Типы праязыков ностратической (в широком смысле) филы

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по афразийским и евразийским праязыкам
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Ностратической суперсемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Сама же база по ностратической этимологии составлена С. А. Старостиным по основным ностратическим словарям (Иллич-Свитыч, Долгопольский, Бомхард). Она включает также ряд новых этимологий, предложенных самим С. А. Старостиным и другими участниками Московской школы компаративистики. База находится в довольно сыром состоянии, т. к. в сравнительной фонологии ностратических языков остается еще немало неясных моментов.

Сергей Анатольевич считал, что собственно ностратическими языками (их он называл "евразийскими") являются все обычно включаемые туда языки, кроме афразийских и эламского. Здесь же принята концепция не в узком, а в широком смысле - с упомянутыми эламским и семито-хамитскими языками.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых систем, происходящих от праностратического языка, распределённых по 13 семьям и изолированным языкам:

В базе, правда, юкагирские языки отнесены к уральским, а эламский - к эламо-дравидским (но все остальные дравидские к эламо-дравидским не отнесены).

Сама же база по праностратической этимологии составлена С. А. Старостиным по основным ностратическим словарям (Иллич-Свитыч, Долгопольский, Бомхард). Она включает также ряд новых этимологий, предложенных самим С. А. Старостиным и другими участниками московской школы компаративистики. База находится в довольно сыром состоянии, т. к. в сравнительной фонологии ностратических языков остается еще немало неясных моментов.

Одним из таких неясных моментов является состав палеоазиатских языков в рамках ностратической общности. Например, одними из редакторов "Вавилонской башни" С. Л. Николаевым и О. А. Мудраком написано исследование "Лексические параллели нивхского и чукотско-камчатских языков с алмосско-кересиуанскими языками (предварительное сообщение)". Так что отнесение нивхского (гиляцкого) и чукамчатских языков к ностратическим - под вопросом. Возможно, из камчато-чукотских языков к ностратическим относится только ительменский.


Источники

Краткие типологические обзоры айнских диалектов

Number: 2000
Language: Ainu Dialect: Hokkaido
Location: N Japan (Hokkaido)
Population: 15
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Hattori, Shirô, ed. 1964. An Ainu Dialect Dictionary. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Grammar: Patrie, James. 1982. The Genetic Relationship of the Ainu Language. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Pilsudski, Bronislaw. 1912. Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore. Cracow: Academy of Sciences. Simeon, George. 1969. "Hokkaido Ainu Phonemics," JAOS 89, 751-7 Simeon, George. 1976. "The Hokkaido Ainu Copula," Linguistics 169, 63-6. Peng, Fred C.C. and Peter Geiser. 1977. The Ainu: The Past in the Present. Hiroshima: Bunda Hyoron. AL 7:1
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) č s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony ? Diphthongs: wa wo we ja jo je aw ew uw iw aj oj ej uj jaj
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo (pitch accent) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p (usually not used) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 pol, 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2001
Language: Ainu Dialect: Sakhalin
Location: SE Russia (Sakhalin Island)
Population: 15 ((+)1994)
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Hattori, Shirô, ed. 1964. An Ainu Dialect Dictionary. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Other Sources: Hattori, Shirô. 1967. "Personal Affixes in the Sakhalin Dialect of Ainu," Linguistics 29, 58-79.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Politeness: 2 pol & 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST

Краткий типологический обзор нивхского языка

Языки нивхского языка-изолята ведут свою историю от прагиляцкого языка.

Number: 2002
Language: Gilyak Alternate Name: Nivx, Nivkh
Location: SE Russia (Sakhalin Island)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Saveleva, V.N. and C.M. Taksami. 1965. Russko-nivxskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Panfilov, V.Z. 1962, 1965. Grammatika ivxskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Moscow. Panfilov, V.Z. 1968. "Nivxskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 408-34.
Other Sources: Jakobson, Roman. 1957. "Notes on Gilyak," in Studies Presented to Yuen Ren Chao on his Sixty-fifth Birthday, 255-81. AL 7:1
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q qh b d ɡ G č čh ɡ̌ f s x χ h v z ɣ ʁ m n ñ ŋ l r ř(=rž) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q qh G Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř(=rž) Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: free, but often initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 5: this, that, that further away, that absent, that way yonder
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2* 5 3 6 Politeness: 2 fam & 2 respectful [2 respectful=5]
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Чукче-камчатской семьи

