Типологии праязыков алтайской семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по праязыкам алтайских языковых ветвей
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Алтайской семьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено 4 языковых ветви, происходящих от праалтайского языка:

  1. Обзор типа языка-основы Индо-хеттской семьи (Proto-Indo-European)
  2. Обзор типологий языков тюркской группы (Turkic)
  3. Обзор типологий языков монгольской группы (Mongolian)
  4. Обзор типологий языков тунгусо-маньчжурской группы (Tungus)
  5. Обзор типологий языков пуёсской [приморско-алтайской] ветви (Korean-Japanese)

Обзор типа языка-основы Алтайской семьи (Proto-Altaic)

Краткая справка по типологии праалтайского языка.

Смотрите и сам Праалтайский этимологический словарь. База составлена С. А. Старостиным, А. В. Дыбо и О. А. Мудраком. Она представляет собой электронный вариант словаря, опубликованного этими же авторами (Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages; Brill Academic Publishers, 2003. ISBN 90-04-13153-1) и подразделена на главную базу (собственно алтайская этимология) и подчиненные (тюркская, монгольская, тунугусо-маньчжурская, корейская, японская этимологии). В настоящее время база почти ничем не отличается от бумажного варианта словаря, но в дальнейшем ожидаются различные дополнения и исправления.

Number: 1929
Language: Proto-Altaic
Location: Asia
Classification: Altaic
Other Sources: Tsintsius, V.I. 1975. "On the Pre-Altaic System of Consonants," in Researches in Altaic Languages, ed. by Louis Ligeti, 299-306.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ The existance of v̄ in Altaic is a matter of dispute.
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Обзор типологий языков тюркской группы (Turkic)

Number: 1930
Language: Proto-Turkic
Location: C Asia
Classification: Altaic: Turkic Grammar: Menges, Karl H. 1968. The Turkic Languages and Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ š z̪ ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ lɯ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: AN GN Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1931
Language: Old Turkic
Location: Mongolia
Population: (+)c.700 A.D.
Classification: Altaic: Turkic Grammar: Tekin, Talaflt. 1968. A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č s̪ š z̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y (e) ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: i y e ø u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: [pl is usually not indicated, though pl suffixes exist and are sometimes used for humans] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: Old Turkic (=Orkhon Turkic) was the official language of the second East Turkic Empire (c. 680-740 AD).
Number: 1932
Language: Chuvash
Location: W Russia (Chuvash SSR)
Population: 1.7 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Bolgar Dictionary: Ashmarin, N.I. 1928-50. Slovar' chuvashskogo jazyka. Kazan'. Egorov, V.G. 1972. Russko-chuvashkij slovar'. Cheboksary. Grammar: Krueger, John R. 1961. Chuvash Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Andreev, I.A. 1966. "Chuvashskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 43-65.
Other Sources: Krueger, John R. 1962. "Morphophonemic Change in Chuvash Verb Stems," in ASAL, 129-40.
Consonant system: p t k (b) (d) (ɡ) (ts) č (f) s š χ v (z) (ž) m n l r Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) Affricates: (ts) č Fricatives: (f) v s (z) š (ž) χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ? c̄ all Glides: j
Vowel system: i y ɯ u e ǝ ɤ (o) ɑ Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u ɯ (o) ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final (non-reduced) vowel
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1933
Language: Khalaj
Location: C Iran
Population: 20,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern
Other Sources: Doerfer, Gerhard. 1971. Khalaj Materials. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č (ɡ̌) (f) s š h v z (ž) m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) v s z š (ž) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y œ æ Back Vowels: u ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ œ u ɔ only Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1934
Language: Gagauz
Location: E Rumania
Population: 157,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Gajdarzhi, G.A. et al. 1973. Gagauzsko-russko-moldavskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Pokrovskaja, L.A. 1964. Grammatika gagauzskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka. Pokrovskaja, L.A. 1966. "Gagauzskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 112-38.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ f s̪ š (x) h v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š (ž) (x) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3* *6* *Politeness: a polite/plain distinction for 2 3 5 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1935
Language: Turkish
Location: Turkey
Population: 40 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Alderson, A.D. and Fahir Iz, eds. 1959. The Concise Oxford Turkish Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Grammar: Swift, Lloyd B. 1963. A Reference Grammar of Modern Turkish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Lewis, G.L. 1967. Turkish Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
