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Na-Dene Etymologies

About the classical Na-Dene hypothesis

Particularly controversial in linguistic taxonomy during the 1980’s was the so-called “Na-Dene Problem”. The problem was whether Haida, a language spoken on the Queen Charlotte Islands off the western coast of Canada, was a member of the Na-Dene family, as Edward Sapir had originally claimed in 1915, or was, rather, unrelated to the other branches of Na-Dene (i.e. Tlingit, Eyak, and Athabaskan). When Sapir’s Na-Dene family was attacked by Pliny Goddard (1920), a leading Athabaskanist of his day, Sapir, weary and disgusted by a similar taxonomic dispute with the Algonquianist Truman Michelson (see Chapter 6), chose not to respond to Goddard’s criticism.

This controversy was renewed in the 1960’s and 1970’s in a dispute between Heinz-J¨urgen Pinnow, who maintained, with evidence even more abundant than that in Sapir’s original material, that Haida was indeed a member of Na-Dene, and Michael Krauss, who argued that Haida had not been shown to be related to the Na-Dene family (for references to this dispute, see Pinnow 1990).

In 1979 Robert D. Levine claimed that “the evidence offered in support of the ‘classical’ Na-Dene hypothesis (i.e., as set up by Sapir in his 1915 statement) is spurious, and that there is currently no empirical basis for including Haida in the Na-Dene grouping” (Levine 1979: 157). That same year Krauss (1979) also maintained that “there is no detectable genetic relationship between Haida and the others in the group, Tlingit and Athabaskan-Eyak” (p. 838) and thanked Levine “for debunking once and for all the claim that Haida has been demonstrated to be genetically related to Tlingit, etc.” (p. 841).

Other scholars who have examined the evidence, however, have tended to side with Sapir and Pinnow rather than with Krauss and Levine. Sergei Nikolaev (1991: 43) noted that “certain doubts have been expressed regarding the inclusion of Haida in the Na-Dene family, but they should be considered unsubstantiated.”

Greenberg’s opinion to the “Na-Dene Problem”

In his book on the classification of New World languages, Joseph Greenberg (1987: 321–30) devoted an entire chapter to the “Na-Dene Problem,” arguing that Levine’s method of dismantling Na-Dene could just as easily be turned against Indo-European. Even if one were to ignore the new evidence adduced by Pinnow, and even accepting Levine’s mostly erroneous strictures on methodology, Greenberg showed that Sapir’s original evidence connecting Haida with the rest of Na-Dene was more than sufficient: “Even after Levine’s unreasonable attack (1979), what survives is a body of evidence superior to that which could be adduced under similar restrictions for the affinity of Albanian, Celtic, and Armenian, all three universally recognized as valid members of the Indo-European family of languages” (p. 331).

During the data-gathering stage, in preparation for his work on the classification of New World languages, Greenberg assembled a Na-Dene comparative wordlist (Greenberg 1981). These data, however, were not used in Language in the Americas (1987), where Greenberg simply defended Sapir’s original evidence. The present study is intended to show that had Greenberg chosen to use his Na-Dene wordlists, he could easily have strengthened Sapir’s case, and in fact, as the etymologies given below indicate, the “Na-Dene Problem” was based on a misunderstanding of methodology, not on a lack of evidence. Can anyone really believe that Haida shares as many, or as precise, similarities with the Khoisan family (or any other family) as it does with the other Na-Dene languages? The etymologies in this chapter, based on my interpretation of Greenberg’s Na-Dene notebook (a copy of which may be found in Stanford University’s Green Library), argue to the contrary.

It should be noted that Greenberg’s notebook includes information from 16 different Haida sources, 11 different Tlingit sources, and six different Eyak sources. Consequently, there is a certain fluctuation in the transcriptions for words in these languages that reflects dialectal differences, differing transcriptional abilities on the part of the linguists who produced the various works, and different systems of phonetic transcription. With a few exceptions I have not sought to impose uniformity on the varying transcriptions, which would be a daunting and not wholly feasible task. I have, however, consistently rendered [c] as [ts], and glottalized consonants are always indicated by a following apostrophe (e.g. p’, t’, k’).

Furthermore, all morphological boundaries cited in these etymologies are actually posited in the sources, as shown in Greenberg’s notebook. Quite often, however, morphologically unanalyzed forms are compared, where a certain morphological break is implicit in the comparison. Usually the portion of unanalyzed words being compared is clear, even without the specification of morpheme boundaries.

After assembling the set of Na-Dene etymologies on the basis of Greenberg’s notebook, I compared these etymologies with those originally suggested by Sapir in 1915. In cases of overlap (roughly 25 examples), I have indicated the number of the Sapir etymology at the end of the etymology (e.g. [S44]). The other Sapir etymologies were then added to the list, again with an indication of their number in each case. Finally, some Na-Dene etymologies from a letter of Heinz-J¨urgen Pinnow (pers. comm.) were added to the list; they, too, are identified at the ends of the appropriate etymologies (e.g. [P18]).

The etymologies follow:


  1. 1 ABOVE Haida k‘wa-ji ∼ g¯ı, Tlingit k‘e ‘upward,’ k´ı ‘top,’ Proto- Athabaskan *χa- ‘up, out of.’ [S82]
  2. 2 AGAIN Tlingit ts’u, Proto-Athabaskan *ts’i. [S76]
  3. 3 ALL Haida tl¯oqan, Eyak tunhlokh, Athabaskan: Tlatskanai -w¯e¬ αq.
  4. 4 AMONG Haida t‘a-oan ‘alongside of,’ Tlingit -t‘a:-kw ‘in the middle of,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-t‘a. [S60]
  5. 5 ANKLE Tlingit kakaushitl’, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut èkyagò.
  6. 6 ARROW1 Tlingit tax’a¬’ ‘needle,’ Eyak takl ∼ teklj ∼ t’ik’-¬ ∼ t’ek’.
  7. 7 ARROW2 Haida s-q’a ‘stick,’ q’a ‘harpoon,’ Proto-Athabaskan *q’a÷, Navajo k’aa÷. [P19]
  8. 8 ASK Eyak qe÷d, Athabaskan: Chipewyan k`ër, Hupa xid, Mattole kid ∼ kët, Navajo k`ıd.
  9. 9 AUNT Tlingit ’´at‘, Athabaskan: Mattole -a:tsi÷. [S2]