Number: 2003
Language: Chukchi
Location: NE Russia (Chukchi Peninsula)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern Dictionary: Moll, T.A. and P.I. Inenlikej. 1957. Chukotsko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Skorik, P.J. 1961. Grammatika chukotskogo jazyka, Part I. Moscow. Sokrik, P.J. 1968. "Chukotskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 248-70.
Other Sources: Bogoras, W. 1922. "Chukchee," in Handbook of American Indian Lanugages, ed. by Franz Boas, Washington. CTIL 1, 359.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts (used only by women) č ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts (used only by women) č Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t k q m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO(ERG)/SOV(NOM) AN GN DN NUM-N Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2004
Language: Kerek
Location: NE Russia (Cape Navarin)
Population: 100
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Grammar: Skorik, P.J. 1968. "Kerekskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 310-33.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č̌ h (ɣ) m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO(ERG)/SOV(NOM) AN Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2005
Language: Koryak
Location: E Russia (N Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Dictionary: Korsakov, G.M. 1939. Nymykansko (korjaksko)-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Zhukova, A.N. 1968. "Korjakskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 271-93. Zhukova, A.N. 1972. Grammatika korjakskogo jazyka. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: CTIL 1, 363.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č̌ (f) v ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v j ʁ cj t n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C), but no CCVCC Stress: tendency toward penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2006
Language: Alyutor
Location: E Russia (Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Grammar: Zhukova, A.N. 1968. "Aljutorskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 294-309.
Other Sources: Mel'č̌uk, Igor A. and Elena N. Savvina. 1978. "Toward a Formal Model of Alutor Surface Syntax: Predicative and Completive Constructions," Linguistics, Special Issue, 5-39.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č s v ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: mostly second, sometimes initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2007
Language: Kamchadal Alternate Name: Itelmen
Location: E Russia (W Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 400
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Southern Dictionary: Worth, Dean S. 1969. Dictionary of Western Kamchadal. UCPL 59. Grammar: Volodin, A.P. and A.N. Zhukova. 1968. "Itel'menskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 334-51.
Other Sources: Worth, Dean Stoddard. 1961. Kamchadal Texts Collected by W. Jochelson. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ č čʔ f s x χ v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ʎ r Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ k č s z ɣ m n ñ l w Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o a ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult (sometimes antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 (4d) 4 2 (5d) 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: all bilingual in Russian

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Эскимо-алеутской семьи

Number: 2008
Language: Aleut
Location: SW Alaska (Aleutian Islands)
Population: 600
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Aleut Grammar: GD: Geoghegan, Richard Henry. 1944. The Aleut Language. Washington, D,C.: Dept of the Interior. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Aleutskij jazyk" in JNS 5, 386-406.
Consonant system: (p) t k q (b) s x χ h ð ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ r (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Stops: (p) (b) t k q (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Fricatives: ð s x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: >20, +e.g This, that near visible, that inside, that far visible, that invisible, that above, that outside, that far away, that underneath, that not far away, that going past, that invisible far in time or space, that above close, that lying nearby, that
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2009
Language: Proto-Eskimo
Location: Alaska
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1952. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes," IJAL 18, 166-71.
Consonant system: p t k q v s ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2010
Language: Alaskan Inuit
Location: Alaska
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2011
Language: Canadian Inuit Dialect: Labrador Inuttut
Location: E Canada (Labrador)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit Grammar: Spalding, A.E. 1969. Salliq: An Eskimo Grammar. Ottawa: Education Branch, Dept. of Indian Affairs.
TextBooks: Webster, Donald H. 1968. Let's Learn Eskimo. Fairbanks: SIL.
Other Sources: Smith, L.R. 1975. "Labrador Inuttut Surface Phonology," IJAL 41, 97-105.
Consonant system: p t k s χ (h) v ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ (ɹ̣) Stops: p t k Fricatives: v s ɣ χ (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v s ɣ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɐ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV GN N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2012
Language: Greenlandic Dialect: West Greenlandic
Location: W Greenland
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Other Sources: Mase, Hideo and Jørgen Rischel,1972. "A Study of Consonant Quantity in West Greenlandic," IJDL 1:2, 138-95. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q s š ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q Fricatives: s š ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but j Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai only
Syllable: CV(C)
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2013
Language: Alutiiq Alternate Name: Pacific Gulf Yupik
Location: Alaska (Kodiak Island)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2014
Language: Central Yupik Dialect: Yuk
Location: W Alaska
Population: 14,500
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Other Sources: Miyaoka, Osahito. 1971. "On Syllable Modification and Quantity in Yuk," IJAL 37, 219-26. Swedish, Morris. 1951-2. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo I-III," IJAL 17, 66-70; 18, 25-34, & 69-76.
Consonant system: p t k q č f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Affricates: č Fricatives: f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2015
Language: Sirenik
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 10
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2016
Language: Chaplino Dialect: St. Lawrence Island
Location: W Alaska (St. Lawrence Island)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Other Sources: Krauss, Michael E. 1976. "Eskimo-Aleut," in NLA 1, 191.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ l ɬ r r̥ Stops: p t k kʷ q qʷ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2017
Language: Chaplino Dialect: Siberian
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik:
Siberian Grammar: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1954. Eskimossko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Menovshehikov, G.A. 1962,1967. Grammatika jazyka aziatskix eskimosov, 2 vols. Moscow. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Eskimosskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 366-85.
Consonant system: p t k q f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ m n n̥ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: see the St. Lawrence Island dialect.
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2018
Language: Naukan
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian Grammar: GD: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1975. Jazyk naukanskix eskimosov. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k q v s x ɣ χ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ʋi au ei iu eu ea ...
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: (1) this close, (2) that in front, (3) this nearby, (4) that in the water, (5) that behind above, (6) that below, (7) that above, (8) that invisible, (9) that outside, (10) that outside close by, (11) that inside, (12) that invisible far away, (13) that behind not far, (14) that unknown, (15) that way above, (16) that on the mountain, (17) that far away, (18) that going past, (19) that drawing near, (20) that to the side
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: Spoken in Siberia and on St. Lawrence Island, this the only language native to bother hemispheres. The Russian and American groups have, however, been isolated from each other since the inception of the Cold War in 1947.