TextBooks: Underhill, Robert. 1976. Turkish Grammar. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (ch) kh (ʔ) b d̪ (ɟ) ɡ čh ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n̪ l lɯ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (ch) (ɟ) kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: usually final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 Politeness: 2 pol&2 intim(5 = 2 pol)
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1936
Language: Crimean Turkish
Location: Uzbekistan
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Grammar: Sevortjan, E.V. 1966. "Krymsko-tatarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 234-59.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ʁ Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1937
Language: Turkmen
Location: Turkmenistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. and M.J. Xamzaev. 1956. Russko-turkmenskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Azimov, P., D. Amansaryev and K. Saryev. 1966. "Turkmenskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 91-111. Baskakov, N.A., M.J. Xamzaev and B. Charyjarov, eds. 1970. Grammatika turkmenskogo jazyka. Ashxaban: Ylym.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ ɸ s š h β z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: i y ø æ ɨ u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1938
Language: Turkmen Dialect: Chagatay
Location: Turkmenistan
Population: extinct
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Grammar: GD: Eckmann, János. 1966. Chagatay Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ N l̪ lɯ r̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: r̪ r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1939
Language: Azerbaijani Alternate Name: Azari
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 7 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Dzhafarov, S. 1959. Leksika sovremenogo azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka, Baku. Grammar: Gadzhieva, N.Z. 1966. "Azerbajdzhanskij jazyk," JNS 2, 66-90. Shiraliev, M.S. and E.V. Sevortjan, eds. 1971. Grammatika azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka. Baku: Elm.
TextBooks: Householder, Fred W. 1965. Basic Course in Azerbaijani. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Alekperov, A.K. 1971. Fonematicheskaja sistema sovremennogo azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka. Baku: Elm.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š χ h v z ž ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef?
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1940
Language: Qashqay
Location: SW Iran (Fars)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1941
Language: Uighur Alternate Name: Uyghur
Location: W China (Sinkiang)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: Jarring, G. 1964. An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary. Lund. Nadzhip, E.N. 1968. Ujgursko-russkij slovar. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Kaidarov, A.T. 1966. "Ujgurskij (novoujgskij) jazyk," in JNS 2, 363-86.
Other Sources: Sadvakasov, G. 1970, 1976. Jazyk ujgurov ferganskoj doliny, 2 vols. Alma-Ata: Nauka. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s ̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n N l̪ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: + 2 pol
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 1942
Language: Uzbek
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 10 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: Waterson, Natalie. 1980. Uzbek-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press. Russko-uzbekskij slovar'. 1954. Moscow. Uzbeksko-russkij slovar'. 1959. Moscow. Grammar: Sjöberg, A. F. 1963. Uzbek Structural Grammar. The Hague. Kononov, A.N. 1960. Grammatika sovremennogo uzbekskogo literaturnovo jazyka. Leningrad: Academy of Sciences. Reshetov, V.V. 1966. "Uzbekskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 340-62.
TextBooks: Raun, Alo. 1969. Basic Course in Uzbek. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Wurm, Stefan. 1947. "The Uzbek Dialect of Qı̈zı̈l Qujaš ," BSOAS 12, 86-105. Sjoberg, Andree F. 1962. "The Phonology of Standard Uzbek," in ASAL, 237-61.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ ɸ s š χ h z (ž) ʁ m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s z š (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1943
Language: Salar Alternate Name: Yellow Uighur
Location: WC China (Qinghai)
Population: 39,000(35,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: GD: Tenishev, E.R. 1976. Stroj salarskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q qh (č̣) (č̣h) č čh f s sh (ṣ̌) š x χ h v m n ŋ l lɯ r Stops: p ph t th k kh q qh Affricates: (č̣) (č̣h) č čh Fricatives: f v s sh (ṣ̌) š x χ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1944
Language: Bashkir
Location: EC Russia (Bashkir ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Bashkirsko-russkij slovar'. 1958. Moscow. Karimova. G.R. 1954. Russko-bashkirskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Poppe, Nicholas. 1964. Bashkir Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Juldashev, A.A. 1966. " Bashkirskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 173-93.
