Типологии дене-кавказских праязыков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по сино-кавказским языкам
Главная > Словари праязыков > Типы китайско-кавказских языков
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Дене-кавказской (Сино-кавказской) суперсемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X тибето-кавказо-атабаскских языковых систем, распределённых по 6 семьям:

  1. Краткий типологический обзор языка басков (Basque)
  2. Краткие типологические обзоры языков (Северо-)кавказской макросемьи (Caucasian)
  3. Краткие типологические обзоры диалектов бурушаски (Burushaski)
  4. Краткие типологические обзоры енисейских языков (Yeniseian)
  5. Краткие типологические обзоры сино-тибетских языков (Sino-Tibetan)
  6. Краткие типологические обзоры языков на-дене (Na-Dene)


Краткий типологический обзор языка басков

Number: 1600
Language: Basque
Location: N Spain
Population: 1 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian Dictionary: Arbelaitz, O.M. 1968. Diccionario castellano-vasco y vasco-castellano. Bilbao: La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca. Eiguren, Joe V. ed, 1974. English-Basque, Basque-English Dictionary. Nampa, Idaho: Basque Publications. Grammar: N'Diaye, Geneviиve. 1970. Structure de dialecte basque de Maya. The Hague: Mouton. Lafitte, Pierre. 1962. Grammaire basque. Bayonne, Ikas.
TextBooks: Lopez Mendizбbal, Isaac 1949. La lengua vasca. Buenos Aires: Editorial Vasca Ekin. Eiguren, Joe V. 1974. How to Learn to Speak Basque. Nampa, Idaho: Basque Publications.
Other Sources: Lochak, Dorita. 1960. "Basque Phonemics," AL 2:3, 12-31. Bouda. Karl. 1949. Baskisch-kaukasische Etymologien. Heidelbeng. AL 6:8 & 8:3.
Consonant system: p t̪ (c) k b d̪ (ɟ) ɡ ts (ṭs) č (f) s (ṣ) š x m n̪ ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ (c) (ɟ) k ɡ Affricates: ts (ṭs) č Fricatives: (f) s (ṣ) š x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: Erg

Краткие типологические обзоры языков (Северо-)кавказской макросемьи

Number: 1601
Language: Ubyx
Location: SW Russia (Abxaz ASSR)
Population: extinct (1992)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest Dictionary: Vogt, Hans. 1963. Dictionnaire de la langue oubykh. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Grammar: Dumézil, Georges. 1931. La langue des oubykhs. Paris: Champion. Kumaxov, M. A. 1967. "Ubyxskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 689-704.
Other Sources: Dumézil, G. and A. Namitok. 1954. "Le système des sons de l'oubykh," Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris 50. Paris, Catherine. 1974. Système phonologique et phénomènes phonétiques dans le parler besney de Zennun Köyü (Tcherkesse oriental). Paris: Klincksieck. Dumézil, Georges. 1975. Le verbe oubykh. Paris: Klincksieck. AL 6:8
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ tlʔ ṭsḥ ṭsʔ čh čʔ dz ḍz ɡ̌ f s ṣ ṣʔ z m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz tlʔ ṭsh ṭsʔ ḍz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z ṣ ṣʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj čh cʔ ɡ̌ š ž kh kʔ ɡ x qh qʔ χ ʁ cʷ = th tʔ d tsh tsʔ dz s z ṣ ẓ ṣʔ kh kʔ ɡ x qh qʔ cɒ (pharyngealized) ph pʔ b v m qh qʔ χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: ǝ a Central Vowels: ǝ a Long Vowels: ā Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA /(AN) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST Comments: The Ubyx lived, until 1864, on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, north of the Abxaz. In 1864 most of them moved to Turkey, where the last speaker died in 1992.
Number: 1602
Language: Abxaz Alternate Name: Abkhaz
Location: SW Russia (Abxaz ASSR)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest: Abxaz-Abaza Dictionary: Brazhba, X. S., ed. 1964. Russko-abxazskij slovar'. Suxumi. Grammar: Lomtatidze, K. V. 1967. "Abxazskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 101-22. Grammatika abxazskogo jazyka. 1968. Suxumi: Alashara.
Other Sources: Paris, Catherine. 1974. Système phonologique et phénomènes phonétiques dans le parler besney de Zennun Köyü (Tcherkesse oriental). Paris: Klincksieck. Dumézil, Georges. 1975. Le verbe oubykh. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj kh kʔ ɡ qʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ š ž x ɣ cʷ th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ qʔ tsh tsʔ dz š ž̌ x ɣ h ɦ Glides: j w
Vowel system: ǝ a Central Vowels: ǝ a Diphthongs: aj aw ǝj ǝw Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: hum non-hum Demonstratives: 3 [that yonder may be used as ref] Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1603
Language: Abaza
Location: SW Russia (Abxaz ASSR)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest: Abxaz-Abaza Dictionary: Tugova, V. B. 1967. Abazinsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Zhirov, X. D. and N. B. Ekba, eds. 1956. Russko-abazinskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Lomtatidze, K. V. 1967. "Abazinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 123-44.
Other Sources: Allen, W. S. 1956. "Structure and System in the Abaza Verbal Complex," Transactions of the Philological Society (Hertford). Dumézil, Georges. 1975. Le verbe oubykh. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š χ h z̪ ž ʁ ɦ m n̪̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj kh kʔ ɡ qʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ š ž x ɣ l cʷ = kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ š ž̌ x ɣ h ɦ Glides: j w Central Vowels: ǝ a Diphthongs: aj aw ǝj ǝw Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: a i Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1604
Language: Abaza Dialect: Tapanta
Location: SW Russia (Abxaz ASSR)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest: Abxaz-Abaza Grammar: Genko, A. N. 1955. Abazinskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ qh ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f fʔ s̪ ṣ̌ χ h v z̪ ʁ ɦ m n̪̪ l ɬ ɬʔ ɮ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ qh ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f fʔ v s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ χ ʁ h ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ ɬʔ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: ǝ a Central Vowels: ǝ a
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1605
Language: Adygh Alternate Name: Adyghe
Location: SW Russia (Adygej AO)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest: Circassian Dictionary: Vodozhdokova, X. D., ed. 1960. Russko-adygejskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Kumaxov, M. A. 1967. "Adygejskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 145-64. Jakovlev, N. and D. Ashxamaf. 1941. Grammatika adygejskogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Other Sources: Kumaxova, Z. J. 1972. Razvitie adygskix literaturnyx jazykov. Moscow: Nauka. Paris, Catherine. 1974. Système phonologique et phénomènes phonétiques dans le parler besney de Zennun Köyü (Tcherkesse oriental). Paris: Klincksieck. Dumézil, Georges. 1975. Le verbe oubykh. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z f s̪ š šʔ x χ h z̪ ž ɣ ʁ m n̪ l ɬ ɬʔ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š šʔ ž x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ ɬʔ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj čh čʔ ɡ̌ š ž cʷ pʔ tʔ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ tsh dz š šʔ ž x χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: ɨ ǝ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Long Vowels: ā Diphthongs: ej ew we ǝj ǝw
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N [1]/N-NUM [>1] POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1606
Language: Kabardian
Location: SW Russia (Abxaz ASSR)
Population: 270,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northwest: Circassian Dictionary: Kardanov, B. M. 1957. Kabardinsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Kardanov, B. M. and A. T. Bichoev. 1955. Russko-kabardinsko-cherkesskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Grammatika kabardino-cherkesskogo literaturnogo jazyka. 1957. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Shagirov, A. K. 1967. "Kabardinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 165-83.
Other Sources: Kuipers, Aert H. 1960. Phoneme and Morpheme in Kabardian. The Hague: Mouton. Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1970. Acoustic Features of Certain Consonants and Consonant Clusters in Kabardian," BSOAS 33, 92-106. Kumaxova, Z. J. 1972. Razvitie adygskix literaturnyx jazykov. Moscow: Nauka. Paris, Catherine. 1974. Système phonologique et phénomènes phonétiques dans le parler besney de Zennun Köyü (tcherkesse oriental). Paris: Klincksieck. Dumézil, Georges. 1975. Le verbe oubykh. Paris: Klincksieck. AL 6:8
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ ʔʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f fʔ s š šʔ v z m n̪ l ɬ ɬʔ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ khʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ ʔʷ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f fʔ v s z š šʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ ɬʔ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: ǝ a Central Vowels: ǝ a Long Vowels: (ı̄) (ē) ā (ū) (ō)
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: penult/antepenut
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 [yonder = ref] Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1607
Language: Bats Alternate Name: Tsova-Tush
Location: Georgia
Population: 3,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Nax Grammar: Desheriev, J. D. 1953. Batsbijskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Desheriev, J. D. 1967. "Batsbijskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 228-46.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ m n l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t tʔ d n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ õ ɑ̃ Diphthongs: ai ǝi ie oi ui ãi ẽi ĩe õi ũi Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7: m, f, non-rational beings, nature, things, objects, ideas Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST Comments: all bilingual in Georgian
Number: 1608
Language: Chechen
Location: SW Russia (Chechen-Ingush ASSR)
Population: 420,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Nax: Chechen-Ingush Dictionary: Matsiev, A. G. 1961. Chechensko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Desheriev, J. D. 1967. "Chechenskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 190-209.
Other Sources: Jakovlev, N. F. 1940. Sintaksis chechenskogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Chokaev, K. Z. 1968, 1970. Morfologija chechenskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Groznyj. Magomedov, A. G. 1974. Sistema glasnyx checheno-ingushskogo jazyka. n.p.: Checheno-ingushskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ d̪z ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ th d kh ɡ s z χ m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e ø o æ a Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ ı̄̃ ē̃ ā̃ ū̃ Diphthongs: ie uo oa uø ĩe ũo ũø iē uō u↔ō ĩē ũō ũ↔ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1609
Language: Ingush
Location: SW Russia (Chechen-Ingush ASSR)
Population: 158,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Nax: Chechen-Ingush Dictionary: Ozdoev, I. A. 1961. Orfograficheskij slovar' ingushskogo jazyka. Groznij. Ozdoev, I. A. 1980. Russko-ingushskij slovar'. Moscow: Russkij Jazyk. Grammar: Dolakova, P. I. 1967. "Ingushskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 210-27.
Other Sources: Magomedov, A. G. 1974. Sistema glasnyx checheno-ingushskogo jazyka. n.p.: Checheno-ingushskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ čh čʔ dz ɡ̌ m n̪ l r r̥ Stops: ph pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ ph th d kh tsh dz ɡ̌ s z m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ǣ ā Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ie uo oa ĩe
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6: m f... Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1610
Language: Avar
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 270,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Avar Dictionary: Saidov, M. S. and S. I. Mikailov. 1951. Russko-avarskij slovar'. Maxachkala. Grammar: Madieva, G. I. 1967. "Avarskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 255-71.
Other Sources: Bokarev, A. A. 1949. Sintaksis avarskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ khʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ t̪sh t̪sʔ t̄lʔ čh čʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ khʷ ɡʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ t̄lʔ čh čʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ tsh (tl) tsʔ tlʔ čh čʔ s š x χ χʷ ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but usually 1st or 2nd
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: masc, fem, non-hum Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfH *6mfH H=non-human
Syntax: SOV AN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1611
Language: Andi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Tsertsvadze, I. I. 1967. "Andijskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 276-92.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ khʷ kʔʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ t̪sh t̪sʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ ɡ̌ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ khʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b d kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ tsh tsʔ tlʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ s š x l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: diphthongs Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5: m f animate N (non-human) inanimate (2 classes) Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1mf 4ie 2mf 5 *3 *6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1612
Language: Botlix
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: GD: Gudava, T. E. 1962. Botlixskij jazyk. Tbilisi Gudava, T. E. 1967. "Botlixskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 293-306.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ t̄lh t̄lʔ čh čʔ k̄x k̄xʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ ɡ̌ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ t̄lh t̄lʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ k̄x k̄xʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ kʔ tsh tsʔ čh čʔ kx s š ç x ɬ tlh tlʔ kxʔ qχ qχʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ (õ) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: m, f, N (=things, phenomena, animals) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfH *6 H=non-human
Syntax: AN GN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1613
Language: Godoberi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Gudava, T. E. 1967. "Godoberinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 307-21.