  1. 10 BACK Haida ts’awii ∼ ts’ak’ii, Tlingit t’´a ∼ d´èχ’, Eyak t’a÷-q’ ‘in back of,’ Athabaskan: Slave t’´˜a÷ ‘backwards,’ Tututni t’an ‘backwards.’ [S69]
  2. 11 BE Haida ¿it, Tlingit hit¬ ∼ (s-)ti, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut t’è, Tututni ti, Navajo z´ı:d ‘become.’
  3. 12 BEAR1 Haida x´uuts ‘brown bear,’ Tlingit x´uts ‘brown bear,’ Athabaskan: Tsetsaut xò ‘grizzly bear.’
  4. 13 BEAR2 Tlingit s’ik ∼ seek ∼ tzeek ‘black bear,’ Eyak tzi¯u ∼ ts’iyu ‘black bear.’
  5. 14 BEAVER Haida ts’ang, Athabaskan: Tahltan ˇc¯a, Chipewyan tsa‘, Hare ts´a÷, Navajo ˇc¯a’.
  6. 15 BECAUSE OF Haida -t’a, Proto-Athabaskan *-t’a. [S67]
  7. 16 BELLY Tlingit q’o¬’ ‘stomach,’ Eyak ku:l.
  8. 17 BITE Tlingit t’ax’, Athabaskan: Chipewyan tθ`aih ∼ tθ`aγ, Kato t’¯oγ, Mattole t’o ‘sting.’
  9. 18 BLACK Tlingit t’`uˇc’ ‘black, coal,’ Eyak t’u÷ˇc’, Athabaskan: Sarsi t’`as ‘charcoal,’ Chipewyan t’´ès ‘charcoal,’ Tlatskanai tˆes, Wailaki t’es ‘charcoal,’ Navajo t`e`eˇs ‘charcoal.’
  10. 19 BLOOD1 Eyak de¬, Athabaskan: Sarsi -d¯ıtl-, Chipewyan d`è¬, Tsetsaut a-dila, Tututni dë¬, Navajo d`ı¬.
  11. 20 BLOOD2 Haida Gai ∼ G´ay, s-Gi-t ‘be red,’ Tlingit -Gee ‘be bright,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-Gay ‘be white,’ Navajo -gai ‘be white.’ [P20]
  12. 21 BLOW Haida ux, Tlingit ’´ux.
  13. 22 BLUE1 Haida ¿u-¬a¬, Tlingit khat¬eh, Eyak khatl ‘green.’
  14. 23 BLUE2 Haida tl’´ants’uut ‘bluejay,’ Eyak t¬˜at.
  15. 24 BODY Haida k’¯ot ‘corpse,’ Eyak Ge÷t.
  16. 25 BONE Tlingit s’a:q, Proto-Athabaskan *-ts’˘en. [S75]
  17. 26 BOW Haida tl-k¯ıt, Tlingit i-i-elte, Athabaskan: Chipewyan i¬t˜ı, Navajo a¬t˜ı.
  18. 27 BROTHER1 Tlingit hunx ‘man’s elder brother,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-onaγ(e) ‘older brother.’ [S56]
  19. 28 BROTHER2 Haida q¯a ‘mother’s brother,’ (ti-)ka(-gha) ‘older brother,’ Tlingit akh-keek ‘younger brother,’ kak ‘mother’s brother.’
  20. 29 BUILD Tlingit yeχ ‘build, make,’ Athabaskan: Mattole yih.
  21. 30 BURN1 Haida da:dj ∼ das ‘live coals,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-das. [S9]
  22. 31 BURN2 Haida go ∼ k’untl’daa, Tlingit GAn ∼ gan’, Eyak d-q’a, Athabaskan: Ingalik k’´α(n), Carrier -k’en, Hare k’˜o, Kato k’an, Navajo k’˜a˜ah, Jicarilla k’˜a. [S35] [Cf. FIRE below.]
  23. 32 BUTTOCKS1 Eyak tl’iˇj, Athabaskan: Sarsi -t¬’¯a÷, Kato tl’a, Mattole tl’a÷. [S44]
  24. 33 BUTTOCKS2 Tlingit k’´ı, Athabaskan: Kato k¯ı÷.


  1. 34 CEDAR Haida ˇcju, Proto-Athabaskan *ˇc’o ‘fir, spruce.’ [S80]
  2. 35 CHEEK Tlingit w`αˇs, Athabaskan: Coquille ni-paˇs. [S47]
  3. 36 CHEW Haida haljang, Eyak ÷a÷tl’, Athabaskan: Chipewyan ÷a¬ ‘bite,’ Dogrib ÷a¬ ‘bite,’ Mattole ÷a¬.
  4. 37 CHILD Haida gy¯ıt’, Tlingit git’a, Eyak q¯eˇc’. [Cf. SON below.]
  5. 38 CLAY Tlingit s’¯a, Eyak ts’a÷.
  6. 39 CLOUD1 Haida yai-en ∼ y¯en ∼ y´aan ‘cloud,’ Eyak jaa ‘heaven,’ Proto-Athabaskan *yaa ‘heaven, sky,’ Tanaina yo-k’, Koyukon yo, Hare y`a-k’`e, Kato ya, Navajo y´a. [P11]
  7. 40 CLOUD2 Haida qwii, Tlingit gus’, qo-gas’ ‘fog,’ gwas’ ‘be foggy,’ Eyak q’ahs, Athabaskan: Sarsi n`ak’u´s, Carrier k’wes, Hare k’o, Navajo k’`os.
  8. 41 COLD1 Haida χwi ∼ xwi, Tlingit k¯usa, Athabaskan: Sarsi k’´αs, Carrier k’wez, Hupa k’ats’, Mattole k’ats, Navajo k’`az, Lipan k’`as.
  9. 42 COLD2 Haida t‘at, Tlingit t‘a:dj, Proto-Athabaskan *t‘e ‘be cold,’ t‘˘en ‘ice.’ [S64]
  10. 43 COUGH Haida q’us´aang, Athabaskan: Chipewyan kw`oθ, Kato k¯os.
  11. 44 COUNT Tlingit t‘uw, Athabaskan: Sarsi t`a:i, Chipewyan t´a, Tututni -tuk, Mattole ta’x, Navajo t`a÷.
  12. 45 COVER Tlingit k`et (n.), Eyak kaaˇc ‘blanket.’
  13. 46 CRANE Haida dilα, Tlingit du:¬, Proto-Athabaskan *de¬. [S11]
  14. 47 CRY Haida sqa-yetl ∼ sga-i¬, Athabaskan: Tanaina tsax, Beaver tˇsˆug, Chipewyan ts`aγ, Kato ˇceγ, Navajo ts´e´eh ∼ ts`a.
  15. 48 CUT Haida -(t’)at, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut t’a, Kato t’ats ∼ t’as, Mattole t’¯as, Navajo -t’˜as.


  1. 49 DANCE Tlingit atl’ekh ∼ ¬’eχ, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut dlè, Tututni daˇs, Mattole d¯ax.
  2. 50 DARK Haida ¿aalgaa, Eyak khalhetetiutu, Athabaskan: Chipewyan xè¬ ∼ x´ı¬.
  3. 51 DAUGHTER Tlingit sik ∼ s´ı ∼ si-k’w, Eyak ts¯ı(y), Athabaskan: Sarsi -ts’αh, Galice -sii÷ee, Mattole -ts¯ı(y), Navajo -tsi÷.
  4. 52 DAWN Tlingit qea, Eyak qa (v.).
  5. 53 DAY Haida sEn ∼ siÑ ∼ shang ∼ sung, Athabaskan: Tanaina dˇzanih, Beaver dzene, Hare dz´ın´e, Galice sinis, Mattole dˇziÑ , Navajo ˇj´˜ı.
  6. 54 DECAY Haida gu:na ‘decayed,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-gaÑ ‘be mouldy.’ [S15]
  7. 55 DEER Haida k’´aat, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut xadzinè ‘male deer.’
  8. 56 DIE Tlingit na, Proto-Athabaskan *-na. [S49]
  9. 57 DIG Eyak ˇsa, ˇsiyah ‘dig for,’ Athabaskan: Galice s˜ı÷ ‘dig a hole,’ Kato ˇs¯ı÷, Mattole ˇci÷.
  10. 58 DIRT Haida sq’´ıl, Eyak ts’ëtl’, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut kwu¬’.
  11. 59 DISH Haida ts’a- (classifier for dishes), Tlingit s’ix’, Proto-Eyak- Athabaskan *ts’aa’k’, Eyak ts’aag-¬ ‘basket,’ Athabaskan: Navajo ts’`a`a÷ ‘shallow basket,’ Kiowa Apache ÷i-ts’eeh ‘plate.’ [S74, P13]
  12. 60 DIVE1 Haida ji:, Proto-Athabaskan *-jid ∼ yid. [S17]
  13. 61 DIVE2 Tlingit tsis, Athabaskan: Tututni si¬.
  14. 62 DOG Haida χa ∼ h¯a ∼ h - a, Eyak hava ∼ xëwa.
  15. 63 DREAM Tlingit ˇcun ∼ ˇjun, Eyak ts˜ı:dz.
  16. 64 DRINK1 Tlingit autenah ∼ katana ∼ na, Athabaskan: Tlatskanai tatèna, Chipewyan -d`˜a, Kato -nan, Navajo -tl`˜a. [S8, S50]
  17. 65 DRINK2 Haida χutl’ä, Eyak khatilia.
  18. 66 DURATIVE Tlingit s- (modal prefix), Proto-Athabaskan *s-. [S57]
  19. 67 DUST Tlingit s’ix, Athabaskan: Carrier xe¬-ts’ih ‘ashes,’ Galice ˇc’as ‘ashes,’ Navajo l`e`eˇs-ˇc’`ı`ıh ‘ashes.’