Consonant system: ph th kh qh (ʔ) b d ɡ (ts) (č) (f) θ s š x h (v) ð z (ž) ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ qh (ʔ) Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) θ ð s z š (ž) x ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Back Vowels: ʋ o ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1945
Language: Karachay
Location: SW Russia (Kirghiz SSR)
Population: 173,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Xabichev, M.A. 1966. "Karachaevo-balkarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 213-33.
Other Sources: Hebert, Raymond J. 1962. "Karačay phonology,'' in ASAL, 97-113. Aliev, U.B. 1972. Sintaksis karachaevo-balkarskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s š x χ h (v) z ž ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž x χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1946
Language: Karaim Dialect: Trakaj
Location: Lithuania
Population: 600 (400)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Musaev, K.M. 1964. Grammatika karaimskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka. Musaev, K.M. 1966. "Karaimskij jazyka," in JNS 2, 260-79.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ̆̆(f) s s̄ χ h (v) z (ž) ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z s̄ (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: The Karaim....are by religion (though not ethnically) Jews, a unique survival of the adoption of Judaism as the official religion of the Khazar Empire. LSU, 47.
Number: 1947
Language: Karaim Dialect: Galits
Location: S Ukraine
Population: 600 (200)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A., A. Zajonchkovskij and C.M. Shapshal, eds. 1974. Karaimsko-russko-pol'skij slovar'. Moscow: Russkij Jazyk.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts dz (f) s (š) χ h (v) z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: (f) (v) s z (š) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1948
Language: Kumyk
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 186,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Magomedov, A.G. 1966. "Kumykskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 194-212.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č (ɡ̌) f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (t̪s) č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1949
Language: Tatar Dialect: Central
Location: WC Russia (Tatar ASSR)
Population: 6 million(1.5 million)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Russko-tatarskij slovar'. 1955-58. Kazan'. Tatarsko-russkij slovar'. 1966. Moscow: Sovetsskaja Entsilopedija. Grammar: DG: Poppe, Nicholas. 1963. Tatar Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Zakiev, M.Z. 1966. "Tatarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 139-54.
Consonant system: p t k (q) ʔ b d ɡ (G) (ts) č ɡ̌ f s š x h (v) z ž m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ (q) (G) ʔ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s z š ž x h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1950
Language: Baraba
Location: SC Russia (SW Siberia)
Population: 5 million (8,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Dmitrieva, L.V. 1966. "Jazyk barabinskix tatar," in JNS 2, 155-72.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ G ts (f) s š χ (h) (v) (z) (ž) m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q G Affricates: ts Fricatives: (f) (v) s (z) š (ž) χ (h) Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1951
Language: Crimean Tatar Alternate Name: Crimean Turkish
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 460,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1952
Language: Nogai Alternate Name: Noghay
Location: SW Russia (N Caucasus)
Population: 52,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1956. Russko-nogajskij slovar'. Moscow. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1962. Nogajsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Nogajskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 280-300. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1973. Grammatika nogajskogo jazyka. Cherkessk.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ (t̪s) (č) (f) s̪ š x (v) z̪ ž ɣ ʁ m n̪ N l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k q Affricates: (t̪s) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø (æ) Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1953
Language: Karakalpak
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 230,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1947. Russko-karakalpakskij slovar'. Moscow. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1958. Karakalpaksko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: GD: Baskakov, N.A. 1951, 1952. Karakalpakskij jazyk, 2 vols. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Karakalpakskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 301-19.
Other Sources: Wurm, S. 1951. "The Karakalpak Language," Anthropos 46.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (ts) (č) (f) s š χ h (v) z ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: +2 pol
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1954
Language: Kazakh
Location: Kazakhstan
Population: 5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Musabaev, G.G. and X.X. Maxmudov. 1954. Kazaxsko-russkij slovar'. Alma-Ata. Grammar: Sovremennyj kazaxskij jazyk. 1962. Alma-Ata. Kenesbaev, S.K. and N.B. Karasheva. 1966. "Kazaxskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 320-39.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (ts) (č) (f) s̪ š χ h (v) z̪ ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3 *6 *Politeness: +2 pol, 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1955
Language: Kirghiz
Location: Kyrgyzstan
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Jadaxin, K.K 1965. Kirgizsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. DG: Hebert, Raymond J. and Nicholas Poppe. 1963. Kirghiz Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Junusaliev, B.M. 1966. "Kirgizskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 482-505. Wurm, Stefan. 1949. "The (Rara-) Kirghiz Language," BSOAS 13, 97-120.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) β z (ž) ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s z š (ž) (x) ʁ Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 [this visible/that visible/ this invisible/ that invisible]+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3 *6 *Politeness: 2&5 each shows a polite/familiar distinction
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1956
Language: Yakut
Location: NE Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 285,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Yakut Dictionary: Afanatsev, P.S. and L.N. Xaritonov, eds. 1968. Russko-jakutskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Sleptsov, P.A., ed. 1972. Jakutsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Krueger, John R. 1962. Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Ubrjatova, E.I. 1966. "Jakutskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 403-27.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: (ph) th kh b d ɡ čh ɡ̌ s (š) χ (h) ʁ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (ph) b th d kh ɡ Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s (š) χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but b d ɡ ʁ r j j̃ Glides: j ȷ̃
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ɯɑ ie uo yø
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1957
Language: Dolgan
Location: NE Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Yakut
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1958
Language: Khakas
Location: SC Russia (Khakas A.O.)