Other Sources: Job, Michael, ed. 2004. The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus, Vol. 3: The Northeast Caucasian Languages, Part 1. Ann Arbor: Caravan Books.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ (t̪sh) t̪sʔ t̄l tlʔ čh čʔ k̄x q̄χ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: (t̪sh) t̪sʔ t̄l tlʔ čh čʔ k̄x q̄χ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ th q tsh tl čh kx s š ç x ɬ cj kh kʔ ɡ k̄ t̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: m, f, N (in pl only hum/non-hum) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1614
Language: Chamalal
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Magomedbekova, Z. M. 1967. "Chamalinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 384-399. Bokarev, A. A. 1949. Ocherk grammatiki chamalinskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ čh (čʔ) (qχ) qχʔ ɡ̌ s̪ s̪̄ʔ š š̄ʔ z̪ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ čh (čʔ) ɡ̌ (qχ) qχʔ Fricatives: s̪ s̪̄ʔ z̪ š š̄ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s sʔ (š) šʔ ç x (xʔ) ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (o) a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ ı̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5: m f n1 n2 n3 (pl: hum/non-hum) Demonstratives: 6 (2 + this above, this below, that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1615
Language: Bagulal
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Gudava, T. E. 1967. "Bagvalinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 351-67.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ ch cʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪sʔ tlʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ s̪ s̪̄ʔ š š̄ʔ z̪ m n̪ l ɬ̄ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ ch cʔ ɟ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sʔ tlʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ Fricatives: s̪ s̪̄ʔ z̪ š s̄̌ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ̄ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s š ɬ ç x sʔ šʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (o) a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū (ō) Nasal Vowels: ı̃ (ẽ) ã ũ (õ) ı̃̄ (ẽ̄) ã̄ ũ̄ (ȭ) Stress: phonemic?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: masc, fem, non-hum (In pl, hum/non-hum only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfH *6hH H=non-human Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1616
Language: Tindi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Gudava, T. E. 1967. "Tindinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 368-83.
Consonant system: p t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ (t̪sh) t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ k̄x qχ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: (t̪sh) t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ k̄x qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ts tl č kx s š ç x ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ̄v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all (ẽ̄ ȭ rare)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: m f N (pl: human/N only) Demonstratives: 6 (2 + this above, this below, that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class.
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1617
Language: Karata
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Magomedbekova, Z. M. 1967. "Karatinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 322-35.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ (t̪sh) t̪sʔ t̄lh tlʔ čʔ k̄x k̄xʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: (t̪sh) t̪sʔ t̄lh tlʔ čʔ k̄x k̄xʔ q̄χ q̄χʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ kʔ qχ qχʔ tsh tsʔ tlʔ čh čʔ kx s š ç x ɬ tlh Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ (ẽ) ã (õ) ũ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: m f N (pl: hum/N) Demonstratives: 4 (2 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfH 6hH
Syntax: GN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1618
Language: Axvax
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Andi Grammar: Magomedbekova, Z. M. 1967a. "Axvaxskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 336-50. Magomedbekova, Z. M. 1967b. Axvaxskij jazyk. Tbilsi: Metsniereba.
Consonant system: ph (pʔ) t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ (t̪sh) t̪sʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ qχ qχʔ ɡ̌ s̪ š ç̄ x χ h z̪ ž ɣ ʁ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph (pʔ) b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: (t̪sh) t̪sʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ qχ qχʔ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ž ç̄ x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ kʔ q qʔ tsh tsʔ tl tlʔ (čh) (čʔ) (kx) s (š) ç x ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: masc hum, fem hum, non-hum [In pl only hum/non-hum] Demonstratives: 8 (3 + this not far, this above, this below, that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfH *6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1619
Language: Xvarshi Dialect: Inxokari
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Dido Grammar: Bokarev, E. A. 1967. "Xvarshinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 421-35.
Other Sources: TJD
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʷ t̪ʔ k kʷ kʔ qʷ q̌ʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʷ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʷ kʔ ɡ qʷ q̌ʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) all but ɨ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6: m f a i,diminutives, the words 'child' & 'family' Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mM *6mM [m=masc; M=non-masc]
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1620
Language: Dido Alternate Name: Tsez
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Dido-Hinux Grammar: Bokarev, E. A. 1967. "Tsezskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 404-20.
Other Sources: TJD Job, Michael, ed. 2004. The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus, Vol. 3: The Northeast Caucasian Languages, Part 1. Ann Arbor: Caravan Books.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f a i Demonstratives: 3: near/far/far invisible
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3(mM) *6(mM) m=masc; M=non-masc; in oblique cases only
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1621
Language: Hinux
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 200
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Dido-Hinux Grammar: Bokarev, E. A. 1967. "Ginuxskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 436-54.
Other Sources: TJD
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ qχʷ qχʔʷ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ qχʷ qχʔʷ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ d s n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e o ɑ Front Vowels: i y e Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: (v̰ (pharynɡealized) marɡinal)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f a i [f, a & i all contain inanimate nouns, i.e. gender is not semantically pure.] Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3ai *6 a=m+f+a
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1622
Language: Bezhta
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Bezhta-Hunzib Grammar: Bokarev, E. A. and G. I. Madieva. 1967. "Bezhitinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 455-71.
Other Sources: TJD
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ s̪ š χ h z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e ø o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ õ ɑ̃
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f animate/inanimate inanimate/abstract Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1623
Language: Bezhta Dialect: Tljadal
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Bezhta-Hunzib
Other Sources: TJD
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: i y u e ø o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ õ ɑ̃
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6: m f + 4 misc
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1624
Language: Hunzib
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Avaro-Andi-Dido: Bezhta-Hunzib Grammar: Bokarev, E. A. 1967. "Gunzibskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 472-87.
Other Sources: TJD
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ ɤ o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6: m f anim mixed1 mixed2 the word `child' Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1625
Language: Lak
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 64,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lak-Dargwa Dictionary: Murkelinskij, G. B. 1953. Russko-lakskij slovar'. Maxachkala. Xajdakov, S. M. 1962. Laksko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Zhirkov, L. I. 1955. Lakskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Murkelinskij, G. B. 1967. "Lakskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 488-507.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ tsʔʷ čh čʔ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ tsʔʷ čh čʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ph th kh qh ts č s š x χ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: ḛ ø̰ æ̰ only (pharynɡealized)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5: m f anim & inan, things & ideas, the word 'house' Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1626
Language: Dargwa
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 160,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lak-Dargwa Grammar: Abdullaev, Z. G. 1967. "Darginskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 508-23.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ d̪ ɡ G t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ G ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: ǝ̰ (pharynɡealized)
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: m f a+i Demonstratives: 4: near, far, above, below
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1627
Language: Dargwa Dialect: Kubachi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 160,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lak-Dargwa Grammar: Magometov, A. A. 1963. Kubachinskij jazyk. Tbilisi: Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ č čʔ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ph th kh qh s š x χ ts č Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: wa ja wi ji ju iw ij aj Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 3: masc hum/fem hum/non-hum (pl: hum/non-hum only) Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1628
Language: Archi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian Grammar: Xajdakov, C. M. 1967. "Archinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 608-26. Mikailov, K. S. 1967. Archinskij jazyk. Maxachkala.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ tl čh čʔ qχ qχʔ s š χ h z ž ʁ ʕ m n̪ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ tl čh čʔ qχ qχʔ Fricatives: s z š ž χ ʁ ʕ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized): all Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f an inan+diminutives (pl: 1 class) Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1629
Language: Xinalug
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian Grammar: Desheriev, J. D. 1959. Grammatika xinalugskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Desheriev, J. D. 1967. "Xinalugskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 659-75.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ čh čʔ qχh d̪z ɡ̌ m n l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ qχh Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ th tʔ kh qχh tsh čh cj kh kʔ cʷ p tsʔ s čʔ tʔ tsh š kh kʔ ɣ qʔ qχh Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y ɨ u e ø ǝ o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ǝ̃ ũ õ ɑ̃ Diphthongs: ui oi ai ãi (ũi) (õi) Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: masc hum, fem hum, anim, inan
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6hN m=masc M=non-masc h=m+f N=a+i
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1630
Language: Lezgi Alternate Name: Lezgian
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 220,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Dictionary: Talibov, B. and M. Gadzhiev. 1966. Lezginsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Gadzhiev, M. M. 1951. Russko-lezginskij slovar'. Maxachkala. Grammar: Mejlanova, U. A. 1967. "Lezginskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 528-44.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ č čh čʔ qχh f s̪ š x χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ l r Stops: p ph pʔ b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ k kh kʔ ɡ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ č čh čʔ qχh Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ t tʔ k kʔ ɡ q qχh qʔ ts tsʔ s z x χ ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: i y u e a Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: 2nd from beginning
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below) + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1631
Language: Lezgi Alternate Name: Lezgian Dialect: Kjuri
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 220,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Mejanova, U. A. 1970. Gjunejskij dialekt - osnova lezginskogo literaturnogo jazyka. Maxachkala.
Other Sources: Mejlanova, U. A. 1964. Ocherki lezginskoj dialektologii. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ qχ qχh dz ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ dz č čh čʔ ɡ̌ qχ qχh Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ts tsh tsʔ qχ qχh s z x ɣ χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e æ a Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ǣ ā ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: 2nd syllable from beginning
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: remnants of noun classes only Demonstratives: 8 (3 + that very far, that above, that way above, that below, that way below)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1632
Language: Tabasaran
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Zhirkov, L. I. 1948. Tabasaranskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Magometov, A. A. 1965. Tabasaranskij jazyk. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. Xanmagomedov, B. G. K. 1967. "Tabasaranskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 545-61.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ph th kh qh tsh čh čhʷ f s š šʷ x χ cʷ kh k̄h ɡ kʔ qh q̄h qʔ š s̄̌ ž χ ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: i y u e æ a Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: hum non-hum [no noun classes in the pl] Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3hH *6 h=hum, H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1633
Language: Agul
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Magometov, A. A. 1967. "Agul'skij jazyk," in JNS 4, 562-79. Magometov, A. A. 1970. Agul'skij jazyk. Tbilisi: Metsniereba.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ph th kh qh tsh čh čhʷ f s sʷ š x χ cʷ many Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e a Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) ?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: [fossilized traces of hum/non-hum] Demonstratives: 4(2+that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1634
Language: Rutul
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Dzhejranishvili, E. F. 1967. "Rutul'skij jazyk," in JNS 4, 580-90.
Consonant system: ph (pʔ) t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ G t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ (d̪z) ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ɣ m n̪ l r Stops: ph (pʔ) b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ G ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ (d̪z) čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t k q ts č ɣ h Glides: j
Vowel system: i y u e ø ǝ o æ a Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: ḭ ḛ ǝ̰ a̰ ṵ o̰ (pharynɡealized) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f a i [no noun classes for pl] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1635
Language: Tsaxur
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Talibov, B. B. 1967. "Tsaxurskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 591-607.