  1. 68 EAR Haida gy¯u ∼ ki¯u ∼ g¯eu, Tlingit g¯uk ∼ ka-k¯uk, Eyak khakhikh ∼ ka-ˇcech ∼ ˇjehχ, Athabaskan: Tanaina dˇzaγoh, Koyukon dzaγa, Beaver dˇzˆuge÷, Kato -ˇc’ëge÷, Navajo -ˇj`a`a÷.
  2. 69 EARTH1 Haida tlig ∼ tlga ∼ klik, Tlingit tliak-¯u ∼ klatk ∼ tlittik, Eyak tzatlkh, Athabaskan: Navajo ¬e.
  3. 70 EARTH2 Eyak an ∼ ’˜a ∼ a, Athabaskan: Kutchin nën, Hare ne, Hupa nin, Navajo n`ı÷.
  4. 71 EAT1 Tlingit ya:n, Proto-Athabaskan *yan. [S88]
  5. 72 EAT2 Haida t´aa ∼ -t’´aang ∼ kul-tah, Athabaskan: Chipewyan -t`˜ı, Kato tan, Navajo -t’˜ah. [S62]
  6. 73 EAT3 Haida ¬-da-naaw ‘mealtime’ (eat + drink), Tlingit -danaa ‘drink,’ Proto-Eyak-Athabaskan *-naam ‘drink,’ Proto-Athabaskan *de-naam ‘drink,’ Navajo -dl´˜a ‘drink.’ [P16]
  7. 74 EDGE Tlingit wαn, Proto-Athabaskan *man. [S46]
  8. 75 EGG Haida k’ao ‘salmon egg,’ kow ∼ kaua, Tlingit kwαt’ ∼ k’w´ät’ ∼ kw¯ut, Eyak k’udë-÷uhdg ∼ kota-ut, Athabaskan: Ingalik k’´uwk’una ‘fish egg,’ Chipewyan k’¯un-´è ‘fish egg.’
  9. 76 ELBOW Haida hie-tsi-kwe ∼ ¸c¯ı-tsEgu¯ı, Tlingit t’´ıy ∼ t’iyˇsu, Eyak -ˇciˇj, Athabaskan: Sarsi -ts’`ıs, Chipewyan ts’´uz, Navajo -ˇc’¯oˇzl¯a’.
  10. 77 ELK Haida tsish-ku ∼ ˇciˇsku ∼ wut-tsish, Tlingit tiskh ∼ wutzekh, Athabaskan: Tlatskanai ˇcisˇcex, Galice disˇcoh, Navajo dz´e:h.
  11. 78 END Haida t¬an, Proto-Athabaskan *-¬ad. [S42]


  1. 79 FALL Haida -’wii ∼ Gwi, Athabaskan: Sarsi g`uh ∼ g`u`u`ı, Navajo g`e`eh ∼ g`o÷.
  2. 80 FAT Haida ¿´aay, Tlingit ¯eq¯e, ’eχ ‘fish oil,’ ´ıχ ‘oil,’ Eyak q’ëχ, Athabaskan: Beaver k’a, Carrier -k’a, Chipewyan k’`a, Hare e-γe, Tsetsaut eχè, Galice k’ah, Wailaki k’ah, Navajo k’`ah, Jicarilla x´eh. [S20]
  3. 81 FATHER1 Haida h - ´aat ∼ had´aa, Eyak ata, Athabaskan: Sarsi -t`a÷, Chipewyan -t’`a, Tsetsaut t¨a’, Tututni ta÷, Galice ta÷, Chiricahua -t`a`a.
  4. 82 FATHER2 Tlingit ak’ish ∼ ’`ıˇs ∼ ¯ıˇs, Athabaskan: Lipan -÷`a`aˇs´ı.
  5. 83 FEAR Haida χetl’ ∼ G¯ed ∼ ¿´ıit’ang ‘be ashamed,’ x´alt’as ‘fearful,’ Tlingit χetl’ ‘afraid,’ Athabaskan: Tanaina git, Ahtena ged, Beaver dzid, Sarsi ˇj`ı÷(d), Kutchin ˇjed, Chipewyan ˇj`èr, Tututni dz´ıt ‘frighten,’ Hupa gjid, Kato git, Mattole ˇjid, Navajo ˇj`ıd, Chiricahua ˇj`ı÷.
  6. 84 FEATHER Haida t’aw ∼ t’a-Gun, Tlingit t’´aw, Eyak t’˜at¬ ‘feather, leaf,’ Proto-Athabaskan *t’aan’ ‘leaf,’ Sarsi t’`ah, Kutchin -t’e, a5. Na-Dene Etymologies 99 t’an ‘leaf,’ Carrier -t’a, -t’an ‘leaf,’ Hare t’a, ˜ıt’˜o ‘leaf,’ Tututni t’a, Tlatskanai tan ‘leaf,’ Galice t’ai÷, t’˜a˜a˜ı ∼ t’˜a÷ ‘leaf,’ Navajo -t’`a÷, -t’`˜a`˜a÷ ‘leaf.’ [S68, P22]
  7. 85 FIRE Haida ˇc’¯anu ∼ ts’anu, Tlingit k’¯an ∼ q’¯an, Athabaskan: Beaver kon÷, Sarsi k`un`α÷, Han kwon, Chipewyan k´un, Tlatskanai kwen, Coquille xwan, Galice kwan, Mattole koÑ ’, Navajo k`˜o, Lipan k˜o˜o÷. [Cf. BURN2 above.]
  8. 86 FIREWOOD Haida k¯uk ∼ kuk, Eyak kug-¬, Proto-Athabaskan *kwegw, Beaver ˇcˆuˇc, Ahtena ˇceˇc, Hupa ˇcwiˇz, Mattole ˇciˇs, Navajo ˇc`ıˇz, Lipan ˇc`ıˇs. [P5]
  9. 87 FISH1 Haida χao ‘fish’ (v.), Proto-Athabaskan *-k‘a(n) ‘fish with a net.’ [S29]
  10. 88 FISH2 Tlingit ¬’uku‘ ‘salmon,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi tl´uk’´a, Ingalik t¬ ´uk’`α÷, Han ¬ugu, Tsetsaut ¬o÷, Galice ¬uuk’e, Navajo ¬´o´o÷, Jicarilla ¬´og`e`e. [S43]
  11. 89 FLOAT Eyak ¬ë-dux, Athabaskan: Galice t’uh ‘swim.’
  12. 90 FLY1 (v.) Haida χ¯ıt ∼ xit, Eyak k’a÷t’, Athabaskan: Mattole k¯ad.
  13. 91 FLY2 (v.) Tlingit t’at¬ ‘fly, flap wings,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi t’´αh, Carrier -t’ah, Hare t’a, Galice t’ah, Hupa t’aw, Mattole t’ah, Navajo t’´a, Lipan t’´ah.
  14. 92 FOAM Tlingit xe¬ ∼ χe¬ ∼ χel ∼ χeˇs, Athabaskan: Chipewyan -γw`os.
  15. 93 FOLLOW Tlingit k‘e, k‘en ‘to trace,’ Athabaskan: Tututni -k’eh ‘following.’
  16. 94 FOOD Haida d´aayang, Athabaskan: Sarsi d´an´ı, Galice s-taane, Navajo d˜a˜a.
  17. 95 FOOT Tlingit k’os ∼ ka-k¯us ∼ q’os ∼ χ’us, Eyak q’¯aˇs ∼ k’ahˇs ∼ kuˇs, Athabaskan: Sarsi γ`us, Kato -woos.
  18. 96 FOR1 Haida Ga ‘to,’ Gαn ‘for,’ Tlingit Ga ‘for,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-γa ‘for,’ *-γan ‘to.’ [S18]
  19. 97 FOR2 Tlingit -χα-n ‘to,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-χa. [S81]
  20. 98 FORT Tlingit nu, Proto-Athabaskan *no ‘place of retreat, island.’ [S55]
  21. 99 FRIEND Tlingit χo:n, Proto-Athabaskan *k‘ene. [S32]
  22. 100 FROG Eyak ˇcia¬q, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut ts’alè, Tlatskanai swaxalxEl, Hupa ˇcw’al, Kato ˇc’ahαl, Navajo ˇc’a¬.
  23. 101 FUTURE Haida -sa-Ñ , Proto-Athabaskan *tsa-Ñ . [S3]


