Типологии праязыков дравидической семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по языкам дравидийско-эламитской языковой ветви
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков дравидийской и эламитской родственных языковых ветвей Ностратической макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых групп, происходящих от эламского прадравидийского языка (дравидийские распределённы по 32 языкам):

  1. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Дравидической семьи (Dravidian)
  2. Краткий типологический обзор эламитского языка (Elamite)


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Дравидической семьи

Number: 2020
Language: Proto-Dravidian
Location: India
Classification: Dravidian
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1970. Dravidian Comparative Phonology: A Sketch. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ. Pfeiffer, Martin. 1972. Elements of Kurux Historical Phonology. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Zvelebil, Kamil V. 1974. "Dravidian Languages," EB 5, 989-92.
Consonant system: p t̪ t ṭ k č v m n ṇ ñ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ ñ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: sing: masc, non-masc; pl: hum, non-hum
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2021
Language: Brahui
Location: SW Pakistan (N Baluchistan)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Dravidian: Northwest
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1962. Brahui and Dravidian Comparative Grammar. UCPL 27. De Armond, Richard C. 1971. "The Grammatical Morphemes of the Brahui Verb," IL 32, 91-106. De Armond, Richard C. 1975. "Some Rules of Brahui Conjugation," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 242-98.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k ʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō ū
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2022
Language: Kurux
Location: EC India (E Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 1.1 million
Classification: Dravidian: Northeast Grammar: Hahn, F. 1911. Kurukh Grammar. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press.
Other Sources: Pfeiffer, Martin. 1972. Elements of Kurux Historical Phonology. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Gordon, Kent H. and Kenneth L Pike. 1973. "Paired Semantic Components," in PCSD I, 313-43. Gorden, Kent H. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Dhangar-Kurux," in PCSD II, 37-121.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s x h m n (ṇ) ŋ l r ṛ (ṛ̤) Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n (ṇ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ (ṛ̤) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ai au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc (fem gender=neuter in the sing, = masc in the plural) (N=fem+neut) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6hN m=masc M=non-masc h=human N=non-human
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2023
Language: Malto
Location: NE India (NE Bihar)
Population: 90,000
Classification: Dravidian: Northeast Grammar: Das, A. Sisir Kumar. 1973. Structure of Malto. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Mahapatra, Bijay P. 1973. "Malto Object Classifiers," IL 34, 191-9.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ c j k ɡ q G θ s̪ h m n̪ N l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q G Fricatives: θ s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t ḍ c ɟ k q s ɾ̣ n l j Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on v̄)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc (= f+n) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2024
Language: Kolami
Location: C India (N Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: GD: Emeneau, M. B. 1955. Kolami, A Dravidian Language. UCPL 12.
Other Sources: McNair, Norman and Helen McNair. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Kolami," in PCSD II, 123-90. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ v s z (h) m n̪ ŋ l (ḷ) r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z ŋ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)C(N)(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM [M=non-masc = f+n]
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2025
Language: Naiki
Location: C India (NE Maharashtra)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2026
Language: Parji
Location: EC India (SE Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: GD: Burrow, T. and S. Bhattacharya. 1953. The Parji Language. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons.
Other Sources: Shanmugam, R. 1969. "Phonology and Noun Morphology of Parji," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 177-86. Khrishnamurti, B. 1978. "On Diachronic and Synchronic Rules in Phonology," IL 39, 252-76. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v (s) (h) m n̪ ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v (s) (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but b t s h ɾ̣ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) (v̄̃)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc [=f+n] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc = f+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2027
Language: Gadaba Dialect: Ollari
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 8,800
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: Bhattacharya, Sudhibhushan. 1957. Ollari: A Dravidian Speech. Delhi: Government of India.
Other Sources: AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ v s z m n̪ ṇ (ñ) ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n̪ ṇ (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mM 6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2028
Language: Gondi
Location: C India (SE Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Gondi-Koya Grammar: GD: Subrahmanyam P. S. 1968. A Descriptive Grammar of Gondi. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Pandurangachar. 1975. "Pronouns in Gondi," IL 36, 203-11.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h (t̪ʔ) ṭ ṭh ḍ d̪̤ k kh k (k̪̪̪ʔ) ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh dz dz̤ β s h m n ṇ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h (t̪ʔ) ṭ ṭh ḍ d̪̤ k kh k (k̪ʔ) ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but s ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mM *6mM [M=non-masc]
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2029
Language: Koya