Other Sources: Ibragimov, G. X. 1968. Fonetika tsaxurskogo jazyka. Maxachkala.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š x χ h v z̪ ɣ ʁ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k q ts č s š x χ cʷ many Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ u Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) all v̰̄ o a only
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) [no CCVCC] Stress: second
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: masc hum/fem hum/anim/inan [pl: hum/non-hum] Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1636
Language: Kryts
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 6,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Saadiev, S. M. 1967. "Kryzskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 627-42.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ G t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x ħ h v z̪ ž ɣ ʕ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ khʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ qh qʔ G qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ ħ ʕ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i y ɨ u e ø o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f a i Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1637
Language: Budux
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Grammar: Desheriev, J. D. 1967. "Buduxskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 643-58.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ qχ qχʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x χ ħ h z̪ ž ɣ ʁ ʕ m n l r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z č čʔ ɡ̌ qχ qχʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y ɨ u e ø ǝ o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: masc hum/fem hum/neut1/neut2 (n1 & n2 contain animals, objects, ideas, and natural phenomena) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1638
Language: Udi
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 3,700
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Northeast: Dagestan: Lezgian: Lezgian Proper Dictionary: Gukasjan, Voroshil. 1974. Udinsko-azerbajdzhansko-russkij slovar'. Baku: Elm. Grammar: Panchvidze, V. N. and E. F. Dzhejranishvili. 1967. "Udinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 676-88.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ qh b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ qh Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ čh čʔ ɡ̌ š ž Glides: j
Vowel system: i y u e ø o æ ɑ Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Modified Vowels: ḭ ḛ ṵ o̰ ɑ̰ (pharynɡealized)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1639
Language: Burushaski Dialect: Werchikwar
Location: N Pakistan (Jasin)
Population: 40,000 (10,000)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian Dictionary: Lorimerm D.L.R. 1962. Werchikwar English Vocabulary. Oslo: Norwegian Universities Press. Grammar: GD: Berger, Hermann. 1974. Das Yasin-Burushaski (Werchikwar). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ th k kh q b d ḍ ɡ ts ṭs č ḍz ɡ̌ s ṣ š χ h z ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ th ḍ k kh ɡ q Affricates: ts ṭs ḍz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: m f x y [x y represent 2 classes] Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfai *6hai
Syntax: SOV POSS-N

Краткие типологические обзоры диалектов бурушаски

Number: 1640
Language: Burushaski Dialect: Hunza
Location: N Pakistan (Hunza)
Population: 40,000 (30,000)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian Dictionary: GD: Lorimer, D.L.R. 1935-38. The Burushaski Language 3 vols. Oslo: H. Aschehony. Grammar: Klimov. G.A. and D.I. Edel'man. 1970. Jazyk burushaski. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1945. "Notes on Burushaski Phonology," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 13, 61-95. Vogt, Hans. 1945. "The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives in Burushaski," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 13, 96-129. Borgstrøm Carl H. 1945. "The Categories of Person, Number and Class in the Verbal System of Burushaski," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 13, 130-47. Varma, Siddheshwar. 1931. "Burushaski Texts," IL 1, 256-82.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh q qh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh č̣ č̣h č čh ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ (f) s ṣ̌ š (x) h z ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ q qh Affricates: ts tsh č̣ č̣h ɡ̣̌ č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z ṣ̌ š (x) ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: ? Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f a i Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfai *6mfai
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: Erg
Prep/Post: POST

Краткие типологические обзоры енисейских языков

Number: 1641
Language: Ket Dialect: Imbat
Location: C Russia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Yeniseian Grammar: Krejnovich, E.A. 1968. "Ketskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 453-73
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d s x ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k q ʔ Fricatives: s x ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d s n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) [no ccvcc] Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 Gender is distinguished only in oblique cases.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1642
Language: Ket Dialect: Pakulixa
Location: C Russia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Yeniseian
Other Sources: Segal, D.M. 1968. "Fonologija ketskogo jazyka," in Ketskij sbornik, vol. 1, Moscow, Nauka, 26-74
Consonant system: t k q ʔ b d š h m n ŋ ʎ Stops: b t d k q ʔ Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ʎ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1643
Language: Ket Dialect: Sym
Location: C Russia
Population: 1,000 (8)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Yeniseian
Other Sources: Verner, G.K. 1968. "Sistema soglasnyx fonem symskogo dialekta ketskogo jazyka," in Ketskij sbornik, vol.1, Moscow, Nauka, 15-25.
Consonant system: t k ʔ b d č f s x m n ŋ l r Stops: b t d k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj d n l Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1644
Language: Ket Dialect: Sulomaj
Location: C Russia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Yeniseian
Other Sources: Krejnovich, E.A. 1969. "Medvezhij prazdnik u ketov," in Ketskij sbornik, vol. 2, Moscow, Nauka, 6-112.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ s x χ ɣ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Fricatives: s x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj t d s n l Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɯ ɤ ʌ Long Vowels: v̄ all but e o
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1645
Language: Ket
Location: C Russia (Yenisei River)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Caucasian: Yeniseian Grammar: Dul'zon, A.P. 1968. Ketskij jazyk. Tomsk: Tomsk Univ. Press.
Consonant system: t k q ʔ b d dj č f s x h m n ŋ l r Stops: b t d dj k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: aj ej ɨj ǝj oj ui ie oa ɨe ǝæ ǝa
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: a i Demonstratives: 3 [that=ref] Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Сино-тибетской семьи

Number: 2052
Language: Proto-Sino-Tibetan
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Sino-Tibetan
Other Sources: Benedict, Paul K. 1976. "Sino-Tibetan: Another Look," JAOS 96, 167-97.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ (ʔ) t̪s d̪z s̪ z̪ š ž h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Number: 2053
Language: Eryuan
Location: SE China (NW Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Bai
Consonant system:
Number: 2054
Language: Hoking
Location: SE China (NW Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Bai
Consonant system:
Number: 2055
Language: Bai2
Location: SE China (NW Yunnan)
Population: 900,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Bai
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2056
Language: Tali
Location: SE China (NW Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Bai
Consonant system:
Number: 2057
Language: Archaic Chinese
Location: China
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese
Other Sources: Benedict, Paul K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph (b) b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ c ch ɟ ɟ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ t̪s t̪sh d̪z d̪̤z ṭs ṭsh ḍz s̪ z̪ ṣ š x m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ (ɹ̣) Stops: p ph (b) b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ c ch ɟ ɟ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z d̪̤z ṭs ṭsh ḍz Fricatives: s̪ z̪ ṣ š x Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ
Tones: lev ris fall Comments: Archaic Chinese is estimated to have been spoken c. 1,000 B.C.
Number: 2058
Language: Northern Min
Location: SE China (N Fukien)
Population: 11 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
TextBooks: Chen, Leo and Jerry Norman. 1965. An Introduction to the Foochow Dialect. Washington, D.C.: Office of Education.
Other Sources: Norman, Jerry. 1972. "A Preliminary Report on the Dialects of Mintung," Unicorn 10, 20-35. AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ts tsh s z x m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: s z x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ei ai ɛu au ou øy uɔ yɔ ia ua ie io iu oi øi ui uei uai iei iau
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-lev-glot hi-fall mid-ris-glot mid-ris-fall lo-lev lo-rising Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 2059
Language: Southern Min Dialect: Amoy
Location: SE China (S Fukien)
Population: 36 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
Other Sources: Sung, Margaret M. Y. 1973. "A Study of Literary and Colloquial Amoy Chinese," Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1, 414-36. AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph b t th k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh s h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but o Diphthongs: ai au iu ia io iu ua ue ui ãi ãu ĩa ĩu ũa ũi uai iau uãi iãu
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-glot hi-fall mid-lev mid-fall-glot lo-mid-ris lo-mid-fall
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N
Number: 2060
Language: Southern Min Dialect: Ch'ao-chou
Location: SE China (E Kwangtung)
Population: 36 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz s h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã Diphthongs: ai au ou iu ui ia io ua ue ãi ãu õu ı̃o ũa ũe õi ɯ̃a iou uai uãi
Syllable: mˈ ŋˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-lev-glot hi-fall mid-lev mid-ris lo-lev lo-lev-glot lo-ris
Number: 2061
Language: Southern Min Dialect: Shangfeng
Location: Taiwan
Population: 36 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
Other Sources: Chang, Yü-hung. 1972. "Tone Systems in Shangfeng: A Southern Min Dialect," Unicorn 9, 41-54.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ts tsh s z h m n ŋ Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ŋ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev lo-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2062
Language: Southern Min Dialect: Taiwanese
Location: Taiwan
Population: 36 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
Other Sources: Cheng, Robert L. 1968. "Tone Sandhi in Taiwanese," Linguistics 41, 19-42.
Consonant system: p ph b t th k kh ɡ (ʔ) ts tsh dz s h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: ts tsh dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ia au iu ua ui ai io uǝ iau uai
Syllable: (C)V(C) mˈ ŋˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev lo-ris lo-fall neutral
Syntax: SVO AN
Number: 2063
Language: Southern Min Dialect: Hokkien
Location: Malaysia
Population: 36 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Min
Other Sources: Tay, Mary W. J. 1969. "Hokkien Phonological Structure," Journal of Linguistics 6, 81-8.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: 7 tones
Number: 2064
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Beijing
Location: N China (Hopei)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue Grammar: Chao, Yuen Ren. 1968. A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Henne, Henry, Ole Bjørn Rongen and Lars Jul Hansen. 1977. A Handbook on Chinese Language Structure. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
TextBooks: Chao, Yuen Ren. 1961. Mandarin Primer. Cambridge: Harvard Univ Press. De Francis, John. 1963. Beginning Chinese. New Haven:Yale Univ Press. Fenn, Henry C. and M. Gardner Tewksbury. 1967. Speak Mandarin. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. Forrest, R. A. D. 1965. The Chinese Language. London: Faber & Faber.
