coexist within Mong. and TM, and archaic interborrowing is not excluded; it is also possible that the root should be reconstructed as *dible, to account for the development in Mong. Another possibility is comparing the Mong. forms (at least part of them) with Evk. lipêre `a k. of winter clothes', Tuva čüvür `trousers' (?).
Proto-Altaic: *dijV ( ~ *t-)
Meaning: tar, to melt
Russian Meaning: вар, варить
Tungus-Manchu: *dī
Korean: *tī-
Japanese: *(d)í-
Comments: An Eastern isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dile
Meaning: udder
Russian Meaning: вымя
Turkic: *jẹlin
Mongolian: *deleŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *dilba
Comments: Poppe 22, 76, Лексика 148 (with lit.). A Western isogloss. Despite Щербак 1997, 123 Mong. cannot be borrowed < Turk.
Proto-Altaic: *dile ( ~ t-, -ĺ-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of insect or worm
Russian Meaning: вид насекомого или червя
Mongolian: *dele-
Tungus-Manchu: *dilu-kē
Korean: *tīroŋ
Comments: A common derivative *dile-kV (-k`V) is reflected in Mong. *dele-g- and TM *dilu-kē.
Proto-Altaic: *dĭ̀lo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: year; sun, sun cycle
Russian Meaning: год; солнце, солнечный цикл
Turkic: *jɨl
Mongolian: *ǯil
Tungus-Manchu: *dilačā
Korean: *tolč
Japanese: *tǝ̀sì
Comments: EAS 52, KW 109, Владимирцов 171, Martin 246, ОСНЯ 1, 220, JOAL 119, АПиПЯЯ 31, 88, 278-279, Дыбо 11, Лексика 71. Mong. may be < Turk. (see TMN 4, 251, Щербак 1997, 124). The Eastern form go back to a suffixed *dĭ̀lo-č`V.
Proto-Altaic: *dilu
Meaning: juice, resin
Russian Meaning: сок, смола
Turkic: *jülük / *juluk
Mongolian: *ǯilij
Tungus-Manchu: *dilgu
Comments: Дыбо 10. A Western isogloss. One wonders if the root is not actually derived (as *dij-lu) from *dijV 'tar, to melt' q. v.
Proto-Altaic: *dilu
Meaning: brain
Russian Meaning: мозг
Turkic: *julɨŋ / *jülüŋ
Mongolian: *ǯiluɣa / *ǯulaj
Tungus-Manchu: *dili
Comments: Дыбо 314, Лексика 263. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *diŋe
Meaning: to win
Russian Meaning: побеждать
Turkic: *jẹŋ-
Mongolian: *dejil-
Tungus-Manchu: *diŋe-
Comments: KW 92. A Western isogloss. The Turkic and Mong. forms are no doubt related, but Ramstedt treats them both as derived from *deg- 'top'. Since we divide the traditional reconstruction of the latter root into *di̯òge and *tēga (q. v.), such a derivation seems less plausible. The Ud. form diŋe-, albeit isolated in TM, also supports deriving Turk. *jẹŋ- and Mong. dejil- from a separate root.
