Типологии праязыков урало-юкагирской семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по праязыкам уральской и юкагиро-чуванской языковых ветвей
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков урало-юкагирской ветви Ностратической макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено 2 языковых ветви, происходящих от протоуральского (прауралоюкагирского) языка:

  1. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Уральской семьи (Uralic)
  2. Краткие типологические обзоры юкагирских языков (Yukaghir)


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Уральской семьи

Языки уральской семьи ведут свою историю от прауральского языка (см. протоуральский словарь).

Number: 1893
Language: Nenets
Location: NC Russia (Nenets National Okrug)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Dictionary: Lehtisalo, T. 1956. Juraksamojedishes Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Pyrerka, A.P. and N.M. Tereshchenko. 1948. Russko-nenetskij slovar'. Moscow. Tereshchenko, N.M. 1965. Nenetsko-russkij slovar. Moscow. Grammar: Décsy, Gyula. 1966. Yurak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Nenetskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 376-95.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d (ɡ) ts s x β (z) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s (z) x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ j cj all but k ɡ ʔ j β x ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o a Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2+ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1894
Language: Enets Alternate Name: Yenets
Location: NC Russia
Population: 300
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Grammar: Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Enetskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 438-57.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ ʔ ̃ (nasalized ɡlottal stop) b d ɟ ɡ č s sʷ š šʷ (x) (β) ð m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ ʔ̃ (nasalized ɡlottal stop) Affricates: č Fricatives: (β) ð s sʷ š šʷ (x) Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t d ɡ n Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1895
Language: Nganasan Alternate Name: Tavgy
Location: NC Russia (Taymyr Peninsula)
Population: 750
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Grammar: Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Nganasanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 416-37.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č s x ð m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: ð s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ̄ d n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie ia eu æu au yæ ya yo ǝu ɨǝ ua uo ou
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4?+REF
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1896
Language: Selkup Dialect: Taz
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 3,800
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South Dictionary: Erdélyi, István. 1970. Selkupisches Wörterverzeichnis. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Prokofjeva. E.D. 1966. "Sel'kupskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 396-415.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k q č s š β m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t k q Affricates: č Fricatives: β s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but č β ŋ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɒ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4? Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d* 4* 2 5d* 5* 3 6d 6 *[4d=4 & 5d=5 in some case forms (e.g. nom.), but not in others (e.g. dat.)]
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1897
Language: Selkup Dialect: Tym
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 3,800
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South Grammar: GD: Katz, Hartmut. 1975. Selcupica 1. Materialen vom Tym. Munich: Finno-Ugric Seminar, Univ of Munich.
Other Sources: Szabó, László. 1967. Selkup Texts. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) v ʁ m n̪ ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s š (x) ʁ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t s š m n l only cʷ t c k q č s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ Diphthongs: au ou Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1898
Language: Kamas Alternate Name: Sayan Samoyed
Location: Russia
Population: (+) 1970
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz s š h β z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: β s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj s z Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɒ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ia iɛ ie yɛ yɤ uǝ yǝ iy Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s [d] p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1899
Language: Hungarian
Location: Hungary
Population: 14 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric Dictionary: Országh, László. 1953. Hungarian-English Dictionary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Országh, László. 1960. English-Hungarian Dictionary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Grammar: Benkő, Loránd and Samu Imre, eds. 1972. The Hungarian Language. The Hague: Mouton. Tompa, József. 1972. Kleine ungarische Grammatik. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie. Hall, Robert A. 1944. Hungarian Grammar. Lg Monograph No. 21.
TextBooks: Bánhidi, Z. Z. Jókay and D. Szabó. 1965. A Textbook of the Hungarian Language. London: Collet's.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ ø Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ i y e ø a u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1900
