Типы праязыков эскалеутской семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по эскалеутским праязыкам
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | Р | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике 11 языков Эскалеутской семьи, взятые с типологической базы проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным.

. , который реконструирован старостинцами на основе этимологических баз праязыков их групп: северной (чукотско-корякской) и южной (ительменской, камчадальской). -->

Всего здесь представлены типологические обзоры 2 языковых ветвей:

  1. Типообзоры языков алеутской группы (Aleut) [1]
  2. Типообзоры языков эскимосской группы (Eskimo) [10]

Типообзоры языков алеутской группы

Number: 2008
Language: Aleut
Location: SW Alaska (Aleutian Islands)
Population: 600
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Aleut
Grammar: GD: Geoghegan, Richard Henry. 1944. The Aleut Language. Washington, D,C.: Dept of the Interior. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Aleutskij jazyk" in JNS 5, 386-406.
Consonant system: (p) t k q (b) s x χ h ð ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ r (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Stops: (p) (b) t k q (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Fricatives: ð s x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun: Number: s d p Demonstratives: >20, +e.g This, that near visible, that inside, that far visible, that invisible, that above, that outside, that far away, that underneath, that not far away, that going past, that invisible far in time or space, that above close, that lying nearby, that
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST

Типообзоры языков эскимосской группы

Number: 2009
Language: Proto-Eskimo
Location: Alaska
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1952. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes," IJAL 18, 166-71.
Consonant system: p t k q v s ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Типообзоры языков инуитской подгруппы

Number: 2010
Language: Alaskan Inuit
Location: Alaska
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2011
Language: Canadian Inuit Dialect: Labrador Inuttut
Location: E Canada (Labrador)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit Grammar: Spalding, A.E. 1969. Salliq: An Eskimo Grammar. Ottawa: Education Branch, Dept. of Indian Affairs.
TextBooks: Webster, Donald H. 1968. Let's Learn Eskimo. Fairbanks: SIL.
Other Sources: Smith, L.R. 1975. "Labrador Inuttut Surface Phonology," IJAL 41, 97-105.
Consonant system: p t k s χ (h) v ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ (ɹ̣) Stops: p t k Fricatives: v s ɣ χ (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v s ɣ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɐ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV GN N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2012
Language: Greenlandic Dialect: West Greenlandic
Location: W Greenland
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Other Sources: Mase, Hideo and Jørgen Rischel,1972. "A Study of Consonant Quantity in West Greenlandic," IJDL 1:2, 138-95. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q s š ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q Fricatives: s š ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but j Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai only
Syllable: CV(C)
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Типообзоры языков юпикской подгруппы

Number: 2013
Language: Alutiiq Alternate Name: Pacific Gulf Yupik
Location: Alaska (Kodiak Island)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2014
Language: Central Yupik Dialect: Yuk
Location: W Alaska
Population: 14,500
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Other Sources: Miyaoka, Osahito. 1971. "On Syllable Modification and Quantity in Yuk," IJAL 37, 219-26. Swedish, Morris. 1951-2. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo I-III," IJAL 17, 66-70; 18, 25-34, & 69-76.
Consonant system: p t k q č f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Affricates: č Fricatives: f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2015
Language: Sirenik
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 10
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2016
Language: Chaplino Dialect: St. Lawrence Island
Location: W Alaska (St. Lawrence Island)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Other Sources: Krauss, Michael E. 1976. "Eskimo-Aleut," in NLA 1, 191.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ l ɬ r r̥ Stops: p t k kʷ q qʷ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2017
Language: Chaplino Dialect: Siberian
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik:
Siberian Grammar: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1954. Eskimossko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Menovshehikov, G.A. 1962,1967. Grammatika jazyka aziatskix eskimosov, 2 vols. Moscow. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Eskimosskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 366-85.
Consonant system: p t k q f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ m n n̥ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: see the St. Lawrence Island dialect.
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2018
Language: Naukan
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Grammar: GD: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1975. Jazyk naukanskix eskimosov. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k q v s x ɣ χ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:Diphthongs: ʋi au ei iu eu ea ...
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun: Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: (1) this close, (2) that in front, (3) this nearby, (4) that in the water, (5) that behind above, (6) that below, (7) that above, (8) that invisible, (9) that outside, (10) that outside close by, (11) that inside, (12) that invisible far away, (13) that behind not far, (14) that unknown, (15) that way above, (16) that on the mountain, (17) that far away, (18) that going past, (19) that drawing near, (20) that to the side
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Comments: Spoken in Siberia and on St. Lawrence Island, this the only language native to bother hemispheres. The Russian and American groups have, however, been isolated from each other since the inception of the Cold War in 1947.

Типологии праязыковбиблиографией): австралийских | америндских | аустрических | дене-кавказских | индо-тихоокеанских | койсанских | нигеро-кордофанских | нило-сахарских | ностратических | пиджинов и креолей | языков-изолятов | лингвопроектов
Языковедение по макросемьям: Аборигеноведение | Аустрика | Изолятоведение | Индеанистика | Кафристика | Койсановедение | Нилосахароведение | Ностратика | Пиджиноведение | Теория лингвопроектирования |

© «lexicons.ru», 2012. Автор и владелец - Игорь Константинович Гаршин (см. резюме).
Дочерний веб-проект Сайта Игоря Гаршина
Присылайте, пожалуйста, письма ( Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину) с советами, отзывами, замечаниями и предложениями.
Страница обновлена 25.10.2022
Метрика