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Картвельской семьи

Number: 1595
Language: Proto-Kartvelian
Location: Georgia
Classification: Kartvelian
Other Sources: Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. 1966. "A Typology of Common Kartvelian," Lg 42, 69-83.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ b d ɡ tsh tsʔ ćh ćʔ čh čʔ dz ɡ́ ɡ̌ s ś š x h z ź ɣ m n l r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz ćh ćʔ ɡ́ čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ś ź š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 1596
Language: Georgian
Location: Georgia
Population: 3.3 million
Classification: Kartvelian Grammar: Tschenkéli, Kita. 1958. Einführung in die georgische Sprache, 2 vols. Zürich: Amirani. Chikobava, A. S. 1967. "Gruzinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 22-61. Vogt, Hans. 1971. Grammaire de la langue géorgienne. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
TextBooks: Tsibaxashvili, G. I. 1973. Elementarnyj kurs gruzinskogo jazyka. Tbilisi: Tbilisi Univ.
Other Sources: Robins, R. H. 1952. "Notes on the Phonetics of the Georgian Word," BSOAS 14, 55-72. Chikobáva. Arnol'd. 1971. Gruzinskij jazyk. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. AL 6:8.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ s̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (c)(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)v(c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+Num+A+N Ergative: Erg Comments: yes
Number: 1597
Language: Svan
Location: NW Georgia
Population: 35,000
Classification: Kartvelian Grammar: Topuria, V. T. 1967. "Svanskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 77-94.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ s̪ š x h (v) z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: (v) s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative: Erg
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1598
Language: Mingrelian Alternate Name: Zan
Location: W Georgia
Population: 300,000
Classification: Kartvelian: Zan Grammar: Kiziria, A. I. 1967. "Zanskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 62-76.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative: Erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1599
Language: Laz
Location: SW Georgia
Population: 50,000
Classification: Kartvelian: Zan
Other Sources: Dumézil, Georges. 1937. Contes lazes. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: indef
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N

Обзоры типов языков, возможно, входящих в Евразийскую макросемью

Number: 1646
Language: Etruscan
Location: N Italy
Population: (+)c. 400 AD
Classification: ?Eurasiatic Grammar: Bonfante, Larissa. 1990. Etruscan: Univ of California Press. Pfiffig, Ambros Josef. 1969. Die etruskische Sprache. Graz: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt. Pallottino, M. 1936. Elementi di lingua etrusca. Florence.
Other Sources: Fowler, Murray. 1974. "Etruscan Language," EB 6, 1018-9. Pallottino, M. 1955. The Etruscans. Baltimore: Penguin. Pallottino, M. 1977. "La lingua degli Etruschi," Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 6.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh tsh f s š h v m n l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: tsh Fricatives: f v s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai au ei eu ui Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM
Prep/Post: PREP/POST

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