Proto-Altaic: *dísa
Meaning: to guard, preserve
Russian Meaning: охранять, сохранять
Mongolian: *ǯise-
Tungus-Manchu: *disu-
Japanese: *jásí-nap-
Comments: A good common Altaic verbal root.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ági ( ~ -i̯o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: fish
Russian Meaning: рыба
Mongolian: *ǯiɣa-
Korean: *thi
Japanese: *(d)íwuá
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 100, 275, Дыбо 46, Лексика 178, Vovin 2000. TM *ǯoji (in fact *ǯobi) 'Salmo lenoc' (compared in some of the above sources) has a precise match in WMong. ǯebege and has to be separated; see *ǯi̯abo. The Jpn. form could also belong there phonetically, but the close match with Kor. thi makes its derivation from *di̯ági more plausible.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ari
Meaning: a small animal (flying squirrel)
Russian Meaning: мелкое животное (белка-летяга)
Turkic: *jar- / *jer-
Mongolian: *ǯirke
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯ(i)arami ( ~ d-)
Korean: *tằràmí
Japanese: *(d)ìtàti
Comments: Лексика 168. Low tone in Jpn. does not correspond to Kor. (but cf. different dialectal variants). The root must have denoted some small rodent, possibly a flying squirrel (which could explain the meaning 'bat' in Turkic). One should also mention PM *ǯaraɣa 'hedgehog, porcupine' = Karakh. jarpuz 'mongoose', possibly derived from the same root. A different etymology of the Turkic word (comparing it with Evk. ńarbakin 'naked' and deriving from a *ńarV 'naked skin', see Stachowski 1999) seems less likely to us.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ā́no ( ~ *di̯ṓne)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: flat surface, land
Russian Meaning: плоская поверхность, суша
Turkic: *jān
Mongolian: *denǯi
Tungus-Manchu: *dunse
Comments: A Western isogloss. The meaning 'side' in Turkic is easily deducible from 'land' (cf. Russ. страна - сторона).
Proto-Altaic: *di̯òge
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: good, better
Russian Meaning: хороший, лучше
Turkic: *jẹg-
Mongolian: *ǯaɣa
Korean: *tjōh-
Japanese: *dǝ̀-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 103, 275. Despite the meaning of the Chuvash form ("up") the Turk. root should be rather compared with this Korean and Japanese data than with Mong. degde- 'rise' etc. (see VEWT 194 with literature). On the latter root see under *tēga. The Mong. vocalism in *ǯaɣa is somewhat aberrant: it is probably a result of early vowel assimilation < *ǯiɣa (the variants ǯiɣa- and ǯaɣa- in WMong. interchange frequently).
Proto-Altaic: *di̯okt`V ( ~ t-)
Meaning: socks, stockings
Russian Meaning: носки, чулки
Mongolian: *degtej
Tungus-Manchu: *dokta
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯úblu ( ~ -a)
Meaning: a k. of predator
Russian Meaning: вид хищника
Turkic: *jolbars
Mongolian: *ǯilar
Tungus-Manchu: *dolbi
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ŭlgu ( ~ -a)
Meaning: a k. of foliage tree
Russian Meaning: вид лиственного дерева
Turkic: *jɨlgun
Mongolian: *dolugana
Tungus-Manchu: *dulgikta
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯up`ú
Meaning: wing, fin
Russian Meaning: крыло, плавник
Mongolian: *ǯiber
Japanese: *tumpasa
Comments: JOAL 98. A Mong.-Jpn. isogloss; cf. perhaps Tuva čakpa ( < *japka) 'fin'.
Proto-Altaic: *di̯ū̀lu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: warm
Russian Meaning: теплый
Turkic: *jɨlɨ-g
Mongolian: *dulaɣan
Tungus-Manchu: *dūl-
Japanese: *dù
Comments: EAS 51, KW 102, Владимирцов 174, Poppe 23, 75, JOAL 85, ОСНЯ 1, 221-222, Murayama 1962, 108, АПиПЯЯ 51, 72, 284, Дыбо 11, Лексика 21. Despite Щербак 1997, 124, Mong. cannot be explained as a Turkic loanword, and despite Doerfer MT 72 the TM and Mong. forms should be regarded as genuinely related. Note that several forms reflect an original derivative *di̯ūl(u)-gV (Turk., Mong. and Jpn. *dù < *di̯ul-gu).
Proto-Altaic: *dòru
Meaning: rule, permission
Russian Meaning: закон, разрешение
Turkic: *jor-
Mongolian: *dura-
Tungus-Manchu: *dora(n)
Japanese: *dùrù-
Comments: An interesting common Altaic root, with the original meaning reconstructable perhaps as 'interpretation (of desires or intentions)' and thus 'permission, rule'.
Proto-Altaic: *dòru
Meaning: weak, slack, emaciated
Russian Meaning: слабый, истощенный
Turkic: *jor-
Mongolian: *doru
Tungus-Manchu: *duru-
Japanese: *dùrù-
Comments: The root is homonymous with *dòru 'rule, permission', but hardly has anything in common with it etymologically.