  1. 102 GIRL1 Haida jada-kudso ∼ i-adda-hudsu ∼ ntzahtahutzo, Tlingit shaa-kutsku ∼ shatkakuatsku, Eyak gelikutzkuki, khetzkisaha ‘daughter.’
  2. 103 GIRL2 Eyak ke¨el, Athabaskan: Mattole ˇci÷¬.
  3. 104 GIVE Tlingit ’ek ‘give a potlatch,’ Athabaskan: Tsetsaut ’a ‘give a feast.’
  4. 105 GO1 Haida qa, Tlingit ha ∼ nuk-koh, Eyak qah, Athabaskan: Dogrib γa, Tsetsaut -ga. [S19]
  5. 106 GO2 Haida daal ∼ dal, Athabaskan: Chipewyan dè¬, Kato dë¬ ∼ del÷. [S7, S10]
  6. 107 GOOD Haida lah-gung ∼ l¯a-gung, Tlingit g´ú ‘happy,’ Eyak dzu, Athabaskan: Koyukon zun, Tanaina ˇzin, Chipewyan z`˜u, Hare z`˜u, Kato ˇs¯oÑ , Mattole xwoÑ , Navajo ˇz´˜o.
  7. 108 GOOSE Haida χaha ‘mallard,’ Proto-Athabaskan *χa‘. [S83]
  8. 109 GRANDCHILD Haida t’ak’an, Tlingit ˇcxank’, Athabaskan: Sarsi -ˇsiγ´α, Tsetsaut isˇca, Tlatskanai ¯otsEnee, Kato -ˇcai, Navajo ˇcyai.
  9. 110 GRANDFATHER Haida ˇc‘ín, Proto-Athabaskan *-ˇc‘i. [S77]
  10. 111 GRANDMOTHER Haida n¯an ∼ n´aan, Athabaskan: Sarsi n´a ‘mother,’ Chipewyan n´è ‘mother,’ Tsetsaut na ‘mother,’ Kato nan ‘mother,’ Mattole -an- ‘mother.’
  11. 112 GRASS1 Eyak tl’ihχ, Athabaskan: Sarsi g`u-tl’`ow´u, Kutchin tl’o, Chipewyan tl’`oγ, Dogrib tl’´o÷, Tlatskanai tlokwa, Galice tl’uu, Mattole tloh, Navajo tl’`oh.
  12. 113 GRASS2 Haida q’αn, Proto-Athabaskan *k’˘eÑ ‘withes.’ [S34]
  13. 114 GREEN Tlingit s’`uw, souk ‘grass,’ Athabaskan: Tututni soh ‘blue,’ Chasta Costa ¬-θo ‘blue,’ Hupa tsow’, Mattole -tsow, Kato -tsoo.
  14. 115 GUTS1 Haida qasan-ts’ang ‘brains’ (= head-guts), Athabaskan: Sarsi ˇc´α(n), Ingalik -ˇc´an´ı, Galice s˜a˜a ‘brains.’
  15. 116 GUTS2 Haida k’´ıits ‘belly,’ k¯es, Athabaskan: Kutchin e-ts’ig, Carrier -ts’i, Tsetsaut è-ts’¯e÷, Galice ˇc’iiˇc’e÷, Hupa ˇc’eekj’e÷, Navajo -ˇc’´ı´ı÷.


  1. 117 HAIR Haida kow, Tlingit χ`aw, Eyak χu÷ ‘body hair,’ Athabaskan: Tahltan -γa÷, Chipewyan -γ´a, Tsetsaut axa, Galice -wa÷ ∼ -γaa, Hupa -wa÷, Kato -ga÷, Navajo -γ`a`a÷, Lipan -γ`a`a.
  2. 118 HAND Haida stlai ∼ stl’a ∼ stlaih ∼ slai, Tlingit tl’eeq ‘finger,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi -l`α÷, Tsetsaut a¬a(÷), Galice -la÷, Navajo -´ı-l`a÷. [P9]
  3. 119 HAT Tlingit sja:xw, Proto-Athabaskan *ˇc’a. [S79]
  4. 120 HE Tlingit i¯utah ∼ ˜u, Athabaskan: Chasta Costa y¯u ‘that one,’ Mattole y¯ı. [S27]
  5. 121 HEAD Haida ˇsa, Eyak shi-shage ∼ ˇs¯aw.
  6. 122 HEAR Haida gud´ang ∼ g¯udE˜n, Athabaskan: Sarsi -ts’´α(n), Kutchin tθ’eg, Carrier ts’ai, Hupa -ts’in, Kato -ts’eg, Navajo ts’´˜ı´˜ıh, ts’aÑ ‘listen,’ Lipan -ts’`ah.
  7. 123 HEART Haida tee-kuk ∼ tek’ogo ∼ k’´uuk ∼ kook, Tlingit t´eχ’ ∼ t¯ek’ ∼ teh-uk’h, Athabaskan: Sarsi dz`aγ`an´ı, Kutchin -dzji, Carrier -dzi, Galice -siiyi÷, Kato -ˇjii÷, Navajo -ˇj´e´ı, Lipan -ˇj´ı´ı.
  8. 124 HEAVEN Haida qw¯es ∼ kweeskun ∼ kwai, Tlingit kuts ∼ ’haatz ∼ kohs, Eyak koas.
  9. 125 HEAVY Tlingit d´α¬ ∼ dal, Eyak d¯as, Athabaskan: Chipewyan d´aδ, Tututni das, Hupa das, Navajo `nd¯az.
  10. 126 HEW Haida tshool-tao ‘axe,’ Tlingit s’uw, Athabaskan: Slave tθ´è¬, Navajo ts¯e¬ ‘chop.’
  11. 127 HIDE1 (v.) Haida s¿´al, Tlingit ˇc’a¬.
  12. 128 HIDE2 (v.) Tlingit s¯ın, Athabaskan: Galice s˜ı˜ı, Hupa sën. [S58]
  13. 129 HIT Haida kwa, Tlingit gwa¬, Athabaskan: Hupa wa¬, Mattole g¯a¬, Navajo γ`¯a¬ ‘hit with a stick.’
  14. 130 HORTATORY Haida -dja-Ñ , Proto-Athabaskan *-dja. [S13]
  15. 131 HOUSE Eyak yahd, Athabaskan: Ingalik yax, Chipewyan y`è, Kato ye.


  1. 132 I Tlingit hutt ∼ kh˘ut, Eyak h˘utak.
  2. 133 ICE1 Haida qa¬ ‘freeze,’ qalk ∼ Gal(ga), Tlingit xatl ‘iceberg,’ Athabaskan: Tlatskanai kolo.
  3. 134 ICE2 Tlingit t’iq’ ∼ t’ix’ ‘ice, hard,’ t’ik ‘stiffen,’ Eyak t’its’, Athabaskan: Beaver ts´¯ıl ‘snowdrift,’ Hupa tl’its’, Navajo tl’`ız, Kiowa Apache tl’`ıs.
  4. 135 IN Haida Gei ‘into,’ Tlingit -Ge: ‘inside of,’ -γi-k ‘inside,’ Proto- Athabaskan *-ye. [S93]
  5. 136 INSIDE Tlingit daq ‘inland, shoreward,’ Athabaskan: Slave -t’´a, Dogrib t’ah.
  6. 137 INTRANSITIVIZER Haida ta-, Tlingit da-, Eyak da-, Proto-Athabaskan *de- (passive prefix). [P2]
  7. 138 ISLAND Tlingit χ’at’ ∼ kat’h ∼ gat-te, Eyak q¯at ∼ k’¯at‘.