Population: 56,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Chankova, D.I., ed. 1961. Russko-xakasskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Karpov, V.G. 1966. "Xakasskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 428-45.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ (š) χ (v) z̪ (ž) ʁ m n̪ N l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ (š) (ž) χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y I e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but I
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1959
Language: Altai
Location: SC Russia (Altai Krai)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A., ed. 1964. Russko-altajskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Baskakov, N.A. and T.M. Toshchakova. 1947. Ojrotsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1958. Altajskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Altajskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 506-22.
Other Sources: Simpson, C.G. 1955. Some Features of the Morphology of the Oirot (Gorno-Altai) Language. London: Central Asian Research Centre.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) (v) z ž ʁ m n ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž (x) ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1960
Language: Northern Altai Dialect: Kumandy
Location: SC Russia
Population: 16,000 (7,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1972. Dialekt kumandintsev (Kumandy-Kizhi) Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k ɡ č s š m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1961
Language: Chulym
Location: SC Russia (Chulym River)
Population: 48,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Dul'zon, A.P. 1966. "Chulymsko-tjurkskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 446-66.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ ts dz β s z š ž ç x ɣ m m̥ n ŋ l l̥ lɯ l̥ɯ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: β s z š ž ç x ɣ Nasals: m m̥ n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ lɯ l̥ɯ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: cj Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ ɵ ʋ Diphthongs: ɑj aj oj uj ɨj ʋj ɛj ou ua uɑ uʋ ye ie Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1962
Language: Shor
Location: SC Russia (Khakas A.O.)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Grammar: Babushkin, G.F. and G.I. Donidze. 1966. "Shorskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 467-81.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q G (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž (x) m n̪ ŋ l̪̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q G Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 [this/that there/that present/that absent]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1963
Language: Tuva Alternate Name: Tuvan
Location: SC Russia (Tuva ASSR)
Population: 137,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Pal'mbax, A.A., ed. 1953. Russko-tuvinskij slovar'. Moscow. Pal'mbax, A.A., ed. 1955. Tuvinsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: GD: Krueger, John R. 1977. Tuvan Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Sat, S.C. 1966. "Tuvinskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 387-402. Isxakov, F.G. and A.A. Pal'mbax. 1961. Grammatika tuvinskogo jazyka.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k (Russian sources also give ph and th) (ts) č (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž ɣ χ ʁ (h) m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (Russian sources also give ph and th) Affricates: (ts) č Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž ɣ χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: v̰(pharynɡealized) all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1964
Language: Karagas Alternate Name: Tofa
Location: Russia
Population: 560
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Rassadin, V.I. 1971. Fonetika i leksika tofalarskogo jazyka. Ulan-Ude: Burjatskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q G ʔ č ɡ̌ v s z š ž ɣ ʁ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q G ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š ž ɣ ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) all Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: AN GN Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Обзор типологий языков монгольской группы (Mongolian)

Number: 1965
Language: Classical Mongolian
Location: Mongolia
Population: (+) c.1600 AD
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian Grammar: Poppe, Nicholas. 1964. Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Grønbech, Kaare and John R. Krueger. 1976. An Introduction to Classical (Literary) Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: (p) b t d k ɡ q č ɡ̌ (v) s š ɣ (h) m n l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (v) s š ɣ (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ʉ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p [pl not as comon as in other languages] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1966
Language: Moghol Alternate Name: Moghol Dialect: Herat
Location: Afghanistan (Herat)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Western Grammar: Weiers, Michael. 1972. Die Sprache der Moghol der Provinz Herat in Afghanistan. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) č ɡ̌ f s (z) š x ʁ (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) š x ʁ (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1967
Language: Dagur Alternate Name: Daur
Location: NE China
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Dagur
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1968
Language: Monguor Alternate Name: Mangghuer, Tu
Location: China (W Kansu)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor Grammar: Smedt, A. de and A. Mostaert. 1945. Le dialecte monguor. Peking: The Catholic Univ. [Reprinted 1964 by Indiana Univ., Bloomington]
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh q ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh f s̪ ṣ ẓ š χ m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh q Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: f s̪ ṣ ẓ š χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ: æ a o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1969
Language: Yellow Uighur Alternate Name: West Yugur
Location: China (NW Gansu)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1970
Language: Pao-an Alternate Name: Baonan Dialect: Tung-hsiang
Location: China (Kansu)
Population: 250,000 (160,000)
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor Grammar: Todaeva, B.X. 1961. Dunsjanskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoj literatury.