Proto-Altaic: *dorVkV
Meaning: a k. of badger
Russian Meaning: вид барсука
Turkic: *jorukan
Mongolian: *dorugun
Tungus-Manchu: *d[o]riken
Comments: A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dṑ ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: inside, middle
Russian Meaning: внутри, середина
Mongolian: *do- / *du-
Tungus-Manchu: *dō
Korean: *tắi
Comments: ТМС 1, 210, Rozycki 61. One of the few monosyllabic roots in PA.
Proto-Altaic: *dṓn(e)k`V
Meaning: withers, back
Russian Meaning: холка, спина
Turkic: *jōnak
Mongolian: *döŋ(ge)
Tungus-Manchu: *doŋka
Korean: *tɨ̀ŋ
Comments: The Kor. word is alternatively compared with Mong. tüŋke 'muscles of the back' (SKE 268, EAS 49, 120) - but we were unable to find the word in available sources.
Proto-Altaic: *dōre
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to go, walk, approach
Russian Meaning: идти, ходить, приближаться
Turkic: *jorɨ- / *jüri-
Mongolian: *dürbe-
Tungus-Manchu: *dūrē-
Japanese: *dǝ́r-
Comments: EAS 52, АПиПЯЯ 284, Дыбо 13. The frequently compared with Turk. WMong. ǯorči- 'to ride, wander' (see KW 476, Владимирцов 187, VEWT 207), is most likely a loanword (ǯorči- < *ǯorti-, from the Turk. derived form *jor(ɨ)t- (ЭСТЯ 4, 226-227); cf. also *jorɨga 'pedestrian; ambler' (ЭСТЯ 4, 225) > WMong. ǯiruɣa, see VEWT 207, KW 115, TMN 4, 152, whence Yak., Dolg. ǯoruo, see Kaɫ. MEJ 23, 35, Stachowski 91)), *jorɨ- > WMong. ǯori- 'to head (somewhere)' (KW 478; hence Man. ǯori-, see Doerfer MT 115); see Щербак 1997, 125. Note that Doerfer's criticism (TMN 4, 219-220) of the Tung.-Turk. comparison is unacceptable. However, an archaic opposition of two roots (with *d- and *ǯ-) cannot be excluded: besides a peculiar variation *jorɨ-/ *jüri- in PT note also the tonal mismatch between PT *dūr- and PJ *dǝ́r-.
Proto-Altaic: *dubi ( ~ t-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: skilled, accustomed
Russian Meaning: умелый, привычный
Mongolian: *düj
Tungus-Manchu: *dub-
Comments: A Mong.-Tung. isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dŭ̀le
Meaning: night
Russian Meaning: ночь
Mongolian: *düli-
Tungus-Manchu: *dolba
Japanese: *duà, *duà-rû
Comments: Murayama 1962, 108, АПиПЯЯ 71, 97, 276 (but the Turkic parallels listed there should be rejected). PJ *duà reflects a suffixed form < *dŭ̀l(e)-gV (-bV).
Proto-Altaic: *dure ( ~ t-, -ŕ-, -i)
Meaning: to burn, set fire
Russian Meaning: зажигать, загораться
Mongolian: *dür-
Tungus-Manchu: *dur-
Comments: Poppe 22. Мудрак Дисс. 185. A Mong.-Tung. isogloss, but despite Doerfer MT 147, hardly a loanword in TM.
Proto-Altaic: *dŭŕi
Meaning: ring
Russian Meaning: кольцо
Turkic: *jüŕ-
Mongolian: *dörü
Tungus-Manchu: *dur-
Comments: KW 99, Poppe 23, Лексика 549. A Western isogloss.
Proto-Altaic: *dū́li
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: mad, crazy
Russian Meaning: сумасшедший, глупый
Turkic: *jǖl-
Mongolian: *dülei
Tungus-Manchu: *dulbu-
Korean: *tor
Comments: SKE 272, Lee 1958, 108.

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