Location: C India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Gondi-Koya Grammar: Tyler, Stephen A. 1969. Koya: An Outline Grammar. UCPL 54.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ β s ɦ m n ṇ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ɦ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on long syllables)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc, non-masc [= f+n] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc = f+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2030
Language: Konda
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Other Sources: AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ts dz v s z m n ṇ ŋ l r̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r̪ r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃̄ ȭ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2031
Language: Manda
Location: EC India (Orissa)
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2032
Language: Pengo
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui Grammar: GD: Burrow, T. and S. Bhattacharya. 1970. The Pengo Language. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ t̪s d̪z s̪ z̪ h m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: s̪ z̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ "Long consonants are common in Pengo, but they always result from the combination of roots and affixes." p. 18 Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: All Bilingual in Oriya.
Number: 2033
Language: Kui
Location: EC India (NW Orissa)
Population: 510,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui Dictionary: Winfield, W. W. 1929. A Vocabulary of the Kui Language. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal. Grammar: Winfield, W. W. 1928. A Grammar of the Kui Language. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.
Other Sources: Watkin, K. L. 1975. "Some Phonological Rules for the Kui Verb," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 375-89.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ɡ̌ β s ṣ h m n ṇ l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ṣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc, non-masc [=f+n] Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that over there) Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2034
Language: Kuvi
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 190,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Other Sources: Ramakrishna Reddy, B., Susheela P. Upadhyaya and Joy Reddy. 1974. Kuvi Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ts dz v s h m n ṇ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2035
Language: Telugu
Location: SC India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 50 million
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Telugu Grammar: DG: Polkam, D. B. 1971. Merolu Telugu. Poona: Deccan College.
TextBooks: Lisker, Leigh. 1963. Introduction to Spoken Telugu. Poona: Deccan College. Krishnamurti, B. and P. Sivananda Sarma. 1968. A Basic Course in Modern Telugu. Hyderabad. Subrahmanyam, P. S. 1974. An Introduction to Modern Telugu. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Kelley, Gerald. 1958. "Telugu Vowel Phonemes," IL 18, 146-58. Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju. 1961. Telugu Verbal Bases. UCPL 24. Murti, K. V. S. 1972. "Telugu Syntax: A Brief Description," Linguistics 81, 49-82. Venkateswara Sastry, J. 1972. Telugu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ d̪ (d̤̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) (f) v s ṣ š h m n̪ ṇ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ d̪ (d̤̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ao ia
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=m+f H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Number: 2036
Language: Savara
Location: S India (Andhra Pradesh)
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Telugu
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2037
Language: Tulu
Location: SW India (W Mysore)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu Dictionary: Mariappa Bhat, M. and A. Shanker Kedilaya. 1967. Tulu-English Dictionary. Madras: Univ of Madras. Grammar: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1967. Descriptive Analysis of Tulu. Poona: Deccan College.
Other Sources: Ayyer, L. V. Ramaswami. 1932. "Tulu Prose Texts in Two Dialects," BSOAS 6, 897-931. Aiyar, L. V. Ramaswamy. 1936. "Materials for a Sketch of Tulu Phonology," IL 6, 84-127. Kölver, Bernhard. 1969. Tulu Texts. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Bhatt, Sooda Lakshminarayana. 1975. "Inflection in the Tulu Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol E. Eastman, 180-96. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s̪ ṣ š h m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ṣ š h ñ ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɯ Nasal Vowels: ã Diphthongs: ai
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: sing: m f; pl: hum, non-hum Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum politeness: 2 honorific & 3 honorific
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2038
Language: Bellari
Location: SW India (Maharashtra)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2039
Language: Koraga
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu Dictionary: Bhat, D. N. S. 1971. The Koraga Language. Poona: Deccan College.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ŋ v s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɯ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: hum., non-hum Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2040
Language: Kannada
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 25 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Kannada Dictionary: Kittel, Ferdinand. 1894. Kannada-English Dictionary, 4 vols. Mangalore: Basel Massion Book and Tract Depository. [Reprinted 1968 by the Univ of Madras] Grammar: Bright, William. 1958. An Outline of Colloquial Kannada. Poona: Deccan College. Jensen, Hans. 1969. Grammatik der kanaresischen Schriftsprache. Leizig: VEB Verlag. Hiremath, R. C. 1961. THe Structure fo Kannada. Dharwar: Karnatak Univ. GD: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1971. An Outline Grammar of Havyaka. Poona. Deccan College.
TextBooks: McCormack, William. 1966. Kannada. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press.
Other Sources: Nayak, H. M. 1967. Kannada: Literary and Colloquial. Mysore: Rao & Raghavan. Upadhyaya, U. P. 1972. Kannada Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Chisum, Gary L. 1975. "Systematic Phonology of the Kannada Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M.Eastman, 197-205. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ (t̪h) d̪ (d̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Aspirated stops are found in literary, but not colloquial Kannada. č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) (f) v s ṣ š h m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ (t̪h) d̪ (d̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Aspirated stops are found in literary, but not colloquial Kannada. Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2041