  1. 139 JUMP1 Tlingit t‘`an, Athabaskan: Tututni -tëm’, Kato t¯oÑ ’.
  2. 140 JUMP2 Haida t¬a: ‘dive,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-¬a. [S41]


  1. 141 KICK Haida tl’aa, Tlingit tseχ, Eyak ta÷tl’, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut txa.
  2. 142 KIDNEY Haida ˇca¯e ∼ ch´aay, Athabaskan: Sarsi ts’`uz´α, Chipewyan èts’αsè, Navajo -ˇcaskaz´ı.
  3. 143 KILL1 Tlingit ’in, Athabaskan: Carrier -γe, Hare -xe, Galice g˜ı˜ı, Kato g¯ıÑ , Mattole giin, Navajo -γ´e. [S23]
  4. 144 KILL2 Tlingit ch˘ukh ∼ yeh-achuk, Eyak kh˘uk¯uvasheh.
  5. 145 KNEE Eyak Guhd, Athabaskan: Sarsi g¯ud ‘knee, elbow,’ Kutchin -gwod, Chipewyan tsa-gw´or-, Tlatskanai o‘kwˆıt, Coquille gwad, Hupa got’, Mattole -gwo÷¬, Navajo g`od.
  6. 146 KNOW1 Haida ’un-s¯eda ∼ ÷un-s÷äd, Tlingit k‘´u ∼ k‘úen, Athabaskan: Dogrib ˇz´o, Hare ˇz`˜u.
  7. 147 KNOW2 Haida ’un-s¯eda ∼ ÷un-s÷äd, Athabaskan: Galice -ts’id, Kato tsët, Mattole ts’id.


  1. 148 LAKE Eyak maa, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut mm¯e.
  2. 149 LEFT Tlingit s’´αt’, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut xuts’ede’.
  3. 150 LIE DOWN1 Haida wu-daa, Proto-Athabaskan *daa, Navajo -d´a ‘sit.’ [P15]
  4. 151 LIE DOWN2 Haida tai ∼ tay ∼ t¯ı, Tlingit t‘a, -tii, Proto-Eyak- Athabaskan *tee-ng, Eyak te, Athabaskan: Sarsi t´ı(n), Kutchin ˇci, Carrier ti, Chipewyan t`˜ı, Hare ti, Galice t˜ı, Kato teen, Wailaki tiÑ , Navajo t´˜ı. [S65, P14]
  5. 152 LIQUID Haida χao, Proto-Athabaskan *-k‘a (liquid has position). [S28]
  6. 153 LIVER1 Haida tl’ak’ul, Tlingit tl’´uG`u, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut a¬’òq’.
  7. 154 LIVER2 Eyak -sahd, Athabaskan: Tanaina zit’, Tahltan zid, Beaver zˆut’, Sarsi -z`ı÷, Kutchin δ`ad, Hupa sit’, Navajo z`ıd.
  8. 155 LONG Haida dz´ıng, Proto-Athabaskan *ngee’s, Navajo -neez. [P7]
  9. 156 LOOK1 Tlingit t‘i÷n ‘see,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-t‘e ‘look for,’ *t‘an ‘look.’ [S63]
  10. 157 LOOK2 Haida qyahtsgat ‘look at,’ Athabaskan: Galice gaˇs, Kato gets ∼ guˇs ‘look, see.’
  11. 158 LUNGS Haida k¯agEn, Tlingit ky¯eg´¯u ∼ k`eg´u.


  1. 159 MAKE Tlingit s¯ı, Athabaskan: Tanaina ˇcin, Koyukon tsi(n), Ingalik -tse(n), Chipewyan -ts`ı ∼ -ts˜ı, Hare s`˜ı, Chasta Costa s¯ı, Mattole ˇc¯ı, Navajo ˇc´˜ı ∼ ˇc´ı.
  2. 160 MAN1 Haida e-tli˜nga ∼ i-¬iÑ a, Tlingit tl’inkit ‘people.’
  3. 161 MAN2 Haida tlal ∼ t’al ∼ tl´aal ∼ tee-tlalh ‘husband,’ Eyak ¬il¯a÷ ∼ lilia.
  4. 162 MAN3 Tlingit q´ah ∼ q´a ∼ kah ∼ ka, Eyak qa÷ ∼ kha ‘husband.’
  5. 163 MANY Haida hlang´aa ‘be plenty,’ Tlingit atl¯en, Athabaskan: Sarsi -tl¯a(n), Han l˜e, Carrier ¬anè, Tlatskanai ¬´an, Kato -¬aÑ , Navajo l¯an, Kiowa Apache ¬´˜a.
  6. 164 MOSQUITO Haida tsh¯ı-kul-di-gwa ∼ tsi-kul-toon, Eyak ts’iyux, Athabaskan: Sarsi ts’´ı, Dogrib tθ’´ıh, Tsetsaut ts’esdja, Tlatskanai tz¯ız ‘wasp,’ Navajo ts’´¯ı’¯ı.
  7. 165 MOTHER1 Eyak amma, Athabaskan: Navajo m´a, Kiowa Apache m´a.
  8. 166 MOTHER2 Haida ÷aw ∼ aw ∼ ao ∼ ¯ao ∼ ow, Eyak -÷ehd ‘wife,’ Athabaskan: Tlatskanai o‘´at, Galice ÷ah, Navajo -a’´¯ad ‘wife.’
  9. 167 MOTHER3 Tlingit at-tlhee ∼ ak’tlia ∼ tla, Athabaskan: Beaver -¬´ı ‘co-wife.’
  10. 168 MOTHER-IN-LAW Haida djo:n, Tlingit ˇc‘a:n, Proto-Athabaskan *-ˇc‘oÑ . [S78]
  11. 169 MOUSE1 Haida kagan, Tlingit kαgαk‘ ∼ kúG´äk.
  12. 170 MOUSE2 Eyak t¬ ˜utiyas, Athabaskan: Sarsi tl`o`on´a, Chipewyan tl´un`e, Tsetsaut ¬¯on´a, Hupa lo÷n, Kato ¬oon ‘rodent.’
  13. 171 MOUTH Eyak sa÷-d, Athabaskan: Tanaina zah, Sarsi -z`α÷, Ingalik -δod, Kutchin ˇsèd, Tsetsaut asa÷, Hupa -sa÷, Navajo -z´e´e÷, Lipan -z´ı÷.
  14. 172 MUCH Haida ¬ang´aa ‘be much,’ Proto-Athabaskan *¬aang, Navajo ¬´˜a. [P6]
  15. 173 MUD1 Haida ˇc¯an, Eyak ts’a÷, Athabaskan: Chipewyan dz´˜a ‘sediment,’ Kato dj˜aÑ , Navajo ˇc¯˜a’´ı ‘muddy.’ [S14]
  16. 174 MUD2 Haida hlq‘ut’uu ‘slime,’ Tlingit q´otl’kw ∼ k’otlk‘ ∼ χetl’ ‘slime.’


  1. 175 NAIL Haida kun ∼ kwun ∼ gun, Athabaskan: Sarsi -g´αn, Chipewyan -g`an´è, Hare -gone, Galice -gwan-yu, Navajo -s-g`a`an.
  2. 176 NAME Tlingit sa ∼ sα, sen (v.), Eyak vahsheh, Athabaskan: Ahtena z¨a, Tahltan u-zii, Sarsi ´ı-z`ı÷, Slave se-´zi÷, Galice -ˇsi÷, Hupa -uu- ˇsi÷, Navajo y´ı-ˇz´ı, Lipan ´ı-ˇz`ı`ı÷.
  3. 177 NAPE Haida ts’eky¯e, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut ats’¯ıχa (borrowing?).
  4. 178 NARROW Eyak tsidz, Athabaskan: Chipewyan ˇc’`uδ`è, Kato s¯os, Navajo ts’`os.
  5. 179 NEAR Haida aχan, Tlingit χan ‘proximity.’
  6. 180 NECK Haida halh ∼ χil ∼ h - il ∼ hil, Tlingit kahl-dukh ∼ kalyatik.
  7. 181 NEST Haida hlt´alk, Athabaskan: Sarsi i-t’´u, Chipewyan èt’ok, Tsetsaut at’ò, Navajo t’oh.
  8. 182 NEW Haida tl¯aga, Tlingit tlakw.
  9. 183 NIGHT1 Haida Gaa¬-gaa ‘be dark,’ ¬-Ga¬ ‘black,’ Tlingit Giit ‘become dark,’ Eyak χëtl’, Athabaskan: Sarsi w¯ı¬, Carrier γe¬, Hupa x¯atl’e, Kato ka¬‘ ‘night passes,’ Chipewyan x´ı¬ ‘darkness,’ Navajo di-¬–xi¬ ‘black.’ [S22, P21]
  10. 184 NIGHT2 Tlingit t¯at ∼ t‘at‘ ∼ tat ∼ taht, Athabaskan: Kutchin taδ, Chipewyan t`ëδ-`è. [S66]
  11. 185 NOT Tlingit ¬, Proto-Athabaskan *¬- ∼ ¬a. [S39]