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak, Khanty Dialect: Northern
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric
Other Sources: Rédei, Károly. 1965. Northern Ostyak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. SUL
Consonant system: p t k ts č s š x m n ŋ l (ḷ) r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj t s n (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: e a ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1901
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak Dialect: Eastern
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Dictionary: Toivonen, Y.H. 1948. Ostjakkisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
Other Sources: Gulya, János. 1966. Eastern Ostyak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t k č̣ s (š) ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p t k Affricates: č̣ Fricatives: s (š) ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Modified Vowels: v̆(reduced) e ø ǝ o Stress: initial or second
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1902
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak Dialect: Western
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Grammar: Tereshkin, N.I. 1966. "Xantyjskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 319-42.
Consonant system: p t̪ k s̪ š x m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: s̪ š x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t s n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: e u ɔ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1903
Language: Mansi Alternate Name: Vogul
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Dictionary: Rombandeeva, E.I. 1954. Russko-Mansijskij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Rombandeeva, E.I. 1966. "Mansijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 343-60 Rombandeeva, E.I. 1973. Mansijskij (vogul'skij) jazyk. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Kálmán, Béla. 1965. Vogul Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kʷ s̪ š x ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k kʷ Fricatives: s̪ š x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1904
Language: Udmurt Alternate Name: Votyak
Location: NW Russia (Udmurt ASSR)
Population: 700,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Dictionary: Russko-udmurtskij slovar'. 1956. Moscow. Grammar: Tepljashina, T.I. 1966. "Udmurtskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 261-80. Tepljashina, T.I. 1970. Jazyk besermyan. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d s z č ɡ̌ s z n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1905
Language: Komi Dialect: Zyrian
Location: NW Russia (Komi ASSR)
Population: 430,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Dictionary: Timushev, D.A. and N.A. Kolegova. 1961. Komi-russkij slovar. Moscow. Russko-komi slovar'. 1966. Syktyvkar: Komi Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo. Grammar: Lytkin, V.I. 1966a. "Komi-zyrjanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 281-99. Lytkin, V.I. 1966b. "Komi-permjatskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 300-15.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj ̄ t d č ɡ̌ s z n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1906
Language: Komi Dialect: Yazva
Location: NW Russia (Komi ASSR)
Population: 430,000 (4,000)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Grammar: Lytkin, V.I. 1961. Komi-jaz'vinskij dialekt. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k d̪ ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ š v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj̄ s z č ɡ̌ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1907
Language: Mari Alternate Name: Cheremis Dialect: Eastern
Location: W Russia (Mari ASSR)
Population: 546,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: D: Marijsko-russkij slovar'. 1956. Moscow. Grammar: G: Sebeok, Thomas A. and Frances J. Ingemann. 1961. An Eastern Cheremis Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Kovedjaeva, E.I. 1966. "Lugovo-vostochnyj marijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 221-40
Other Sources: O: Minn, Eeva K. 1956. Studies in Cheremis, vol 4: Derivation. IJAL 22:2. Part II. Ristinen, Elaine K. 1960. "An East Cheremis Phonology," in American Studies in Uralic Linguistics, Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (t̪s) č (f) s̪ š (x) β ð z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: (t̪s) č Fricatives: β (f) ð s̪ z̪ š ž (x) ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: num: s p Demonstratives: dem: 2 Articles: art: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1908
Language: Mari Alternate Name: Cheremis Dialect: Western
Location: W Russia (Mari ASSR)
Population: 546,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Ivanov, I.G. and G.M. Tuzharov. 1971. Slovar' severo-zapadnogo narechija marijskogo jazyka. Joshkar-Ola. Grammar: Kovedjaeva, E.I. 1966. "Gornomarijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 241-54. Ivanov, I.G. and G.M. Tuzharov. 1970. Severo-zapadnoe narechie marijskogo jazyka. Joshkar-Ola: Marijskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Other Sources: Minn, Eeva K. 1956. Studies in Cheremis, Vol 4: Derivation. IJAL 22:2 Part II. SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (b) t̪s č (f) s̪ š (x) β ð z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p (b) t̪ c k Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: β (f) ð s̪ z̪ š ž (x) ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɤ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1909