Language: Badaga
Location: India (Tamil Nadu)
Population: 125,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Kannada
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2042
Language: Kodagu
Location: SW India (S Mysore)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Kothandaraman, P. 1969. "Kodagu Vowels," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 233-47. Emeneau, M. B. 1970. "Kodagu Vowels," JAOS 90, 145-58. Garman, Michael. 1975. "Coorg Verbal Base Structure" in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 322-74. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ã ũ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2043
Language: Kurumba
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Upadhyaya, U. P. 1972. "Kuruba - A Dravidian Language," in Third Seminar on Dravidian Linguistics, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and S. V. Shanmugam, 307-28.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2044
Language: Toda
Location: S India (W Tamil Nadu)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Emeneau, Murray B. 1983. Toda Grammar and Texts. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1957. "Toda, a Dravidian Language," Transactions of the Philological Society, 15-66. Agesthialingom, S. and S. Sakthivel. 1972. "Toda Nouns," IL 33, 153-7. AL 8:4 WPF
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ f θ s̪ z̪ s z ṣ ẓ š ž x m n ṇ (ŋ) l ɬ ḷ ɬ̣ ɾ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ s z ṣ ẓ š ž x Nasals: m n ṇ (ŋ) Laterals: l ɬ ḷ ɬ̣ Vibrants: ɾ r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ǣ ↔ō ā ū ɯ̄ ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2045
Language: Kota
Location: S India (W Tamil Nadu)
Population: 900
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1944-46. Kota Texts, 4 vols. UCPL 2-3. Eastman, Carol M. 1975. "Morphophonemics of the Positive and Negative Stems of the Kota Verb," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 299-321. AL 8:4
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d̪ th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ č ɡ̌ v ṣ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v ṣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p (pl not obligatory) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2046
Language: Irula
Location: S India (S Mysore)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Zvelebil, Kamil V. 1973. The Irula Language. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ v m n̪ ṇ l ḷ r̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r̪ r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ʉ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mn 3n=6n
Syntax: SOV GN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 2047
Language: Tamil Dialect: Yerukala
Location: SE India (S Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 40 million (75,000)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Srinivasavarma, G. 1969. "Phonology of Yerukala," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 187-202.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s ṣ m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s ṣ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã ũ õ ẽ̄ ã̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ai au
Syntax: SOV Comments: Speakers of the Yerukala dialect are all bilingual in Telugu.
Number: 2048
Language: Tamil Dialect: Tirunelveli
Location: S India (S Tamil Nadu)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Kamatchinathan, A. 1969. The Tirunelveli Tamil Dialect. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k č ɸ v ð š h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p t̪ ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ v ð š h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mf +2 honorific
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2049
Language: Tamil Dialect: Sri Lanka
Location: N Sri Lanka
Population: 40 million (2 million)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Karunatilake, W. S. and S. Suseendirarajah. 1973. "Phonology of Sinhalese and Sri Lanka Tamil," IL 34, 180-90.
Consonant system: p t̪ t ṭ k č v m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p t̪ t ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2050
Language: Tamil
Location: SE India (Madras)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Dictionary: Visvanatha Pillai, V. 1963. A Tamil-English Dictionary. Madras: Madras School Book and Literature Society. Grammar: Subramoniam, Vadasery Iyemperumal. 1958. A Descriptive Analysis of a Dialect of Tamil. Bloomington: India Univ Diss. Ganesan, S. N. 1975. A Contrastive Grammar of Hindi and Tamil. Madras: Univ of Madras.
TextBooks: Kumaraswami Raja, N. and K. Doraswamy. 1966. Conversational Tamil. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ. Shanmugam Pillai, M. 1965, 1968. Spoken Tamil, 2 vols. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Rajaram, S. 1972. Tamil Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ t ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) v s ṣ ẓ š h m n ṇ (ñ) (ŋ) l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ ẓ š h Nasals: m n ṇ (ñ) (ŋ) Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) (v̄̃) Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum honorifics for 3 & 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2051
Language: Malayalam
Location: SW India (Kerela)
Population: 25 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Dictionary: Ramunni, Kalladi Thyen. 1951. Malayalam and English Vocabulary. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book Depot.
TextBooks: Peter, K. C. 1967. Malayalam for Foreigners. Ernakulam, Kerela: C.I.C.C. Book House.
Other Sources: Subramoniam,V. I. 1962. "Phonemic Outline of a Dialect of Malayalam," IL 23, 99-116. Syamala Kumari, B. 1972. Malayalam Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. McAlpin, David. W. 1975. "The Morphophonology of the Malayalam Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 206-223. Subramoniam, V. I. 1962. "Phonemic Outline of a Dialect of Malayalam," IL 23, 99-116. Sreedhar, M. V. 1972. "Phonology of the Cochin Dialect of Malayalam," IJDL 1:2, 100-25. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b t̪ (t̪h) d̪ t ṭ (ṭh) ḍ k (kh) ɡ č (čh) ɡ̌ (f) v s ṣ š h m n̪ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ̣ ɾ r Stops: p (ph) b t̪ (t̪h) d̪ t ṭ (ṭh) ḍ k (kh) ɡ Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ̣ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: POST