Other Sources: Newnham, Richard. 1971. About Chinese. Baltimore: Penguin. Howie, John Marshall. 1976. Acoustical Studies of Mandarin Vowels and Tones. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Chen, Matthew Y. 1976. "From Middle Chinese to Modern Peking," Journal of Chinese Linguistics 4, 113-277. AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh t̪s t̪sh ṭs ṭsh (č) (čh) f s̪ ṣ (š) x m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɹ̣ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh Affricates: t̪s t̪sh ṭs ṭsh (č) (čh) Fricatives: f s̪ ṣ (š) x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i y u ǝ a + apical vowel Front Vowels: apical vowel i y Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: ai au ei ou uo ua ye ie ia iau iou uai uei
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-ris lo-mid-fall-ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2 & 5 also have polite forms
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 2065
Language: Mandarin Dialect: P'ingtu
Location: E China (NE Shantung)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Hsueh, F. S. 1972. "The P'ing-tu Dialect as a Variant of Mandarin," Unicorn 10, 78-96.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh tθ tθh ts tsh ṭs ṭsh f θ s ṣ x m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh Affricates: tθ tθh ts tsh ṭs ṭsh Fricatives: f θ s ṣ x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i y Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʌ Diphthongs: ei ou uʌ ie ye æi ia ua ɑu uei iou iɛi uæi iɑu
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev mid-fall
Number: 2066
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Lin-Ch'i
Location: E China (NW Honan)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Wang, John C. and F. S. Hsueh. 1973. "The Lin-Ch'i Dialect and Its Relation to Mandarin," JAOS 93, 136-45.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh ʔ ts tsh č̣ č̣h f s ṣ̌ ẓ̌ x m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh č̣ č̣h Fricatives: f s ṣ̌ ẓ̌ x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ɔ Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi-lev hi-mid-fall lo-mid-lev
Number: 2067
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Yangzhou
Location: E China (Kiangsu)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Børdahl, Vibeke. 1977. "The Phonemes and the Phonological Structure of the Yangzhou Dialect," Acta Orientalia 38, 251-320.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh (ʔ) ts tsh f s h m n Stops: p ph t th k kh (ʔ) Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? v̄̃ ? Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi-lev mid-fall lo-mid-ris lo-mid-fall
Number: 2068
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Hank'ou
Location: E China (Kiangsu)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh č čh f s š x m n ŋ ɬ Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i y Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Diphthongs: ai ei au ou ia io ie ua uɤ ye iau iou uai uei
Tones: hi-lev hi-mid-fall mid-ris lo-mid-fall-ris
Number: 2069
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Szechuanese
Location: SW China (Szechuan)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Scott, N. C. 1947. "The Monosyllable in Szechuanese," BSOAS 12, 197-213.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh ts tsh č čh f s z x m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f s z x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: ai au ei eu
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev lo-ris lo-fall
Number: 2070
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Ch'engtu
Location: SW China (Szechuan)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh č čh f v s z š x m n ñ ŋ Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f v s z š x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel1 apical vowel2 i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ei au ou ia ie ua ue yo ye iai iau iou uai uei
Tones: hi-fall hi-mid-lev mid-fall lo-ris
Number: 2071
Language: Mandarin Dialect: T'aiyüan
Location: N China (Shansi)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ts tsh č čh f v s z š x m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f v s z š x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel1 apical vowel2 i y Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ æ ɒ only Diphthongs: ai ei au ou ia iɛ ua uǝ yɛ iɒ̃ uæ̃ uɒ̃ iau iou uai uei
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall-to-hi-mid hi-fall-to-mid lo-mid-lev lo-lev
Number: 2072
Language: Mandarin Dialect: Dungan
Location: SC Russia (Kirgiz SSR)
Population: 680 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue Dictionary: Shinlo, L. and J. Janshansin. 1958. Russko-dunganskij slover'. Frunze. Grammar: Kalimov, A. 1968. "Dunganskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 475-88.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh č čh f v s z š ž x m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: cj p ph t th č čh š m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall lo-ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2* 5 3 6 politeness: 2fam & 2pol [2pol=5]
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 2073
Language: Xiang Alternate Name: Hsiang Dialect: Ch'ang Sha
Location: SE China (Hunan)
Population: 29 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh f s ṣ ẓ š x m n ñ ŋ Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: f s ṣ ẓ š x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: (apical vowel) i y Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Nasal Vowels: ṽ o only Diphthongs: ai ei au ɤu ia io ieua ya ye ĩe yẽ iai iɤu uai uei yai yei
Tones: hi-lev hi-mid-fall mid-lev lo-mid-ris lo-mid-fall lo-ris
Number: 2074
Language: Xiang Alternate Name: Hsiang Dialect: Shuang Feng
Location: SE China (Hunan)
Population: 29 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ f s ṣ ẓ š x ɣ m n ñ ŋ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s ṣ ẓ š x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel1 apical vowel2 i y Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã õ Diphthongs: ǝu iɛ ie iǝ io iʋ ua uɛ ue ui uɛ yɛ iɛ̃ iõ uã uı̃
Syllable: mˈ nˈ
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev mid-ris lo-mid-ris lo-mid-fall
Number: 2075
Language: Wu Dialect: Changchow
Location: SE China (SE Kiangsu)
Population: 69 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Chao, Yuen Ren. 1970. "The Changchow Dialect," JAOS 90, 45-56.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ t̪s t̪sh d̪z f v s̪ z̪ h ɦ m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ h ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ æ̃ õ Diphthongs: ia io ie ua uo ue ye ai ei au eu ũæ ĩo ũo uai iau ieu
Tones: hi-lev hi-glot hi-fall-ris hi-mid-lev lo-mid-ris lo-mid-ris-glot lo-ris
Syntax: SVO AN
Number: 2076
Language: Wu Dialect: Shanghai
Location: SE China (SE Kiangsu)
Population: 69 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Walton, Ronald. 1976. Phonological Redundancy in Shanghai. Ithaca: China-Japan Program, Cornell Univ.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh f v s̪ z̪ x ɦ m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ x ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Nasal Vowels: ã ɒ̃ Diphthongs: iy ia ua uɛ ue iǝ iɔ ũɒ ĩa
Syllable: CV(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-ris lo-lev lo-ris
Number: 2077
Language: Gan
Location: SE China (Kiangsi)
Population: 21 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh č čh f s š h m ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m ñ ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: apical vowel i y ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ia iɛ ua uo yo ai ǝi au ɛu ǝu iu ui iɛu uai uɛu
Tones: hi-lev hi-lev-short hi-mid-fall mid-fall lo-mid-ris lo-mid-fall-ris
Number: 2078
Language: Kejia Alternate Name: Hakka
Location: SE China (NE Kwangtung)
Population: 28 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue Dictionary: English-Hakka Dictionary. 1958. n.p: n.p. Grammar: Hashimoto, Mantaro J. 1973. The Hakka Dialect. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
TextBooks: Beginning Hakka. 1948. Hong Kong: Maryknoll House.
Other Sources: Henne, Henry. 1964. "An Annotated Syllabary of Sathewkok Hakka," Acta Orientalia 28, 61-127. AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh (ʔ) t̪s t̪sh f s̪ h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh (ʔ) Affricates: t̪s t̪sh Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ie ia io iu eu ai au oi ui
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev hi-ris-staccato mid-fall-legato mid-fall-staccato Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 2079
Language: Yue Alternate Name: Cantonese
Location: SE China (Kwangtung)
Population: 53 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue Dictionary: Huang, Parker Po-fei. 1970. Cantonese Dictionary. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
TextBooks: Chao, Yuen Ren. 1947. Cantonese Primer. Cambridge: Harvard Univ Press. [Reprinted 1969 by Greenword Press, New York] Lau, Sidney. 1972. Elemantary Cantonese. Hong Kong: Government Printer.
Other Sources: Kwok, Helen. 1971. A Linguistic Study of the Cantonese Verb. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, Univ of Hong Kong. Hashimoto, Oi-kan Yue. 1972. Phonology of Cantonese. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Fok Chan, Yuen-Yuen. 1974. A Perceptual Study of Tones in Cantonese. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, Univ of Hong Kong. AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ ts tsh f s h m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ø Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ɛ̄ ↔ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ɐi ɐu ei īu øy ɔ̄i ou ūi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev mid-ris lo-lev lo-ris lo-fall Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 2080
Language: Yue Alternate Name: Cantonese Dialect: Taishan
Location: SE China (Kwangtung)
Population: 53 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Sinitic: Chinese: Mandarin-Yue
Other Sources: Cheng, Teresa M. 1973. "The Phonology of Taishan," Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1, 256-322.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ ʔʷ č čh f š h m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɬ̪ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ ʔʷ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: iw ew aj aw uj oj
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-fall
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N
Number: 2081
Language: Pa-o Alternate Name: Taungthu
Location: Myanmar
Population: 211,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ č čh s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi hi-fall mid lo
Number: 2082
Language: Pho Alternate Name: Pwo Dialect: Bassein
Location: SW Myanmar
Population: 368,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ č θ s sh š x ɣ m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s sh š x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ɨ (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Nasal Vowels: ẽ ɛ̃ ǝ̃ õ ɔ̃ ɑ̃ Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2083
Language: Pho Alternate Name: Pwo Dialect: Moulmein
Location: SE Myanmar
Population: 368,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Other Sources: Stern, Theodore. 1968. "Three Pwo Karen Scripts: A Study of Alphabet Formation," AL 10:1, 1-39. Benedict, Paul K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ č θ s sh š x ɣ (h) m n (ñ) l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s sh š x ɣ (h) Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ɛ̃ ɨ̃ (ǝ̃) õ ɔ̃ ɑ̃ Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO NA N-NUM
Number: 2084
Language: Pho Alternate Name: Pwo Dialect: Sangkhlaburi
Location: W Thailand
Population: 368,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho
Other Sources: Stern, Theodore. 1968. "Three Pwo Karen Scripts: A Study of Alphabet Formation," AL 10:1, 1-39.
Consonant system: p ph ʔb t th ʔd k kh ʔ θ sh š x ɣ h (ɦ) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph ʔb t th ʔd k kh ʔ Fricatives: θ sh š x ɣ h (ɦ) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ɨ̃ ǝ̃ ũ õ ɔ̃ Diphthongs: ai ãi
Tones: hi-level hi-fall mid-lev lo-fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2085
Language: Pho Alternate Name: Pwo Dialect: Phlong
Location: NW Thailand (Chiang Mai)
Population: 368,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho
Other Sources: Cooke, Joseph R., J. Edwin Hudspith and James A. Morris. 1976. "Phlong (Pwo Karen of Hot District, Chiang Mai)," in PL C43, 187-220.
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh ʔ č čh fʷ vʷ s š x ɣ (h) m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: fʷ vʷ s š x ɣ (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but æ Modified Vowels: v̰ (ɡlottalized) all but i ɨ u Diphthongs: ai aɨ au a̰i a̰ɨ a̰u
Syllable: (C)(C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo falling
Syntax: SVO AN GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2086
Language: Leke
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho
Consonant system:
Number: 2087
Language: Phlon
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Pho
Consonant system:
Number: 2088
Language: Brec
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe
Consonant system:
Number: 2089
Language: Kayah
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Kayah
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2090
Language: Yinbaw
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Kayah
Consonant system:
Number: 2091
Language: Bwe
Location: Myanmar
Population: 47,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Bwe
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2092
Language: Geba
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Bwe
Consonant system:
Number: 2093
Language: Gekho
Location: C Myanmar
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Bwe
Consonant system:
Number: 2094
Language: Padaung
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Bwe
Consonant system:
Number: 2095
Language: Sgaw Dialect: Moulmein
Location: SE Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Sgaw Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Other Sources: AL 7:6
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ̪ k kh ʔ (č)(čh) θ s̪ sh (z) (š) x ɣ (ɦ) m n̪ (ñ) (ŋ) l r Stops: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ̪ k kh ʔ Affricates: (č)(čh) Fricatives: θ s̪ sh (z) (š) x ɣ (ɦ) Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)CV(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2096
Language: Sgaw Dialect: Bassein
Location: SW Myanmar
Population: 850,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Sgaw Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ θ s sh š x ɣ h m n ñ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Fricatives: θ s sh š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2097
Language: Pakü
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Sgaw
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2098
Language: Mopwa
Location: Myanmar
Population: 5,300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Karen: Sgaw-Bwe: Sgaw Grammar: Jones, Robert B., Jr. 1961. Karen Linguistic Studies. UCPL 25.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ ʔh č čh ɡ̌ f v θ s sh z š x h m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ ʔh Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ s sh z š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2099
Language: Proto-Tibeto-Burman
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman
Other Sources: Benedict, Paul K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ s̪ z̪ š ž h m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 2100
Language: Kaman Alternate Name: Miju
Location: India (Assam)
Population: 3,700
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic
Consonant system:
Number: 2101
Language: Hruso
Location: India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic
Consonant system:
Number: 2102
Language: Newari Alternate Name: Newar
Location: C Nepal
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Newari-Pahri
TextBooks: Sresthacharya, Iswaranand, Jagan Nath Maskey and Austin Hale. 1971. Conversational Newari. Kathmandu: SIL.
Other Sources: CSDP IV, 28-30.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̥ n n̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 this close, this, that, that distant
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 politeness: a three way distinction (familiar, respectful, high honorific) for some pronouns
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2103
Language: Pahri
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Newari-Pahri
Consonant system:
Number: 2104
Language: Digaro
Location: India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Digaro-Midu
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2105
Language: Midu Alternate Name: Idu, Mishmi
Location: India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Digaro-Midu
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2106
Language: Dhimal
Location: Sikkim
Population: 600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dhimal-Toto
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2107
Language: Toto
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dhimal-Toto
Consonant system:
Number: 2108
Language: Lepcha
Location: E Nepal
Population: 35,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi Grammar: Mainwaring, G. B. 1876. A Grammar of the Lepcha Language. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. [Reprinted 1971 by Manjusri Publishing House, New Delhi]
Other Sources: AL 7:6
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ṭ ḍ k kh ɡ ts tsh dz čh čh ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz čh čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2109
Language: Adi Alternate Name: Bokar, Abor Dialect: Gallong
Location: N India (Assam)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2110
Language: Tagen
Location: India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Consonant system:
Number: 2111
Language: Nishi Alternate Name: Dafla
Location: N India (Lakhimpur)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Other Sources: Ray, Punya Sloka. 1967. "Dafla Phonology and Morphology," AL 9:8, 9-14.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s x h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: ris fall
Syntax: N-NUM
Number: 2112
Language: Apatani
Location: India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2113
Language: Yano
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Consonant system:
Number: 2114
Language: Lho-pa
Location: India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Adi-Nishi
Consonant system:
Number: 2115
Language: Monpa Alternate Name: Tshangla
Location: India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2116
Language: Gyarung Alternate Name: Jiarong
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2117
Language: Kaike
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic
Consonant system:
Number: 2118
Language: Ghale
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic
Consonant system:
Number: 2119
Language: Tamang
Location: Nepal
Population: 39,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tamang
Other Sources: Everitt, Fay. 1973. "Sentence Patterns in Tamang," in PCSD I, 197-234. Taylor, Doreen. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Tamang," in CSDP II, 81-174.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh ts tsh s m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã Modified Vowels: v̤ (lax) all
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-fall lo-lev
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN/NG DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2120
Language: Manang
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tamang
Consonant system:
Number: 2121
Language: Gurung
Location: WC Nepal
Population: 170,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tamang Dictionary: Glover, Warren W., Jessie R. Glover and Deu Bahadur Gurung. 1977. Gurung-Nepali-English Dictionary. PL C51. Grammar: Glover, Warren William. 1974. Sememic and Grammatical Structures in Gurung (Nepal). SIL 49.