Language: Mordvin Dialect: Erzja
Location: W Russia (W Mordvin ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Koljadenkov, M.N. and N.F. Tsyganov, eds. 1948. Russko-erzjanskij slovar'. Moscow. Koljadenkov, M.N. and N.F. Tsyganov, eds. 1949. Erzjansko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Feoktistov, A.P. 1966. "Erzjanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 177-98.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t s... cj t d ts s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+N+D/Num+D+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1910
Language: Mordvin Dialect: Moksha
Location: W Russia (W Mordvin ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Potapkin, S.G. and A.K. Imjarekov. 1949. Mokshansko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Potapkin, S.G. and A.K. Imjarekov. 1961. Russko-mokshanskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Foektisov, A.P. 1966. "Mokshanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 199-220.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ r r̥ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: cj ̄ t d ts s z n l ɬ r r̥ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1911
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Ruija: Finnmark
Location: Norway
Population: 20,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh f θ s š h v ð m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f v θ ð s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all? Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: i æ a ʋ Diphthongs: uo oa ie... Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1912
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Kola
Location: NW Russia (Kola Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Grammar: Kert, G.M. 1966. "Saamskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 155-71. Kert, G.M. 1971. Sammskij jazyk. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: Kert, G.M. 1961. Obraztsy sammskoj rechi. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z zj ž žj cj all but n̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ua uɛ ai ɛi ji o̜i ɒi, triph: uɛi uai
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1913
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Ruija: Jukkasjärvi
Location: N Sweden
Population: 20,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Grammar: Collinder, Björn. 1949. The Lappish Dialect of Jukkasjärvi. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h β v ð ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v ð s ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1914
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Lule
Location: Sweden
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1915
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Pite
Location: Sweden (Pite River), Norway
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1916
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Inari
Location: Finland (Lake Inari)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1917
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Skolt
Location: Russia (Kola Peninsula)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1918
Language: Southern Saami
Location: Sweden
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Dictionary: Lagercrantz, Eliel. 1939. Lappischer Wortschatz, 2 vols. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
Other Sources: Hasselbrink, Gustav. 1965. Alternate Analyses of the Phonemic System in Central South-Lappish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ie oa oe ue uo Stress: initial Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1919
Language: Southern Saami Dialect: Ume
Location: Sweden (Ume River)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1920
Language: Finnish
Location: Finland
Population: 5 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Vuolle, Aino. 1969. Finnish-English Dictionary. Porvoo, Finland: Werner Söderström. Vuolle, Aino. 1964. English-Finnish Dictionary. Porvoo, Finland: Werner Söderström. Grammar: Austerlitz, Robert P. 1963. Finnish Grammar. Cleverland: Bell & Howell. Atkinson, John. 1969. Finnish Grammar. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. Hakulinen, Lauri. 1957, 1960. Handbuch der finnischen Sprache, 2 vols. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Lehtinen, Meri. 1963. Basic Course in Finnish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Whitney, Arthur H. 1968. Teach Yourself Finnish. New York: David Mckay.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) (b) d̪ ɡ (f) s (š) h v m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p (b) t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: (f) v s (š) h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but d v h j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: uo ie yø au ou eu iu æy øy ai oi ui æi øi yi
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+REF
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH Politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol [2 pol = 5]
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1921
Language: Ingrian
Location: NW Russia
Population: 350
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Laanest, A. 1966. "Izhorskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 102-17.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (f) s š h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s m n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ̄v̄ all Diphthongs: ai æi oi øi ui yi ei au ou eu iu æy øy