  1. 186 OLD Tlingit ˇs`an ‘old person,’ Athabaskan: Tlatskanai sen ‘old man,’ Navajo s´an´ı ‘old’ (“seems to be applied to men mostly.”), s´˜a ‘old age.’ [S85]
  2. 187 ON1 Tlingit -k‘a, Proto-Athabaskan *k‘a. [S30]
  3. 188 ON2 Tlingit -q’ ‘at,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-k’e. [S36]
  4. 189 ONE Tlingit tlex’ ∼ tlek ‘one,’ Eyak tleki ∼ ¬˜ıhG ∼ tikhi, Athabaskan: Kutchin (˜ı-)¬agë, Tsetsaut (˜ı-)¬ege, Hupa ¬a÷, Kiowa Apache ¬`a÷. [S40]


  1. 190 PAIN Eyak k’ahd ∼ k’a÷d, Athabaskan: Mattole ˇc’a-h ∼ ˇc’a-d.
  2. 191 PAINT Haida k’otla¯no ∼ k’udlan (v.), Tlingit gwα¬’.
  3. 192 PENIS Eyak γ´ëˇc`αq’ ∼ guˇc, Athabaskan: Sarsi γ¯ıdz`α÷, Galice -iise÷, Mattole -¯ıtse÷.
  4. 193 PERFECT Haida wu- (perfect prefix), Tlingit wu- (perfect prefix). [P15]
  5. 194 PERSON1 Haida na ‘live, house,’ Tlingit na ‘people,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-ne ∼ -n ‘person, people.’ [S51]
  6. 195 PERSON2 Haida t¯ow¯ı ‘people,’ Eyak tah¯ui¯u ‘people.’
  7. 196 PLAY Haida naÑ , Proto-Athabaskan *-ne. [S53]
  8. 197 PLURAL1 Haida -χa (distributive suffix), Tlingit -nα-χ (distributive numeral suffix), Proto-Athabaskan *-k‘e (personal noun plural). [S31]
  9. 198 PLURAL2 Tlingit -γè-n (plural of kinship terms), Proto-Athabaskan *-y˘e (personal noun plural). [S91]
  10. 199 PLURAL3 Haida -Gu ∼ -Go ∼ -da-Gu, Tlingit da-Ga-, Athabaskan: Chiricahua daa- ∼ -g´o ∼ daa-g´o. [P1]
  11. 200 POSTPOSITION Haida -n ∼ -Ñ , Tlingit -n ‘with,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-n ∼ -Ñ . [S48]
  12. 201 POUND Haida taq’it, Tlingit t’èχ’, t‘aq‘ ‘hit,’ täq¬ ‘hammer,’ Eyak deq’ ‘smack.’
  13. 202 PULL Tlingit yiˇs, Athabaskan: Kato y¯os ‘lead, drag.’
  14. 203 PUS Tlingit qit’, Eyak χës, Athabaskan: Sarsi γ´¯ız, Navajo xis.
  15. 204 PUSH Haida -q’aa ‘push over,’ Athabaskan: Tsetsaut -qa ‘push with a stick.’


  1. 205 QUICKLY Haida xao ‘do a thing quickly,’ Proto-Athabaskan *χaÑ . [S84]


  1. 206 RABBIT Eyak Gëχ, Athabaskan: Slave gah, Tsetsaut qax, Tlatskanai sqEx, Navajo ga÷.
  2. 207 RAW Haida taaw ‘raw food,’ Eyak t’ ¯ë-G ‘raw,’ Athabaskan: Chipewyan t’`è, Mattole t’eeγ ‘raw meat,’ Navajo t’´¯a.
  3. 208 RED1 Tlingit x’`an ∼ k’han ∼ kaan, Eyak q’a, Athabaskan: Carrier de¬-k’en.
  4. 209 RED2 Eyak ˇc’¯e÷ ‘turn red,’ Athabaskan: Tlatskanai tts¯ıs, Wailaki ˇcii÷, Mattole -ˇciiˇj, Navajo -ˇc´ı´ı÷, Lipan ˇc´ıˇs.
  5. 210 RELATIVE CLAUSE SUFFIX Tlingit -γi, Proto-Athabaskan *-ye. [S94]
  6. 211 RETURN Haida sdiihl, Athabaskan: Galice da¬.
  7. 212 RIB Tlingit ts’oq ∼ s’´ukw‘ ∼ s’´ug`u, Athabaskan: Beaver ˇco˜ngè÷, Chipewyan èˇc˜a, Tlatskanai ˇc¯aqe, Navajo -ts¯˜a.
  8. 213 RING Haida st‘a ‘ring-shaped object,’ Proto-Athabaskan *tsa ‘ring-like object.’ [S73]
  9. 214 RIVER Tlingit wαt ‘mouth of river,’ Athabaskan: Kato kw¯ot ‘stream.’
  10. 215 ROAD Tlingit d`e, Eyak t¯a, Athabaskan: Ingalik t`ın`α, Carrier ti, Tlatskanai tèn‘´¯e, Coquille tanee, Hupa tin, Navajo ÷`a-t`ı`ın.
  11. 216 ROAST Haida kits’a´a ‘roast on a stick,’ Eyak gis.
  12. 217 RUB1 Tlingit t’us, Proto-Athabaskan *-t’od. [S72]
  13. 218 RUB2 Haida g¯uˇs ‘wipe,’ Tlingit x’ut’ ∼ x’a´s ∼ xas’ ‘scratch, scrape,’ Athabaskan: Wailaki guts ∼ g˜as ‘scrape.’
  14. 219 RUN Haida Ga:t, Proto-Athabaskan *-γed. [S21]