Other Sources: CSDP IV, 13-5.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh dz d̤z s̪ (h) m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z Fricatives: s̪ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ Modified Vowels: v̄̃ Stress: pitch accent
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-NUM/(NUM-N [if either the number or noun is a loanword from Nepali]) POSS-N D+A+N+Num Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2122
Language: Thakali
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tamang
Other Sources: Hari, Maria. 1971. A Guide to Thakali Tone. Kathmandu: SIL. [=PL A29, 23-51] CSDP IV, 17-8
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh č čh s h m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh Affricates: č čh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: v̤ (lax) there is a tense/lax distinction for all vowels
Tones: hi-ris lo-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2123
Language: Classical Tibetan
Location: Tibet
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan Grammar: Bernard,Theos. 1946. A Simplified Grammar of the Literary Tibetan Language. Santa Barbara: Tibetan Text Society.
Other Sources: Miller, Roy Andrew. 1970. "A Grammatical Sketch of Classical Tibetan," JAOS 90, 74-96.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ s z š ž x ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: many honorific pronouns
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2124
Language: Zhang-zhung
Location: Tibet
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan Grammar: GD: Haarh, Erik. 1968. The Zhang-Zhung Language. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ḍ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ s̪ z̪ š ž h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ḍ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p ph b b̤ k kh ɡ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM Comments: a sister language of classical Tibetan
Number: 2125
Language: Central Tibetan
Location: Central Tibetan
Population: 4 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan Dictionary: Bell, C. A. 1905. English-Tibetan Colloquial Dictionary. Calcutta. [Reprinted 1977 by Rakesh Press, New Delhi] Grammar: Bell, C. A. 1919. Grammar of Colloquial Tibetan. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.
Other Sources: Miller, Roy Andrew. 1955. "Studies in Spoken Tibetan (I)," JAOS 75, 46-51. Narkyid, Ngawang Thondup. 1978. "Aspects of Tibetan Syntax," The Informant 11:1. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan Univ. AL 7:5
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ s š ɦ m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɬ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below) + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2126
Language: Central Tibetan Dialect: Lhasa
Location: SE Tibet
Population: 4 million
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan
TextBooks: Chang, Kun and Betty Shefts. 1964. A Manual of Spoken Tibetan (Lhasa Dialect). Seattle: Univ of Washington Press. Goldstein, Melvyn C. and Nawang Nornang. 1970. Modern Spoken TIbetan. Lhasa Dialect. Seattle: Univ of Washington Press.
Other Sources: Chang, Kun and Betty Shefts. 1965. "A Morphophonemic Problem in the Spoken Tibetan of Lhasa," JAOS 85, 34-9. Shefts, Betty and Kun Chang. 1967. "Spoken Tibetan Morphophonemics: p," Lg 43, 512-25. AL 7:5
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh q qh ts tsh č čh s š h m m̥ n ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh q qh Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m m̥ n ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u I ʋ e ø ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i y I e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Tones: hi mid lo fall Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 politeness: + honorific forms for 2 3 5d 6d 5 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2127
Language: Central Tibetan Dialect: Sherpa
Location: NW Nepal
Population: 4 million (5,000)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan
Other Sources: Pike, Kenneth L. and Burkhard Schoettelndreyer. 1972. "Paired-Sentence Reversals in the Discovery of Underlying and Surface Structures in Sherpa Discourse," IL 33, 72-83. Pike, Kenneth L. and Burkhard Schottelndreyer. 1973. "Paired-Sentence Reversals," in CSDP I, 361-75. WPF
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ s š m n ñ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi-ris hi-fall lo-lev lo-ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2128
Language: Central Tibetan Dialect: Jirel
Location: Nepal
Population: 4 million (3,000)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan
Other Sources: Maibaum, Anita and Esther Strahm. 1973. "Jirel Texts," in CSDP III, 177-299.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ũ ã
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2129
Language: Central Tibetan Dialect: Lhomi
Location: Nepal
Population: 4 million (4,000)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan
Other Sources: Vesalainen, Olavi and Marja Vesalainen. 1980. Clause Patterns in Lhomi. PL B53.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh t̪s t̪sh č čh s̪ š h m n̪ ŋ l l̥ r Stops: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Tones: tense lax tense-ris lax-ris
Syntax: SOV GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2130
Language: Western Tibetan Alternate Name: Ladakhi Dialect: Kham
Location: E Tibet
Population: 200,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan Dictionary: Watters, David E. and Nancy Watters. 1973. An English-Kham, Kham-English Glossary. Kirtipur: SIL.
Other Sources: Ray, Punya Sloka. 1965. "Kham Phonology," JAOS 85, 336-42. Watters, David E. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Kham," in CSDP I, 39-202. AL 7:5
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ s z š ž x ɣ h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ ṛ̥ ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: ṛ̥ ṛ Modified Consonants: Nc = b d ḍ ɡ dz ɡ̌ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̤ (breathy, lax) all
Tones: hi-ris mid-fall Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2131
Language: Western Tibetan Dialect: Balti
Location: Tibet
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Bodic: Tibetan Grammar: Read, A. F. C. 1934. Balti Grammar. London: Royal Asiatic Society.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ (ḍ) k kh ɡ q ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ (f) s z ṣ̌ š ž x ʁ h m n̪ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ ṛ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ (ḍ) k kh ɡ q Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z ṣ̌ š ž x ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: + 2 honorific & 5 honorific
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2132
Language: Magar
Location: Nepal
Population: 500,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Other Sources: Shepherd, Gary and Barbara Shepherd. 1973. "Magar Texts," in CSDP III, 301-434. CSDP IV, 18-9. AL 7:5
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s sh h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s sh h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2133
Language: Raji
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2134
Language: Raute
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2135
Language: Kham Alternate Name: Parbate
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2136
Language: Vayu Alternate Name: Hayu
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2137
Language: Chepang
Location: Nepal (Makwanpur)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Central Himalayan
Other Sources: CSDP IV, 30-1. WALS
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: "Chepang might just be an incipient tone language." p.30
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2138
Language: Bunan Alternate Name: Gahri
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: North
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2139
Language: Thebor
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: North
Consonant system:
Number: 2140
Language: Sumchu
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: North
Consonant system:
Number: 2141
Language: Sungam
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: North
Consonant system:
Number: 2142
Language: Kanauri Alternate Name: Kinnauri
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Kanauri
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2143
Language: Chitkhuli
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Kanauri
Consonant system:
Number: 2144
Language: Tukpa Alternate Name: Nyamkad
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Kanauri
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2145
Language: Kanashi
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Kanauri
Consonant system:
Number: 2146
Language: Manchati
Location: N India (Himachal Pradesh)
Population: 4,400
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Manchati
Consonant system:
Number: 2147
Language: Chamba Alternate Name: Pattani
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Manchati
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2148
Language: Rangloi Alternate Name: Tinani
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Northwest: Manchati
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2149
Language: Rangkas
Location: India
Population: 600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Almora
Consonant system:
Number: 2150
Language: Darmiya
Location: India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1,750
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Almora
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2151
Language: Chaudangsi
Location: India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Almora
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2152
Language: Byangsi
Location: India
Population: 1,600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Almora
Consonant system:
Number: 2153
Language: Thami Alternate Name: Thangmi
Location: Sikkim
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Eastern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2154
Language: Bhramu
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: West Himalayan: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 2155
Language: Thulung
Location: E Nepal
Population: 8,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western Grammar: GD: Allen, N. J. 1975. Sketch of Thulung Grammar. Ithaca: China-Japan Program, Cornell Univ.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ẽ ǝ̃ ã ẽ̄ ã̄ Diphthongs: ea oa eā oā
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: tense lax Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2156
Language: Chaurasya
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2157
Language: Bahing
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Bahing
Consonant system:
Number: 2158
Language: Umbule
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Bahing
Consonant system:
Number: 2159
Language: Sunwar
Location: E Nepal
Population: 13,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Bahing
Other Sources: Schulze, Marlene and Dora Bieri. 1973. "Chaining and Spotlighting: Two Types of Paragraph Boundaries in Sunwar," in CSDP I, 389-99. Bieri, Dora, Marlene Schulze and Austin Hale. 1973. "An Approach to Sunwar Discourse," in CSDP I, 401-62. CSDP IV, 26-7.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ʔ ts dz s š h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: v̰ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2160
Language: Dumi
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Dumi
Consonant system:
Number: 2161
Language: Khaling
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Dumi
Other Sources: CSDP IV, 27-8. WALS
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2162
Language: Rai
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Western: Dumi
Consonant system:
Number: 2163
Language: Khambu
Location: E Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Khambu
Other Sources: Wolfenden, Stuart N. 1933. "A Specimen of the Sangpang Dialect," Acta Orientalia 12, 71-9. Wolfenden, Stuart N. 1934. "A Specimen of the Kûlung Dialect," Acta Orientalia 12, 35-43.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2164
Language: Nachereng
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Khambu
Consonant system:
Number: 2165
Language: Kulung
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Khambu
Consonant system:
Number: 2166
Language: Rodong
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2167
Language: Lambichong
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2168
Language: Athpare
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2169
Language: Lohorong
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Lohorong
Consonant system:
Number: 2170
Language: Yakha
Location: Nepal
Population: 1,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Lohorong
Consonant system:
Number: 2171
Language: Limbu
Location: Bhutan
Population: 21,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Lohorong Grammar: Das Gupta, K. 1968. An Introduction to Central Monpa. Shillong: North-East Frontier Agency.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ts tsh č čh ɡ̌ s z š ž h m n ñ ŋ l l̥ r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ei oi ai ui ǝi au ou ae
Tones: lev ris
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2172
Language: Waling
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Waling
Consonant system:
Number: 2173
Language: Rungchenbung
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Waling
Consonant system:
Number: 2174
Language: Kiranti Dialect: Camling
Location: Nepal
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Waling
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2175
Language: Dungmali
Location: Nepali
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: East Himalayan: Eastern: Bontawa: Waling
Consonant system:
Number: 2176
Language: Ch'iang
Location: China
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dzorgaic
Consonant system:
Number: 2177
Language: Dzorgai
Location: China
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dzorgaic
Consonant system:
Number: 2178
Language: Kortse
Location: SC China (NC Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dzorgaic
Consonant system:
Number: 2179
Language: Pingfang
Location: SC China (NC Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dzorgaic
Consonant system:
Number: 2180
Language: Thochu
Location: SC China (NC Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Tibetic: Dzorgaic
Consonant system:
Number: 2181
Language: Chutiya
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo
Consonant system:
Number: 2182
Language: Proto-Bodo
Location: NE India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1959. "Proto-Bodo," Lg 35, 433-53.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts dz s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: iǝ ai uǝ au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Number: 2183
Language: Bodo Dialect: Kachari
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 215,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo Dictionary: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1968. Boro Vocabulary. Poona: Deccan College.
Other Sources: Burton-Page, J. 1955. "An Analysis of the Syllable in Boro," IL 16, 334-44. Bhattacharya, Pramod Chandra. 1957. "Glimpses from Boro Folk Tales," IL 17, 240-4. Burling, Robbins. 1959. "Proto-Bodo," Lg 35, 433-53. AL 7:6
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ (ʔ) s z x m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: s z x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai au ǝi ǝu
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi-fall mid-fall Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2184
Language: Dimasa
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo
Consonant system:
Number: 2185
Language: Tripuri Alternate Name: Kokborok
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo
Other Sources: Karapurkar, Pushpa. 1972. Tripuri Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. WALS
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ t̪s d̪z s̪ š h m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɯ ʋ ɔ
Tones: mid lo
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2186
Language: Lalung
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo
Consonant system:
Number: 2187
Language: Moran
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Bodo
Consonant system:
Number: 2188
Language: Garo
Population: 412,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Garo Grammar: Burling, Robbins. 1961. A Garo Grammar. Poona: Deccan College.