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1922
Language: Karelian
Location: NW Russia
Population: 128,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Makarov, G.N. 1966. "Karel'skij jazyk," in JNS 3, 61-80
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪j k b d̪ d̪j ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ s̪j š (x) h v z̪ z̪j ž m n̪ n̪j l̪ l̪j r rj Stops: p b t̪ t̪j d̪ d̪j k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ s̪j z̪ z̪j š ž (x) h Nasals: m n̪ n̪j Laterals: l̪ l̪j Vibrants: r rj Modified Consonants: c̄ p t tj k č sj š m n nj l lj r rj Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: AN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1923
Language: Olonets Alternate Name: Livvi
Location: NW Russia
Population: 80,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1924
Language: Ludic Alternate Name: Ludian
Location: NW Russia
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1925
Language: Vepsian
Location: NW Russia (Karelian ASSR)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Zajtseva, M.I. and M.I. Mullonen. 1972. Slovar' vepsskogo jazyka. Leningrad: Nauka. Grammar: Xjamjaljajnen, M.M. 1966. "Vepsskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 81-101.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (ɡ̌) f s̪ š v z̪ ž ɦ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s l m n cj all but č š ž Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Diphthongs: ai ei ij oi ui æi øi yi au ou uw æu øu yu
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie* 2 5ie* 3 6ie* *Vepsian has a special set of plural pronouns indicating membership in a group (e.g. family, home, village) (i.e. exclusive?) as opposed to the plain (inclusive?) forms.
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1926
Language: Votic
Location: NW Russia
Population: 100
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Adler, E. 1966. "Vodskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 118-37. Ariste, Paul. 1968. A Grammar of the Votic Language. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (ɡ̌) (f) s̪ (š) (x) h v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ (š) (ž) (x) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k ts č f v s z š ž m n l r j cj t d s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: (ɨ) ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai oi ui ǝi æi ei øi yi au ou ǝu eu iu iæ yæ æy ey øy ua ǝa ia æu iy
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1927
Language: Estonian
Location: Estonian
Population: 1 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Silvet, J. 1970. Eesti-inglise sõnaraamat. Tallinn: Kirjastus Eesti Raamat. Silvet, J. 1956. Inglise-eesti sõnaraamat. Toronto: Eesti Kirjastus Orto. Grammar: Harms, Robert T. 1962. Estonian Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Ruan, Alo and Andrus Saareste. 1965. Introduction to Estonian Linguistics. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Kask, A.X. 1966. "Estonskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 35-60.
TextBooks: Oinas, Felix J. 1966. Basic Course in Estonian. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t tj k (f) s sj (š) h v m n nj l lj r Stops: p t tj k Fricatives: (f) v s sj (š) h Nasals: m n nj Laterals: l lj Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ (lonɡ) all c̄̄ (overlonɡ) all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Long Vowels: v̄ (lonɡ) all, v̄̄ (overlonɡ) all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 3 6 *Politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol [2 pol = 5]
Syntax: SVO [At an earlier period the basic word order was SOV] AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1928
Language: Livonian Alternate Name: Liv
Location: Latvia
Population: 500
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Kettunen, Lauri. 1938. Livisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Grammar: Vjaari, E.E. 1966. "Livskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 138-54.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ (f) s š v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but dz ɡ̌ w Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but e o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST

Краткие типологические обзоры юкагирских языков

Языки юкагиро-чуванской группы ведут свою историю от праурало-юкагирского языка.

Number: 1890
Language: Yukaghir
Location: NE Russia (Jakut ASSR)
Population: 400
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir Grammar: Krejnovich, E.A. 1958. Jukagirskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Krejnovich, E.A. 1968. "Jukagirskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 435-52.
Other Sources: AL 7:1. CTIL 1, 366.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ø o a Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie uo
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly initial or second
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl rarely used] Demonstratives: 4: this, that , yonder, that very far or invisible + REF
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N (N-POSS) D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1891
Language: Chuvantsy
Location: NE Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1892
Language: Omok
Location: NE Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Ностратические типы: алтайские | афразийские | индохеттские | урало-юкагирские | эламо-дравидские
Языковедение по семьям: Алтаистика | Дравидология | Индоевропеистика | Картвелистика | Семитохамитология | Уралистика | Палеоазиатоведение

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