Consonant system: ph b th d ch ɟ ɡ qh čh ɡ̌ f (v) s (z) š x h m n ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d ch ɟ ɡ qh Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s (z) š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1971
Language: Santa
Location: China (SW Gansu)
Population: 374,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1972
Language: Oirat
Location: China
Population: 518,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Oirat-Kalmyk
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1973
Language: Kalmyk
Location: SW Russia (Kalmyk ASSR)
Population: 253,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Oirat-Kalmyk Dictionary: Ramstedt, G.J. 1935. Kalmückisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Ilishkin, I., ed. 1964. Russko-kalmyyskij slovar'. Moscow Grammar: Todaeva, B.X. 1968. "Kalmytskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 34-52.
Other Sources: Street, John C. 1962. "Kalmyk Shwa," in ASAL, 263-91. Badmaev, B.B. 1966. Grammatika Kalmytskogo jazyka: morfologija. Elista: Kalmytskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: (p) b t d k ɡ ts č ɡ̌ β (f) s z š (ž) x ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s z š (ž) x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1974
Language: Buriat
Location: SE Russia (Buryat ASSR)
Population: 350,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Cheremisov, K.M. 1973. Burjatsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Sanzheev, G.D. Grammatika burjatskogo jazyka'. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury. Grammar: Bosson, James E. 1962. Buriat Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Bertagaev, T.A. 1968. "Burjatskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 13-33.
Other Sources: Buraev, I.D., T.P. Bazheeva and E.S. Pavlova. 1975. Atlas zvukov burjatskogo jazyka. Ulan-Ude: Burjatskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: (p) b t d (k) ɡ (ts) (č) (f) (v) s z š ž x h m n ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d (k) ɡ Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ? Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I y ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: i y ø ɛ u ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: æɛ ɔɛ ʋI yi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial, or on first long vowel
Noun
Number: s [p] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1975
Language: Khalkha
Location: Mongolia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Lessing, F.D. et al. 1960. Mongolian-English Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Hangin, John G. 1970. A Concise English-Mongolian Dictionary. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Street, John C. 1963. Khalkha Structure. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Bosson, James E. 1964. Modern Mongolian: A Primer and Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Poppe, Nicholas. 1970. Mongolian Language Handbook. Washington, D.C.: CAL.