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1959. "Proto-Bodo," Lg 35, 433-53. AL 7:6 WPF
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ ʔ ts dz s h m n̪ ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 2189
Language: Koch Alternate Name: Atong
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Garo
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins 1959. "Proto-Bodo," Lg 35, 433-53. AL 7:6
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ ts s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ǝi ǝu
Number: 2190
Language: Koch Dialect: Wanang
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Bodo-Garo: Garo
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1959. "Proto-Bodo," Lg 35, 433-53. AL 7:6
Consonant system: p t th k ts ɸ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t th k Affricates: ts Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ǝi ǝu
Number: 2191
Language: Tangsa
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2192
Language: Moshang
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Consonant system:
Number: 2193
Language: Shangge
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Consonant system:
Number: 2194
Language: Nocte
Location: India
Population: 19,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa Grammar: DG: Das Gupta, K. 1971. An Introduction to the Nocte Language. Shillong: North-East Frontier Agency.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh č čh ɡ̌ v s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: lev ris fall ris-fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN DN N-NUM/NUM+N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2195
Language: Konyak Alternate Name: Khiamniungan
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2196
Language: Wancho
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Consonant system:
Number: 2197
Language: Phom
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Consonant system:
Number: 2198
Language: Chang
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2199
Language: Mon
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Baric: Chang-Tangsa
Consonant system:
Number: 2200
Language: Meithei
Location: NE India (Manipur)
Population: 280,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga
Other Sources: Sinha, Kali Prasad. 1974. "Bishnupriya Manipuri: A Descriptive Sketch," IL 35, 185-99. Singh, Inder. 1975. Manipuri Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institutue of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p ph (b) (b̤) t th (d) (d̤) k kh (ɡ) (ɡ̤) ʔ č (čh) (ɡ̌) (ɡ̤̌) s š h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph (b) (b̤) t th (d) (d̤) k kh (ɡ) (ɡ̤) ʔ Affricates: č (čh) (ɡ̌) (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi-mid-fall mid-lev lo-mid-ris
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: GN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2201
Language: Mikir
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 154,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga Grammar: Grüssner, Karl-Heinz. 1978. Arleng Alam: Die Sprache der Mikir. Wiesbaden. Franz Steiner.
Consonant system: p ph b (b̤) t th d (d̤) k kh č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b (b̤) t th d (d̤) k kh Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid low Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2202
Language: Mru
Location: Bangladesh
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2203
Language: Yimchungru
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga
Consonant system:
Number: 2204
Language: Lotha Dialect: Hlota
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga
Other Sources: AL 7:6 WALS
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f v s z š h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2205
Language: Lophomi
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Sangtam
Consonant system:
Number: 2206
Language: Thukumi
Location: NE India (SE Nagaland)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Sangtam
Consonant system:
Number: 2207
Language: Pochuri
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Sangtam
Consonant system:
Number: 2208
Language: Ao
Location: NE India
Population: 64,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Ao
Other Sources: AL 7:6 WALS WPF
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f v s z š h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2209
Language: Ao Dialect: Chungli
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Population: 64,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Ao Dictionary: Clark, E. W. 1911. Ao Naga Dictionary. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.
Other Sources: Gurubasave Gowda, K. S. 1972. Ao-Naga Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s z m n ŋ l ḷ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Tones: lev ris fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2210
Language: Mongsen
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Ao
Consonant system:
Number: 2211
Language: Tengsa
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Naga: Ao
Consonant system:
Number: 2212
Language: Rengma
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Rengma
Consonant system:
Number: 2213
Language: Ntenyi
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Rengma
Consonant system:
Number: 2214
Language: Meluri
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Rengma
Consonant system:
Number: 2215
Language: Kezhama
Location: NE India (E Nagaland)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Simi
Consonant system:
Number: 2216
Language: Mao Alternate Name: Naga (Mao)
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Simi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2217
Language: Zumomi
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Simi
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 2218
Language: Angami
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Population: 43,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Angami
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1960. "Angami Naga Phonemics and Word List," IL 21, 51-60. Ravindran, N. 1974. Angami Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ pf bv ts dz č čh ɡ̌ f v s z š ž x m m̥ ɱ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: pf bv ts dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m m̥ ɱ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ie ǝi uo ou
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid-lev mid-ris lo-lev lo-fall
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2219
Language: Chakrima
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Population: 8,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Eastern Naga: Angami
Consonant system:
Number: 2220
Language: Maring
Location: NE India (Manipur)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Naga
Consonant system:
Number: 2221
Language: Tangkhul Dialect: Ukrul
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Population: 45,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Naga Dictionary: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1969. Tankhur Naga Vocabulary. Poona: Deccan College.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts č s š h m n ŋ r Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Tones: hi-fall lo-fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2222
Language: Kupome
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Naga
Consonant system:
Number: 2223
Language: Maram
Location: Myanmar
Population: 5,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Western Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2224
Language: Liangmai
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Western Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2225
Language: Nruanghmei
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Western Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2226
Language: Khoirao
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Western Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2227
Language: Zeme
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Western Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2228
Language: Kamhau
Location: W Myanmar (Chin)
Population: 65
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Other Sources: Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1965. Tiddim Chin: A Descriptive Analysis of Two Texts. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k ɡ ʔ ts v s z x h m n ŋ l lʔ Stops: p ph b t th d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l lʔ Glides: ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai au ei eu ia iu ou oi ua ui iai iau uai uau
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi-fall lev lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2229
Language: Ralte
Location: Myanmar
Population: 17,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2230
Language: Siyin
Location: Myanmar
Population: 3,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2231
Language: Thado
Location: NE India (Manipur)
Population: 34,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Other Sources: Thirumalai, M. S. 1972. Thaadou Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k ɡ ʔ č v s z x h m n ŋ l l̥ Stops: p ph b t th d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: lev ris fall
Number: 2232
Language: Vuite
Location: Myanmar
Population: 15,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2233
Language: Zo Alternate Name: Zome
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Northern Kuki
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2234
Language: Kyao
Location: NE India (Nagaland)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2235
Language: Lamgang Alternate Name: Lamkang
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Lamgang
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2236
Language: Anal Dialect: Bawm
Location: NE India (SE Manipur)
Population: 2,650
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Lamgang
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2237
Language: Kolhreng
Location: NE India (C Manipur)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Kolhreng
Consonant system:
Number: 2238
Language: Kom
Location: NE India (C Manipur)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Kolhreng
Consonant system:
Number: 2239
Language: Tarao
Location: NE India (SE Manipur)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Kolhreng
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2240
Language: Chiru
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2241
Language: Aimol
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 750
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Central
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 2242
Language: Purum
Location: Myanmar
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2243
Language: Langrong
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 6,250
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2244
Language: Southern Luhupa
Location: NE India (Manipur)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2245
Language: Hrangkhol
Location: Myanmar
Population: 8,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Western
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2246
Language: Biate
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2247
Language: Hallam
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Old Kuki: Western
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2248
Language: Langet
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki
Consonant system:
Number: 2249
Language: Mizo Alternate Name: Lushai
Location: NE India (Mizoram)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Mizo
Other Sources: Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1948. "Notes on the Syllable Structure of Lushai," BSOAS 12, 713-25. Bright, William. 1957. "Singing in Lushai," IL 17, 24-8. Burling, Robbins. 1957. "Lushai Phonemics," IL 18, 238-40. Weidert, Alfons. 1975. Componential Analysis of Lushai Phonology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. AL 7:6.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh k kh ʔ tl tlh č čh f v š ž h m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l̪ l̪̥ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh k kh ʔ Affricates: tl tlh č čh Fricatives: f v š ž h Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ɯ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ā ɯ̄ ɔ̄ Diphthongs: au ai eu ei ia oi ou ua ui āu āi ēi iā ōi iau uai
Syllable: C(G)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall lo-lev lo-ris Demonstratives: 6 (2 + yonder visible, yonder invisible, that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2250
Language: Zahao
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Mizo
Consonant system:
Number: 2251
Language: Hmar
Location: Myanmar
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Mizo
Consonant system:
Number: 2252
Language: Pankhu
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Mizo
Consonant system:
Number: 2253
Language: Paang
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Mizo
Consonant system:
Number: 2254
Language: Haka Alternate Name: Chin, Lai
Location: Myanmar
Population: 85,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Haka
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2255
Language: Shonshe
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Haka
Consonant system:
Number: 2256
Language: Mara
Location: N India (Assam)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Lakher
Other Sources: Parry, N. E. 1932. The Lakhers. London: Macmillan.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh č čh (ɡ̌) f v s z h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh Affricates: č čh (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Front Vowels: I ø ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 5 (this/that/yonder/up/down) + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2257
Language: Tlongsai
Location: India
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Lakher
Consonant system:
Number: 2258
Language: Hawthai
Location: N India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Lakher
Consonant system:
Number: 2259
Language: Sabeu
Location: N India (Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Central Kuki: Lakher
Consonant system:
Number: 2260
Language: Sho Alternate Name: Asho
Location: W Myanmar
Population: 95,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Other Sources: Stern, Theodore. 1962. "Language Contact between Related Languages: Burmese Influences upon Plains Chin," AL 4:4, 1-28. AL 7:6
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ s sh z z̤ š h ɦ m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sh z z̤ š h ɦ Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai ei ou au uɯ oɯ
Tones: hi fall
Syntax: SOV DN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2261
Language: Khyeng
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2262
Language: Khyang
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2263
Language: Thayetmo
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Consonant system:
Number: 2264
Language: Minbu
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Consonant system:
Number: 2265
Language: Chinbon
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Consonant system:
Number: 2266
Language: Lemyo
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Sho
Consonant system:
Number: 2267
Language: Chinbok
Location: W Myanmar
Population: 21,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Chinbok
Consonant system:
Number: 2268
Language: Ng'men
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Chinbok
Consonant system:
Number: 2269
Language: Khami
Location: Myanmar
Population: 20,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Khami Grammar: GD: Shafer, Robert. 1944. "Khimi Grammar and Vocabulary," BSOAS 11, 386-434.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q ʔ č čh v s z h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ai au
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2270
Language: Khumi
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Khami
Consonant system:
Number: 2271
Language: Ngala
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kuki-Naga: Southern Kuki: Khami
Consonant system:
Number: 2272
Language: Taman
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2273
Language: Chairel
Location: N India (SE Assam)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2274
Language: Jinghpaw Alternate Name: Jingpho
Location: N Myanmar
Population: 170,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Kachin
Other Sources: AL 7:6
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ kj ts č čh ɡ̌ v s z š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ kj Affricates: ts č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Syntax: SOV AN
Number: 2275
Language: Hkauri
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Kachin
Consonant system:
Number: 2276
Language: Hka-hku
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Kachin
Consonant system:
Number: 2277
Language: Jili
Location: Myanmar
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Kachin
Consonant system:
Number: 2278
Language: Andro
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2279
Language: Sengmai
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2280
Language: Kadu
Location: N Myanmar
Population: 228,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Other Sources: Brown, R. Grant. 1917-1920. "The Kadus of Burma," BSOAS 1:2, 1-28.