  1. 220 SALIVA Tlingit tuχ ‘spit’ (v.), Eyak tux, Athabaskan: Sarsi z´αk’`α÷, Kutchin e-zjig, Umpqua seek’e÷, Kato ˇsek’, Navajo ˇs´e´e÷.
  2. 221 SAY Tlingit q‘a, Proto-Athabaskan *-’a ‘tell, sing,’ Tutuni ÷a ‘talk.’ [S97]
  3. 222 SEA Haida s¯ı(s) ‘ocean,’ Eyak ˇs¯ı ‘creek, stream,’ Athabaskan: Galice sisk˜a˜a ‘ocean.’
  4. 223 SEE Haida qiÑ ∼ qi˜n ∼ kain, qèn ‘look,’ Tlingit Gen ∼ Gin ‘look,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi ÷´ı(n), Han ÷in, Carrier -÷en, Slave -÷`˜ı, Galice ÷˜ı, Hupa -÷iÑ , Navajo ÷´˜ı. [S98]
  5. 224 SEW Haida h - ay ‘knit,’ Tlingit qa ∼ q‘a, Athabaskan: Sarsi k`˜a÷(d), Galice -ka÷, Kato gat, Mattole k`a÷¬ ∼ ka÷d, Navajo k`ad, Jicarilla k`a÷, Kiowa Apache k`a.
  6. 225 SHARPEN Haida k’aa, Tlingit k’ats’ ‘be sharp,’ Athabaskan: Chipewyan k’`a ∼ k’˜a ∼ k’a, Chiricahua kaˇs. [S33]
  7. 226 SHIN Tlingit χis’, Eyak xi÷ts’.
  8. 227 SHOOT Tlingit t’uk, Proto-Athabaskan *-t’o. [S71]
  9. 228 SHORE Tlingit y`αχ ∼ ’´eq ‘beach,’ Eyak yëqt.
  10. 229 SHORT Eyak dik’ ∼ dëk, Athabaskan: Tututni dëgw.
  11. 230 SING1 Haida k’aˇju ∼ k’atsao, Eyak kutzgi.
  12. 231 SING2 Tlingit ˇs´ı ∼ ˇs¯ı ∼ ˇsi(n) ‘sing, song,’ Eyak ts˜ı, Athabaskan: Tanaina ˇsen, Galice ˇsan ‘song,’ Navajo sin, Lipan ˇs`˜ı. [S86]
  13. 232 SIT Eyak da, Athabaskan: Sarsi d´α, Carrier da, Tsetsaut da, Galice da, Mattole -daa, Navajo d´a.
  14. 233 SKIN Haida q’a¬, Tlingit χas’ ∼ x´as’ ‘fish scales,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi -k`a¬ ‘hide,’ Navajo ’aka¬ ‘leather.’ [P17]
  15. 234 SMALL Haida kut-soo ∼ h¯udz¯u, Tlingit k’atsku ∼ akwatsku, Eyak kuts’ ∼ kuˇc’, Athabaskan: Mattole -k’ow’.
  16. 235 SMELL Haida s´anjuu, Tlingit ˇcαn ‘stench,’ Eyak ˇc˜ah ∼ ˇc˜a÷ ‘smell, stink,’ Athabaskan: Galice ˇsan ∼ ˇs˜a˜a, Kato ˇcën, Mattole ˇc’a, Navajo -ˇc’´˜a: ‘stench.’
  17. 236 SMOKE Eyak t¬˜a’t ∼ ¬˜ahd, Athabaskan: Sarsi tl¯ı, Kutchin lade, Carrier ¬ed, Hare lere, Tlatskanai ¬it, Tututni ¬ëd, Galice ¬ad, Navajo ¬`ıd.
  18. 237 SNAKE Haida si-guh ∼ si-ga, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut go÷, Jicarilla g´o.
  19. 238 SON Haida gˆıt ∼ keet ∼ kete, Tlingit git ∼ geeth ∼ y´ıt‘ ∼ yitik, Eyak q¯e, Athabaskan: Sarsi γ´a, Navajo γ`e÷. [Cf. CHILD above.]
  20. 239 SON-IN-LAW Haida qunaa ∼ qone, Athabaskan: Galice -gandaa, Tlatskanai oxont´ane.
  21. 240 SPEAK Haida sota ‘speak to,’ -soot- ∼ shoo, Tlingit s`ät´ú ‘voice,’ Athabaskan: Navajo s¯ad ‘word.’
  22. 241 SPIDER Haida q’utlsiaÑ , Tlingit qasist’an.
  23. 242 SPIRIT1 Tlingit y´ek‘ ∼ γe:k ‘spirit, spirit helper,’ ’iχt’ ‘shaman,’ Proto-Athabaskan *ye ‘supernatural being,’ *-y˘en ‘to practice shamanism,’ Galice -yii÷s ‘spirit, breath.’ [S92]
  24. 243 SPIRIT2 Haida Gan-aa ‘be taboo,’ s-G´aan ‘supernatural being,’ Tlingit da-Gan-q´u ‘hereafter,’ Athabaskan: West Apache gaan ‘supernatural being,’ Chiricahua g´˜a-h´e. [P18]
  25. 244 SQUIRREL Haida gahlts’aakw ∼ gEtltsak, Tlingit tsälk, Eyak tsët¬k, Athabaskan: Galice salas, Kato sl´us ‘ground squirrel,’ Mattole ˇcalis.
  26. 245 STAND Haida gya ∼ gyaraÑ ∼ gy´aa’ang, Tlingit gya, Athabaskan: Galice -gi÷, Mattole ge’ ‘get up.’ [S87]
  27. 246 STEAL Haida q’otlta ∼ q’uhld´aa ∼ kolt ∼ kw¯ol, Eyak ˇc’u÷, Athabaskan: Hupa ˇc¯ot ∼ ˇc¯ol, Mattole ˇc¯od ∼ ˇc¯oh.
  28. 247 STEAM Haida sil ‘steam’ (v.), Tlingit si:t ‘cook’ (v.), Proto-Athabaskan *sil ‘steam’ (n. & v.). [S59]
  29. 248 STEP (v.) Haida t’a, Proto-Athabaskan *-t’es. [S70]
  30. 249 STICK Haida t’asq‘ ‘shaman’s baton,’ Tlingit t’ah ∼ t’´a ‘board.’
  31. 250 STONE Haida t’ees ‘rock, ledge,’ Tlingit teh ∼ t‘`è ∼ t´è ‘rock, stone,’ Eyak ts¯a, Athabaskan: Tahltan tsˆe, Beaver tseh, Kutchin ˇci, Carrier tθe, Tsetsaut tsè’, Hupa tsee, Navajo ts´e.
  32. 251 STRONG Haida tlaats’gaa, Tlingit litsin, Eyak atliah˘ukh, Athabaskan: Chipewyan tl’´eδ, Galice -tl’a÷s, Kato lëts ‘strong, rough.’
  33. 252 SUCK Haida tl’´an, Tlingit l’a.
  34. 253 SUN1 Haida xai ‘sunshine,’ Tlingit -xaa-ts’ ‘be cloudless,’ Proto- Eyak-Athabaskan *xwaa, Navajo sh´a. [P12]
  35. 254 SUN2 Haida k¯ung, Tlingit kuk-kan ∼ kakan ∼ Gagan ∼ k’akan.
  36. 255 SWALLOW Tlingit kwaˇc, Athabaskan: Kato kët, Mattole ked ∼ ke‘.
  37. 256 SWEEP Haida hlk’yaawdaa, Athabaskan: Galice ts’ad.
  38. 257 SWIM1 Haida x’ak ‘swim under water,’ Tlingit q’aq ‘swim (of fish),’ Athabaskan: Navajo -k´˜o´˜oh, Jicarilla -k´˜oh.
  39. 258 SWIM2 Eyak we, Athabaskan: Kutchin -vi, Carrier -bih, Tsetsaut bè, Kato -be, Mattole -bee.


  1. 259 TAIL Haida sk’yaaw, Tlingit kuw´u ‘bird’s tail,’ Eyak k’ugutl’ah.
  2. 260 TAKE Haida s´aldaa ‘borrow,’ Tlingit ˇsαt’. [S4]
  3. 261 TEAR (v.) Tlingit s’e¬’, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut ts’è ∼ tsè.
  4. 262 TELL Tlingit nˆık ∼ nik‘, Athabaskan: Kato nëk ‘relate,’ Navajo -nih. [S52]
  5. 263 TESTICLE Eyak dl-ts¯a, Athabaskan: Hupa -ˇsao÷, Wailaki ˇc¯ok, Navajo -ˇco’.
  6. 264 THAT1 Haida hao, Tlingit he ‘this,’ Proto-Athabaskan *hai. [S25]
  7. 265 THAT2 Haida wa-, Tlingit we, Proto-Athabaskan *m˘e ‘he, it.’ [S45]
  8. 266 THAT3 Haida gu ‘there,’ Tlingit yu ‘that yonder,’ Proto-Athabaskan *yo ‘that yonder.’ [S95]
  9. 267 THEY Tlingit hass ∼ ass, Eyak ashan¯u. [S26]
  10. 268 THIGH Haida t´ıl, Tlingit ts’¯eyu ‘calf,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi -t`ı ‘calf.’
  11. 269 THIN1 Haida t’αmdju, Athabaskan: Chipewyan t’`an`è, Navajo t’˜ahi.
  12. 270 THIN2 Haida ts’iyaa ‘thin person,’ Athabaskan: Chipewyan ts’`è, Mattole ˇc’ix.
  13. 271 THINK Tlingit ˇji, Athabaskan: Sarsi z`ı`ın, Chipewyan δ˜ı, Coquille san, Hupa siÑ (÷), Mattole sii(÷)n, Navajo z`ın.
  14. 272 THIS1 Haida a-, Tlingit a-, Proto-Athabaskan *a-. [S1]
  15. 273 THIS2 Haida dei ‘just that way,’ Tlingit de ‘now,’ Proto-Athabaskan *di. [S12]
  16. 274 THIS3 Haida gai ‘this, that, the,’ Tlingit ya, Proto-Athabaskan *ye- ‘that,’ *y- ‘he.’ [S89]
  17. 275 THORN Eyak χ¯u÷ˇs ‘thorns, sliver,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi x¯us, Chipewyan x`os, Navajo x`oˇs.
  18. 276 THREAD Haida gy’etlao, Eyak q’ëˇj ‘ribbon.’
  19. 277 THUMB Haida sli-k’use, Tlingit ka-k¯ush ∼ guˇs.
  20. 278 THUNDER Haida hii-lang ∼ h¯ı-ling-a ∼ he-lun, Tlingit xetl ∼ heh’tl, Athabaskan: Mattole le‘ ∼ liγ.
  21. 279 TIE1 Haida ts’ats’as’, Athabaskan: Koyukon sos ‘knot,’ Chipewyan ˇs´as ‘knot,’ Hare ˇs´a÷ ‘knot,’ Navajo -ˇzaˇs.
  22. 280 TIE2 Eyak χeh¬ ‘tie up,’ Athabaskan: Galice ge¬ ‘tie up.’
  23. 281 TIE3 Eyak tl’i, Athabaskan: Chiricahua tl’´o.
  24. 282 TIE4 Haida ts‘u, Proto-Athabaskan *-ts‘os ∼ *-ts‘es. [S37]
  25. 283 TO Haida -da, Tlingit -t ∼ -dè, Proto-Athabaskan *-d ∼ -d˘e. [S5]
  26. 284 TOMORROW Tlingit suk-kan ∼ seh-kann, Athabaskan: Chipewyan k’`˜an´ı.
  27. 285 TOOTH Haida q’u- ‘with the teeth,’ Tlingit ’´ux ∼ ka-ogh ∼ kaoch, Eyak χuu-¬, Proto-Athabaskan *χwuu’, Tahltan γu÷, Sarsi -γ`o`o÷, Carrier -γu, Tsetsaut èxo÷, Tlatskanai o‘o, Hupa -wo÷, Mattole -γwo÷, Navajo -γ`o`o÷. [S24, P10]
  28. 286 TOUCH Tlingit ni ‘put,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-ni. [S54]
  29. 287 TOWARD Haida gua ∼ gui, Proto-Athabaskan *-go. [S16]
  30. 288 TREE Haida q´ıit, q¯et ‘spruce,’ Tlingit k’è ‘log.’
  31. 289 TURN Tlingit t‘ix’ ‘twist,’ Eyak ta÷k’ ‘twist.’