TextBooks: Hangin, John G. 1968. Basic Course in Mongolian. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: (ph) t̪h (kh) b d̪ ɡ tsh čh dz ɡ̌ (ɸ) s š x β m n̪ ŋ l̪ (ɬ) r Stops: (ph) b t̪h d̪ (kh) ɡ Affricates: tsh dz čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (ɸ) β s š x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ (ɬ) Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ʉ u e ǝ ɵ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄: all but ǝ Diphthongs: ae oe ʉi ia io iu ui
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p [pl used less than in Western languages] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4[ie] 2 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: pol/fam (2) [2 pol=5]
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1976
Language: Khorchin
Location: China
Population: 900,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat
Other Sources: Bosson, James and B. Unensečen. 1962. "Some Notes on the Dialect of the Khorchin Mongols," in ASAL, 23-44. E
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d̪ ɟ ɡ s̪ š h m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ɟ ɡ Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: i y e ø ǝ ɵ u o ɔ ɑ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1977
Language: Ordos
Location: China (Sui Yang)
Population: 375,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Mostaert, Antoine 1941. Dictionnaire ordos. Peking: The Catholic Univ. [Reprinted 1968 by Johnson Reprinted, New York] Grammar: Soulié, G. 1903. Éléments de grammaire mongole (dialecte ordoss). Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Consonant system: p ph b t th k kh ɡ q G ts č čh kx f s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ q G Affricates: ts č čh kx Fricatives: f s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø œ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Обзор типологий языков тунгусо-маньчжурской группы (Tungus)

Number: 1978
Language: Even
Location: NE Russia (NE Yakut ASSR)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Dictionary: Tsintsius, V.I. and L.D. Rishes. 1952. Russko-evenskij slovar'. Moscow. GD: Benzing, J. 1955. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden. Grammar: Novikova, K.A. 1960. Ocherki dialektov evenskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Novikova K.A. 1968. "Evenskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 88-108. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Das Lamutische," in Altaistik, vol 3, 92-129.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s h v m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t d k č n ŋ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i e u o Modified Vowels: ḭ æ̰ ḭ̄ ā̰ ǣ̰ a̤ ṳ o̤ ṳ̄ ō̤ (v̰ = 'hard' vowel: all vowels belong to either the hard or soft series. Compared to soft vowels, hard vowels: (1) are drawn back, (2) more tense, (3) have a lower timbre and in some dialects (4) are pharyngealized) Diphthongs: ie iæ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: on last v̄, if no v̄, on last v
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1979
Language: Negidal
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 350
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Grammar: Kolesnikova, V.D. and O.A. Konstantinova. 1968. "Negidal'skij jazyk," in JNS 5, 109-28.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s x m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: i I e æ ɵ a u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1980
Language: Evenki Alternate Name: Khamnigan
Location: E Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Dictionary: Vasilevich, G.M. 1958. Evenkijsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Kolesnikova, V.D. and O.A. Konstantinova. 1960. Russko-evenkijskij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Konstantinova. O.A. 1968. "Evenkijskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 68-87. Konstantinova, O.A. 1964. Evenkijskij jazyk. Moscow. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Das Ewenki," in Altaistik, vol 3, 42-92.
Other Sources: Kolesnikova, V.D. 1966. Sintaksis evenkijskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ β (f) s (z) (š) (ž) x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s (z) (š) (ž) x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: i e æ ǝ u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1981
Language: Solon
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1982
Language: Manegir
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1983
Language: Orochon
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1984
Language: Ju-chen
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1985
Language: Manchu
Location: NW China (Sinkiang)
Population: 27,000 (50)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern Grammar: Pashkov, B.K. 1963. Manchzhurskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury. Sinor, Denis. 1968. "La langue mandjoue," in Altaistik, vol 3, 257-80.
Other Sources: Austin, William M. 1962. "The Phonemics and Morphophonemics of Manchu," in ASAL, 15-22.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh č čh f v s̪ (z̪) š (ž) x m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f v s̪ (z̪) š (ž) x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: aj oj ej uj
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p [pl suffix only used for humans, living things, kin terms, etc] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1986
Language: Manchu Alternate Name: Xibe Dialect: Sibe
Location: China (Xinjiang)
Population: 27,000 (27,000)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern
Other Sources: Norman, Jerry. n.d. "Swadesh List in Manchu and Sibe," Unicorn 3, 89-98. Princeton: Chinese Linguistics Project. Norman, Jerry. 1974. "A Sketch of Sibe Morphology," Central Asiatic Journal 18, 159-74.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q č čh qχ f v s (š) x χ m n ŋ N l ɾ Stops: p ph t th k kh q Affricates: č čh qχ Fricatives: f v s (š) x χ Nasals: m n ŋ N Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ai au ia ua ǝi ǝu iɛ yɛ oi io ui Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl generally limited to humans] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1987
Language: Akani
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1988
Language: Birar
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1989
Language: Gold
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Dictionary: Onenko, S.N. 1959. Russko-nanajskij slovar'. Leningrad. Petrova, T.I. 1960. Nanajsko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Avrorin, V.A. 1959, 1961. Grammatika nanajskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Avrorin, V.A. 1968. "Nanajskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 129-48. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Die Sprache der Nānaj (Goldi)," in Altaistik, vol 3, 171-246.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ḛ Central Vowels: ǝ a̰ Back Vowels: u o̰ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: iǝ iu ia io ǝu ǝi ai ao ui uǝ oi oa iǝ̃ iũ iã iõ ǝũ ǝĩ aĩ aõ uĩ uǝ̃ oĩ oã
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1990
Language: Kile
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1991
Language: Olcha
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Grammar: Sunik, O.P. 1968. "Ul'chskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 149-71.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) v s x m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is not usually used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1992
Language: Orok
Location: SE Russia (Saxalin Is.)