Consonant system: p ph b th tj d dj k kh ɡ ʔ s sh z š h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b th tj d dj k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s sh z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: ei ai aʋ oʋ
Tones: level fall
Number: 2281
Language: Sak
Location: Myanmar
Population: 35,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2282
Language: Chakpa
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2283
Language: Phayeng
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Luic
Consonant system:
Number: 2284
Language: Krangku
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2285
Language: Lungmi
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2286
Language: Nung
Location: N Myanmar
Population: 10,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2287
Language: Rawang Dialect: Mutwang
Location: N Myanmar (Kachin)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Other Sources: Morse, Robert H. 1963. "Phonology of Rawang," AL 5:5, 17-41. Morse, Robert H. 1965. "Syntactic Frames for the Rvwàng (Rawang) Verb," Lingua 15, 338-69. AL 7:6
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ čh ɡ̌ s z š h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: C(w)V(N)(C)
Tones: hi mid lo neutral
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2288
Language: Zithung
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2289
Language: Trung
Location: China
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2290
Language: Metu
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2291
Language: Melam
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2292
Language: Tamalu
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2293
Language: Tukiumu
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Kachin-Luic: Rawang
Consonant system:
Number: 2294
Language: Moso
Location: S China (Yьn-nan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Moso
Consonant system:
Number: 2295
Language: Naxi
Location: China
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Moso
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2296
Language: Phun
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2297
Language: Achang
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2298
Language: Maru
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Northern
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1966. "The Addition of Final Stops in the History of Maru (Tibeto-Burman)," Lg 42, 581-6. Burling, Robbins. 1967. Proto Lolo-Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. WALS
Consonant system: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ ʔ tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ s š ɣ h m mʔ n nʔ ŋ ŋʔ l lʔ (ɹ̣) Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š ɣ h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ ŋ ŋʔ Laterals: l lʔ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ø) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au oi
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev low-fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2299
Language: Lashi
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2300
Language: Tsaiwa Alternate Name: Zaiwa
Location: N Myanmar
Population: 50,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Northern
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1966. "The Addition of Final Stops in the History of Maru (Tibeto-Burman)," Lg 42, 581-6. Burling, Robbins. 1967. Proto Lolo-Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. E
Consonant system: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ ʔ tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ v s š h m mʔ n nʔ ŋ ŋʔ l lʔ (ɹ̣) Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ ŋ ŋʔ Laterals: l lʔ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ui
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-fall lo-fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2301
Language: Burmese
Location: Myanmar
Population: 25 million [+3 million as a second language]
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Burmic: Southern Grammar: Stewart, J. A. 1955. Manual of Colloquial Burmese. London: Luzac & Company. Njun, Maun Maun, et al. 1963. Birmanskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury.
TextBooks: Cornyn, William S. and D. Haigh Roop. 1968. Beginning Burmese. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Other Sources: Jones, Robert B., Jr. and U Khin. 1953. The Burmese Writing System. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies. Becker, Alton Lewis. 1964. "Burmese Tonemics: A Discussion of Various Points of View," in Papers of the CIC Far Eastern Language Institute, ed. by Joseph K. Yamagiwa, Ann Arbor, 113-6. Zlatoverxova, V. G. 1966. Fonetika birmanskogo literaturnogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka. Cooke, Joseph R. 1968. Pronominal Reference in Thai, Burmese and Vietnamese. UCPL 52.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ θ s sh š h ð z m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ (r) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ ð s sh z š h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: (r) Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ʋ̃ Diphthongs: ai au ei ou ãi ãu ẽi õu
Syllable: (C)(G)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi-fall hi-fall-glott hi-checked lo-level
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl uncommon) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1mf 4mf 2mf 5mf 3 6 politeness: there are many special pronouns used in addressing priests, intimates, inferiors, etc.
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2302
Language: Daignet
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo
Consonant system:
Number: 2303
Language: Duampu
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo
Consonant system:
Number: 2304
Language: Nameji
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo
Consonant system:
Number: 2305
Language: Sihia
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo Grammar: Sofronov, M. V. 1968. Grammatika tangutskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ʔ ts tsh dz č čh ñɡ̌ v s z š h m n ŋ l l̥ r Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Glides: j ɨ̯ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ẽ ɨ̃ ã õ
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) NUM-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2306
Language: Pai-lang
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo
Consonant system:
Number: 2307
Language: Tosu
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo
Consonant system:
Number: 2308
Language: Thongho
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2309
Language: Pakishan
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2310
Language: Kangsiangying
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2311
Language: Kiaokio
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2312
Language: Nee
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2313
Language: Laichau
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2314
Language: Tudza
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2315
Language: Nuoku
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2316
Language: Liang-shan
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2317
Language: P'ou-la
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2318
Language: Sani Alternate Name: Yi
Location: SE China (SE Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2319
Language: Ulu
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern: Nasö
Consonant system:
Number: 2320
Language: Ko-p'u
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern: Nasö
Consonant system:
Number: 2321
Language: Weining
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Northern: Nasö
Consonant system:
Number: 2322
Language: Khoany
Location: NC Laos
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2323
Language: Mung
Location: NC Laos
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2324
Language: Lisu Dialect: Burmese
Location: N Myanmar
Population: 500,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1967. Proto Lolo-Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. AL 7:6
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ f s š x ɣ h m n ŋ l (ɹ) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɹ) Modified Consonants: cj cʷ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(G)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo mid-ris ris-fall-glot checked
Number: 2325
Language: Lisu Dialect: Thai
Location: N Thailand (Chiang Rai)
Population: 500,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Other Sources: Hope, E. R. 1971. "Problems of Phone Assignment in the Description of Thailand Lisu Phonology," in PL A29, 53-78. Hope, E. R. 1973. "Selected Phonological Rules for Thailand Lisu," in PL A30, 19-34. Hope, Edward Reginald. 1974. The Deep Syntax of Lisu Sentences. PL B34. Hope, E. R. 1976. "Lisu," in PL C43, 125-48.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ ts tsh dz f v s z x ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo mid-ris hi-fall Demonstratives: 4 (2 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2326
Language: Nyi
Location: SE China (SW Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2327
Language: Chökö
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2328
Language: Ahi Alternate Name: Axi
Location: SE China (SE Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2329
Language: Lolopho Alternate Name: Central Yi
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2330
Language: Phupha
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2331
Language: Phunoi
Location: NE Laos (Phongsaly)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Other Sources: Bradley, David. 1977. "Phunoi or Côông," in PL A49, 67-98. Ferlus, Michel. 1977. "Les pronoms personnels en phou noy," BSLP 72, 305-11.
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ̪ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ kʷ khʷ ʔ (f) s̪ s̪h (š) (x) (ɣ) h ɦ m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ (ñ) ñ̥ l l̥ Stops: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ̪ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ kʷ khʷ ʔ Fricatives: (f) s̪ s̪h (š) (x) (ɣ) h ɦ Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ (ñ) ñ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: cj p ph b m̥ (m) Glides: j j̥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã õ
Tones: hi mid lo-fall
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 2332
Language: Pyen
Location: EC Myanmar
Population: 1,300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Consonant system:
Number: 2333
Language: Bisu
Location: N Thailand (Chiengrai)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Other Sources: Nishida, Tatsuo. 1973. "A Preliminary Study of the Bisu Language," in PL A30, 55-82.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ t̪s t̪sh č čh (f) s̪ š h m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l̪ l̪̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh Fricatives: (f) s̪ š h Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Glides: j j̥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 5: this, that, that further, that even further, that furthest
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N [E says the language is SVO.]
Number: 2334
Language: Mpi
Location: Thailand
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Consonant system:
Number: 2335
Language: Khaskhong
Location: NC Laos
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Consonant system:
Number: 2336
Language: Hwethom
Location: NC Laos
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Phunoi
Consonant system:
Number: 2337
Language: Akha
Location: N Thailand (Chiangrai)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha Dictionary: Brun, Viggo. 1973. "An English-Akha Vocabulary," Acta Orientalia 35, 139-59.
Other Sources: Dellinger, David W. 1967. "Notes on Akha Segmental Phonemes and Tones," in PL A9, 35-43. Wyss, Peter. 1976. "Akha," in PL C43, 149-86.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ t̪s t̪sh d̪z s̪ s̪h z̪ x xh ɣ h m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z Fricatives: s̪ s̪h z̪ x xh ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: cj ? Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Modified Vowels: Vowels belong to one of 2 registers: (1) high = hollow, soft, breathy, (2) low = tense, restrained, choked. Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: C(G)V(N)
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2338
Language: Akha Dialect: Senchai
Location: N Thailand
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Other Sources: Katsura, Makio. 1973. "Phonemes of the Alu Dialect of Akha," in PL A30, 35-53.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ s̪ z̪ š x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ɑ
Syllable: (C)CV(C) mˈ
Tones: hi-ris mid-lev lo-fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2339
Language: Akha Dialect: Alu
Location: N Thailand (Chiengrai)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Other Sources: Katsura, Makio. 1973. "Phonemes of the Alu Dialect of Akha," in PL A30, 35-53.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ s̪ x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ɑ
Syllable: (C)CV(C) mˈ
Tones: hi-ris mid-lev lo-fall
Syntax: SOV NA
Number: 2340
Language: Akha Dialect: Northern
Location: E Myanmar (C Kengtung)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha Dictionary: Lewis, Paul. 1968. Akha-English Dictionary. CUDP 70.
Other Sources: Burling, Robbins. 1967. Proto Lolo-Burmese. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Lewis, Paul. 1968. "Akha Phonology," AL 10:2, 8-18. Wyss, Peter. 1976. "Akha," in PL C43, 149-86.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts dz č ɡ̌ (v) s z š x ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (v) s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p b m n Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɑ̃ Modified Vowels: v̰ (laryngealized): ḭ œ̰ ɛ̰ a̰ ṵ ɯ̰ o̰ ɤ̰ ɔ̰ Diphthongs: ai ao
Syllable: (C)V mˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: AN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+Num+N
Number: 2341
Language: Ako
Location: E Myanmar (E Kengtung)
Population: 800
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2342
Language: Asong
Location: E Myanmar (E Kengtung)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2343
Language: Phana
Location: N Laos
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Consonant system:
Number: 2344
Language: Menghwa
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Consonant system:
Number: 2345
Language: Hani
Location: SE China (S Yunnan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2346
Language: Lahu Dialect: Black
Location: N Thailand (Chiang Mai)
Population: 275,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Southern: Akha Grammar: Matisoff, James A. 1973. The Grammar of Lahu. UCPL 75.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q qh (ʔ) č čh ɡ̌ f v š ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q qh (ʔ) Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v š ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: aj (aw ew wi we wɛ wa)
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi-fall hi-fall-checked hi-mid-ris mid-lev lo-mid-fall lo-mid-fall-checked lo-lev Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 + indef
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2347
Language: Ugong
Location: Thailand
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Residual
Consonant system:
Number: 2348
Language: Manyak
Location: C China (WC Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Residual: Hsifan
Consonant system:
Number: 2349
Language: Horpa
Location: C China (W Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Residual: Hsifan
Consonant system:
Number: 2350
Language: Menia Alternate Name: Muya
Location: C China (WC Sichuan)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Residual: Hsifan
Consonant system:
Number: 2351
Language: Muli
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Burmic: Burmese-Moso: Burmese-Lolo: Lolo: Residual: Hsifan
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков на-дене

Number: 4639
Language: Haida
Location: SW Canada (Queen Charlotte Island)
Population: 200
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene Dictionary: Lawrence, Erma. 1977. Haida Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.
Other Sources: Sapir, E. 1923. "The Phonetics of Haida," IJAL 2, 143-58. Krauss, Michael E. 1964. "Proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the Problem of Na-Dene: The Phonology," IJAL 30, 118-31.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ (q) qh qʔ ʔ tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh m n ŋ l ʔl ɬ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ (q) qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: I ʋ ǝ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī (ē) ā ū
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: initial (generally)
Noun
Number: s p (pl for kinship terms only) Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N (more emphasis) D+N+A+Num Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4640
Language: Tlingit
Location: SE Alaska (Prince of Wales Island)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Na-Dene
Other Sources: Velten, H. V. 1939. "Two Southern Tlingit Tales," IJAL 10, 65-74. Velten, H. V. 1944. "Three Tlingit Stories," IJAL 10, 168-80. Krauss, Michael E. 1964. "Proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the Problem of Na-Dene: The Phonology," IJAL 30,118-31. WPF
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ d ɡ ɡʷ G Gʷ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ dz dl ɡ̌ s sʔ š x xʔ xʷ xʔʷ χ χʔ χʷ χʔʷ h hʷ n ɬ ɬʔ Stops: t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G qʷ qʔʷ Gʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sʔ š x xʔ xʷ xʔʷ χ χʔ χʷ χʔʷ h hʷ Nasals: n Laterals: ɬ ɬʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ɛ a ɑ Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɑ Stress: pitch accent (hi lo); one hi per word Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative:
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4641
Language: Eyak
Location: SE Alaska
Population: 1
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan-Eyak
Other Sources: Krauss, Michael E. 1965. "Eyak: A Preliminary Report," Canadian Journal of Linguistics 10, 167-87. Krauss, Michael E. 1964. "Proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the Problem of Na-Dene: The Phonology," IJAL 30, 118-31.