  1. 290 UMBILICAL1 Haida χil’ ∼ sg´ıl ∼ skil, Tlingit k´¯outl ∼ k`u¬.
  2. 291 UMBILICAL2 Tlingit t‘an ∼ t`anu, Eyak ts’a‘ ∼ ts’¯a÷, Athabaskan: Sarsi ts’ak’`α÷, Hupa ts’eek, Navajo ts’´e´e÷.
  3. 292 UNDER Tlingit y`ı, Athabaskan: Kato -ye. [S90]
  4. 293 URINE Haida tsègè˜n ‘urinate,’ Eyak tse÷q’.


  1. 294 VAGINA Haida ˇc´uu, Athabaskan: Sarsi dz´¯uz, Tsetsaut èdju ‘vulva,’ Galice ˇjoˇs, Navajo ˇj´¯oˇz.
  2. 295 VEIN1 Haida kassu, Eyak k’u÷t’ ‘vein, tendon, sinew,’ Athabaskan: Hupa ky’ots’ ‘sinew,’ Navajo ts’`o`os ‘vein, nerve.’
  3. 296 VEIN2 Tlingit t´ıt’i, Athabaskan: Tahltan -ˇc’ide, Hare ˇc’´ır´e, Navajo ts’`ıd ‘sinew.’


  1. 297 WALK Haida q´aa ∼ qa, Athabaskan: Kato qal ∼ qa¬. [S96]
  2. 298 WASP Haida sral, Athabaskan: Tsetsaut tsr¯ama÷.
  3. 299 WATER1 Haida s¯u ∼ s´uu ∼ shoo ‘lake,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi t´u, Carrier tuu, Slave tu÷, Tlatskanai t¯u, Galice tuu, Hupa too, Mattole to÷, Navajo t´o.
  4. 300 WATER2 Haida ¿an-tl ‘water, river,’ Tlingit hain ∼ hin ‘water, river,’ Eyak ÷¯˜a ‘river.’
  5. 301 WATER3 Haida tA˜n ‘sea water,’ Eyak t˜a ∼ t’˜a ‘waves,’ Athabaskan: Galice ta-. [S61]
  6. 302 WAX1 Haida gy´aa ‘tallow,’ Tlingit k’uχu ‘pitch,’ Eyak gahG ‘pitch.’
  7. 303 WAX2 Eyak s˜ıhχ ‘resin,’ Athabaskan: Sarsi dz`ah ‘pitch,’ Chipewyan dz´è ‘gum,’ Tsetsaut tsè’ ‘pitch,’ Galice seh ‘pitch, gum,’ Hupa dˇzeh ‘pitch,’ Navajo ˇj¯eh ‘pitch.’
  8. 304 WE1 Tlingit gigwann ∼ yehwenn ‘you,’ Eyak kh¯uinkhan, Athabaskan: Tanana xweni, Hare naxeni, Tsetsaut daxòne, Wailaki nehiÑ , Lipan n`ah´ı.
  9. 305 WE2 Haida iitl’ ‘us,’ Proto-Athabaskan *-ii’d (< -iit’), Navajo -iid-. [P4]
  10. 306 WET1 Haida tl’akdaa ‘soak,’ Tlingit tl’ak’, Eyak ¬q’´u ‘become damp.’
  11. 307 WET2 Haida t’i¬ ‘wet on surface,’ Athabaskan: Kato ˇcël ∼ ˇcë¬, Mattole ˇcil ∼ ˇc¯el.
  12. 308 WHAT1 Haida g¯osu ∼ guus, Tlingit kusu ∼ g`us´ú ∼ g`u.
  13. 309 WHAT2 Tlingit da:, Proto-Athabaskan *da. [S6]
  14. 310 WHEN Haida dlu, Athabaskan: Slave ÷ èdl´a´u.
  15. 311 WHERE Haida tl’aan, Athabaskan: Chipewyan ÷ èdl˜ıni.
  16. 312 WIND Eyak k’uy, Athabaskan: Ahtena ¬-ts’ih, Sarsi -ts’¯ı, Kato -ˇcii, Navajo ´n¬-ˇc’`¯ı.
  17. 313 WISH Haida sdahl´aa ∼ sda¬ä ‘wish, want,’ Athabaskan: Galice ta¬.
  18. 314 WITH Haida -ee¬ ∼ -´a¬ ∼ -¬, Tlingit -(ii)n, Proto-Athabaskan *-¬, Navajo -(i)¬. [S38, P3]
  19. 315 WOLF Haida ¿´uuts ∼ h¯uts ∼ h¯odz, Tlingit k¯utsh ∼ k’utsch ∼ k¯udsh, Eyak kuutschi.
  20. 316 WOMAN Haida ˇj´aadaa ∼ ˇjat, Tlingit ˇs´αt ‘wife,’ Eyak syet ∼ syot, Athabaskan: Navajo ’as-dz´an´ı. [P8]
  21. 317 WOOD1 Haida q’aw, Tlingit χaw ‘log,’ Eyak q’a÷ ‘bushes.’
  22. 318 WOOD2 Haida tsan-oo ∼ tshano, Athabaskan: Kutchin dë-ˇcan, Chipewyan d`è-ˇc`ın, Galice ˇcan, Mattole ˇcjiÑ , Navajo ts`ın, Lipan -ts˜ı˜ı.
  23. 319 WORM Haida k’´aam ‘bug,’ Eyak Gëma.


  1. 320 YELLOW Haida kun-tlulh ∼ q’an-hlahliaa, Tlingit tl’atl’.
  2. 321 YESTERDAY1 Haida ta-gha, Tlingit tätg´è ∼ tat-keh.
  3. 322 YESTERDAY2 Haida utahl ∼ adahl ∼ tahtla-lees-ta, Eyak tlehatl.
  4. 323 YOU Haida dalE˜n ∼ dal´ang, t’alE˜ngua ‘we,’ Athabaskan: Tlatskanai¬an.
  5. 324 YOUNG Tlingit y´ıs, Athabaskan: Kato yaˇsts.


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