Population: 400
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Grammar: Petrova, T.I. 1967. Jazyk orokov (ul'ta). Leningrad: Nauka. Petrova, T.I. 1968. "Orokskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 172-90.
Other Sources: Ikegami, J. 1956. "The Substantive Inflection of Orok," Gengo Kenkyu 30.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t k m n l r w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: i e ɛ ǝ a u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is seldom used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1993
Language: Samagir
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1994
Language: Oroch
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Udihe Dictionary: Leontovich, S. 1896. Russko-orochenskij slovar'. Vladivostok. Grammar: Avrorin, V.A. and E.P. Lebedeva. 1968. "Orochskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 172-90.
Other Sources: Lopatin, I. 1957. Material on the Orochee Language. Fribourg.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s x ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b k ɡ č m n ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: i æ ǝ a u ʋ o Diphthongs: iǝ ia iu æi æa æʋ ǝi ǝu ai aʋ ui uǝ ʋi ʋa oi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl forms used extremely rarely] Demonstratives: 4?
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1995
Language: Udihe
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Udihe Dictionary: Shnejder, E.R. 1936. Kratkij udegejsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Sunik, O.P. 1968. "Udegejskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 210-32. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Die Sprache der Udihe," in Altaistik, vol 3, 129-71.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ f s x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is not normally used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST

Обзор типологий языков пуёсской [приморско-алтайской] ветви (Korean-Japanese)

Number: 1996
Language: Korean
Location: Korea
Population: 55 million
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese Grammar: Rogers, M.C. 1956. Outline of Korean Grammar. n.p.:n.p.
Other Sources: Olmsted, D.L. 1963. Korean Folkore Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Han, Mieko S. 1963. Acoustic Phonetics of Korean. Los Angles: Univ. of California. Cho, Seung-Bog. 1967. A Phonological Study of Korean. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells. Hwang, Shin Ja Joo. 1975. Korean Clause Structure. SIL 50. AL 7:1 Martin, Samuel E. 1951. "Korean Phonemics," Lg 27, 519-33.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ ʔ č čh čʔ s sʔ h m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s sʔ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: yes
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: The glottalized series of consonants is variously described as (1) long, (2) tense, (3) accompanied by glottal tension, though the glottal catch is apparently nowhere near as pronounced as in typical Amerindian or Caucasian ejectives.
Number: 1997
Language: Japanese
Location: Japan
Population: 115 million
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese Dictionary: Okakura, Y., ed. 1945. New English-Japenese Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Grammar: Martin, Samuel E. 1975. A Reference Grammar of Japanese. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
TextBooks: Jorden, Eleanor Harz. 1963. Beginning Japanese, 2 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
Other Sources: Harada, Tetsuo. 1966. Outlines of Modern Japanese Linguistics. Tokyo: Nihon Univ. Kuno, Susumu. 1973. The Structure of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h z m n̪ (ŋ) ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n̪ (ŋ) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č s š Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V, ŋ̟
Tones: pitch accent: hi lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6hH politeness: many honorific forms
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1998
Language: Ryukyuan Dialect: Central
Location: Japan (Okinawa)
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese
Other Sources: AL 7:1
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts s z h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1999
Language: Ryukyuan Alternate Name: Shodon Dialect: Northern
Location: Japan (Ryukyu Islands)
Population: 900,000
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese
Other Sources: Martin, Samuel E. 1970. "Shodon: A Dialect of the Northern Ryukyus," JAOS 90, 97-139.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ ʔʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ ɸ s̪ h (z̪) m n̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ kʷ khʷ ɡʷ ʔ ʔʷ Fricatives: ɸ s̪ (z̪) h Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid low Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* 3 6 politeness: honorific forms for 2 & 5
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative:
Prep/Post:

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