Consonant system: th tʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ (b)d ɡ ɡʷ G tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ dz dl ɡ̌ s š x xʷ χ h m n (ŋ) l ɬ Stops: (b) th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ ɡʷ qh qʔ G ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz tlh tlʔ dl čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ Modified Vowels: vʔ vh (v̰ v̤)
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4642
Language: Proto-Athabaskan
Location: Alaska
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan
Other Sources: Krauss, Michael E. 1964. "Proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the Problem of Na-Dene: The Phonology," IJAL 30, 118-31.
Consonant system: t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G qʷ qʔʷ Gʷ ʔ ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h n l ɬ Stops: t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G qʷ qʔʷ Gʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ṽ̰ all Modified Vowels: vʔ vh
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4643
Language: Tanaina
Location: SC Alaska
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanaina-Ahtna
Other Sources: Kari, James. 1975. "The Disjunct Boundary in the Navajo and Tanaina Verb Prefix Complexes," IJAL 41, 330-45.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ s š x χ h z ž ɣ ʁ m n l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4644
Language: Ahtna
Location: Alaska
Population: 250
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanaina-Ahtna
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4645
Language: Ingalik
Location: Alaska
Population: 150
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Ingalik-Koyukon
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4646
Language: Holikachuk
Location: W Alaska
Population: 12
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Ingalik-Koyukon
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4647
Language: Koyukon Dialect: Central
Location: Alaska
Population: 600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Ingalik-Koyukon Dictionary: Jones, Eliza. 1978. Junior Dictionary for Central Koyukon Athabaskan. Anchorage: Univ. of Alaska.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ɡ G ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ dz dl ɡ̌ s š x h ɣ m n ñ l ɬ Stops: b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ q qʔ G ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4648
Language: Upper Tanana
Location: Alaska
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4649
Language: Tanacross
Location: EC Alaska
Population: 65
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4650
Language: Tanana
Location: Alaska
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4651
Language: Upper Kuskokwim
Location: Alaska
Population: 150
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4652
Language: Northern Tutchone
Location: NW Canada
Population: 200
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tutchone
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4653
Language: Southern Tutchone
Location: NW Canada
Population: 200
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tutchone
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4654
Language: Tahltan
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 900
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tahltan-Kaska
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4655
Language: Kaska
Location: W Canada
Population: 400
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tahltan-Kaska
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4656
Language: Tsetsaut
Location: S Alaska
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Tsetsaut
TextBooks: Boas, Franz and Pliny Earle Goddard. 1924. "Ts'ets'aut, an Athapaskan Language from Portland Canal, British Colombia," IJAL 3, 1-35.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV NA GN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4657
Language: Umpqua
Location: Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: Oregon
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4658
Language: Tolowa Dialect: Chasta Costa
Location: N California
Population: 5
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: Oregon
Other Sources: Bright, Jane O. 1964. "The Phonology of Smith River Athapaskan (Tolowa)," IJAL 30, 101-7.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ tsʔ č̣ʔ č čh čʔ s ṣ̌ š x ɣ xʷ h m ʔm n ʔn l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č̣ʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š x ɣ xʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ ı̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C), but no CCVCC Nˈ Stress: pitch accent (hi lo)
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post: Comments: Most speakers of the Tolowa dialect (15 in all-1964) are over 70.
Number: 4659
Language: Tolowa Dialect: Tututni
Location: SW Oregon
Population: 5
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: Oregon
Other Sources: Golla, Victor. 1976. "Tututni (Oregon Athapaskan)," IJAL 42, 217-27. Jacobs, Elizabeth D. 1977. "A Chetco Athapaskan Text and Translation," IJAL 43, 269-73.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ t̪sʔ tlʔ ṭsʔ č čh čʔ s̪ ṣ š x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪sʔ tlʔ ṭsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s̪ ṣ š x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o
Syntax: SOV GN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4660
Language: Galice
Location: SW Oregon
Population: extinct (c. 1960)
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: Oregon Grammar: Hoijer, Harry. 1966. "Galice Athapaskan: A Grammatical Sketch," IJAL 32, 320-7.
Other Sources: Hoijer, Harry. 1973. "Galice Noun and Verb Stems," Linguistics 104, 49-73.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s z š h m n l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w w̥ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ō Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ʋ̃ ı̃̄ ã̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ea ai ao oi ei
Noun
Number: a few kin terms have a plural
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 4=5
Syntax: POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4661
Language: Hupa
Location: NW California
Population: 130
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: California
Other Sources: Woodward, Mary F. 1964. "Hupa Phonemics," in SCL, 199-216. Golla, Victor K. 1964. "An Etymological Study of Hupa Noun Stems," IJAL 30, 108-17. WPF
Consonant system: (p) t th tʔ k kh kʔ q (qh) qʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tlʔ č čhʷ čʔ s (š) χ (χʷ) h hʷ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: (p) t th tʔ k kh kʔ q (qh) qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tlʔ č čhʷ čʔ Fricatives: s (š) χ (χʷ) h hʷ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w w̥ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Lˈ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4662
Language: Mattole
Location: California
Population: 10
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: California
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4663
Language: Wailaki
Location: N California
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: California
Other Sources: Goddard, Pliny E. 1923. "Wailaki Texts," IJAL 2, 77-135.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ ɡ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š ɣ n ñ l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š ɣ Nasals: n ñ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syntax: SOV N-NUM Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4664
Language: Kato
Location: NW California
Population: 10
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Pacific Coast: California
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 *6
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4665
Language: Han
Location: EC Alaska
Population: 30
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Han-Kutchin
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4666
Language: Kutchin
Location: Alaska
Population: 2,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Han-Kutchin
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4667
Language: Hare
Location: NW Canada (Great Bear Lake)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Hare-Chipewyan
Other Sources: Hoijer, Harry. 1966. "Hare Phonology: An Historical Study," Lg 42, 499-507.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ ɸ ɸʷ s z š ž x ɣ h m n l ɬ r Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ ɸʷ s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w wʔ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ (ã) ũ Diphthongs: ie
Tones: hi low
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4668
Language: Dogrib
Location: W Canada
Population: 2,100
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Hare-Chipewyan
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4669
Language: Slave
Location: W Canada (N Alberta)
Population: 5,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Hare-Chipewyan
Other Sources: Howard, Philip G. 1963. "A Preliminary Presentation of Slave Phonemes," in Studies in the Athapaskan Languages, UCPL 29, 42-7.
Consonant system: p mb t th tʔ nd k kh kʔ ʔ tθ tθh tθʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ θ ð s z š ž x ɣ m n ñ l ɬ (ɹ̣) Stops: p mb t th tʔ nd k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: tθ tθh tθʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: θ ð s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi low Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4670
Language: Chipewyan
Location: W Canada (N Alberta)
Population: 5,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Hare-Chipewyan Dictionary: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1932. "A List of Chipewyan Stems," IJAL 7, 122-51. Grammar: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1946. "Chipewyan," in LSNA, 398-423.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ tθ tθh tθʔ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ θ ð s̪ z̪ š x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ h (m) n̪ l ɬ r Stops: p t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tθ tθh tθʔ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: θ ð s̪ z̪ š x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ h Nasals: (m) n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i ɛ a u only Nasal Vowels: ṽ i ɛ a u only v̄̃ i ɛ a u only
Tones: hi low
Syntax: SOV NA POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4671
Language: Beaver
Location: Canada (NE British Columbia)
Population: 300
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Beaver-Sekani
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4672
Language: Sekani
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Beaver-Sekani
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4673
Language: Chilcotin
Location: W Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 750
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Carrier-Chilcotin
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4674
Language: Nicola
Location: SW Canada
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Carrier-Chilcotin
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4675
Language: Babine
Location: SW Canada (WC British Columbia)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Carrier-Chilcotin
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4676
Language: Carrier
Location: W Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Carrier-Chilcotin Grammar: Morice, A. G. 1932. The Carrier Language. Vienna: Anthropos.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ θ ð s z š (ž) χ ʁ ʁʷ h m n ŋ l ɬ ɬʔ Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ ð s z š (ž) χ ʁ ʁʷ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɬʔ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ã õ Diphthongs: ai au ao ei iu (eo)
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: Vowels unclear
Number: 4677
Language: Kwalhioqua
Location: W Washington
Population: extinct
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Kwalhioqua
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4678
Language: Sarcee
Location: W Canada (Alberta)
Population: 50
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Canadian: Sarcee
Other Sources: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1931. " A Study of Sarcee Verb-Stems," IJAL 6, 3-27. Hoijer, Harry and Janet Joël. 1963. "Sarsi Nouns, " in Studies in the Athapaskan Languages, UCPL 29, 62-75.
Consonant system: (p) t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ s z š ž x ɣ h m n l ɬ Stops: (p) t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j (w) Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: āI ɑ̄I ʋ̄I ɑ̄ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi mid low
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4679
Language: Kiowa Apache
Location: Oklahoma
Population: 10
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Apachean Grammar: Bittle, William E. 1963. "Kiowa-Apache", in Studies in Athapaskan Languages, UCPL 29, 76-101.
Consonant system: p t tʔ nd k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ s z š ž x ɣ h m n l ɬ Stops: p t tʔ nd k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã õ ı̃̄ ɛ̄̃ ā̃ ũ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi low
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4680
Language: Eastern Apache
Location: New Mexico
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Apachean
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4681
Language: Western Apache
Location: SW Arizona
Population: 12,700
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Apachean Dictionary: Perry, Edgar. 1972. Western Apache Dictionary. Fort Apache, Arizona: White Mountain Apache Tribe.
Consonant system: b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ ʔ ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ s z š ž ɣ h hʷ m n l ɬ Stops: b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž ɣ h hʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: CV(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo (falling)
Noun
Number: number distinguished for boys, girls, children
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3ai *6 polite forms for 3 and 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 4682
Language: Western Apache Dialect: White Mountain
Location: Arizona
Population: 12,700
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Apachean
Other Sources: Greenfield, Philip J. 1973. "Cultural Conservatism as an Inhibitor of Linguistic Change: A Possible Apache Case," IJAL 39, 98-104.
Consonant system: p b mb t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ ts tsʔ dz tl tlh dl č čʔ ɡ̌ s z š ž ɣ h m n l ɬ Stops: p b mb t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlh dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels:
Syntax: SOV NA DN POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 4683
Language: Navajo
Location: Arizona
Population: 149,000
Classification: Dene-Caucasian: Na-Dene: Athabaskan: Apachean Dictionary: Haile, Berard. 1950-51. A Stem Vocabulary of the Navaho Language, 2 vols. St. Michaels, Arizona: St. Michaels Press. [Reprinted 1975 by AMS Press, NewYork.] Grammar: Reichard, Gladys A. 1951. Navaho Grammar. New York: J. J. Augustin. Haile, Berard. 1926. A Manual of Navaho Grammar. St. Michaels, Arizona: Franciscan Fathers.
TextBooks: Haile, Berard. 1941-48. Learning Navaho, 4 vols. St. Michaels, Arizona: St. Michaels Press.
Other Sources: Sapir, Edward and Harry Hoijer. 1967. The Phonology and Morphology of the Navaho Language. UCPL 50. Kari, James M. 1976. Navajo Verb Prefix Phonology. New York: Garland. Kari, James M. 1973. "Navajo Language Bibliography," Navajo Reading Study Progress Report, No. 22, The University of New Mexico.
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ khʷ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ s z š ž x ɣ xʷ h hʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ɬ Stops: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ khʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ xʷ h hʷ Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j ʔj (w) Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ai ao ei eo io oi
Syllable: CV(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo (ris & fall on long vowels)
Noun
Number: s d p for some kinship terms Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: /POST

Словники языков: праязыков | древних | угасших | современных | модельных
Типологии праязыков: койсанских | конго-кордофанских | нило-сахарских | ностратических...
Лингвистические страницы: Языки мира | Письменности | Интерлингвистика | Основания языка | Компаративистика | Контактология | Экстралингвистика | Лексикология | Грамматика | Фонетика
Полезные страницы: История | Регионы | Карты | Энциклопедии

© «Lexicons.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 14.09.2019
Метрика