Краткий типологический обзор эламитского языка

Number: 2019
Language: Elamite Dialect: Achaemenid
Location: SW Iran
Population: extinct (c. 1,000 A.D.)
Classification: Elamo-Dravidian
Other Sources: McAlpin, David W. 1981. Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Blazek, Václav. 2002. "Elam: A Bridge between the Ancient Near East and Dravidian India?," Mother Tongue 7, 123-46. Starostin, George. 2002. "On the Genetic Affiliation of the Elamite Language," Mother Tongue 7, 147-70.
Consonant system: p t k s z š m n l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: s z š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p (normally used only with humans) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST Comments: McAlpin (1981), following earlier scholars, proposed that the extinct Elamite language was most closely related to the Dravidian family. Without denying this connection Blazek (2002) points out striking similarities with Afro-Asiatic. Starostin (2002) rejects a close connection with Dravidian and regards Elamite as in some sense intermediate between Nostratic and Afro-Asiatic. The precise position of Elamite is not yet clear.

Ностратические типы: алтайские | афразийские | индохеттские | урало-юкагирские | эламо-дравидские
Языковедение по семьям: Алтаистика | Дравидология | Индоевропеистика | Картвелистика | Семитохамитология | Уралистика | Палеоазиатоведение

© «lexicons.ru», 2012. Автор и владелец - Игорь Константинович Гаршин (см. резюме).
Дочерний веб-проект Сайта Игоря Гаршина
Присылайте, пожалуйста, письма ( Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину) с советами, отзывами, замечаниями и предложениями.
Страница обновлена 14.04.2021
Метрика