Типологии индотихоокеанских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по андаманско-папуасским языкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X папуаско-андаманских языковых систем, распределённых по 4 семьям:

  1. Типобзор языка кусунда (Kusunda)
  2. Типобзор тасманийского языка (Tasmanian)
  3. Типобзоры андаманских языков (Andamanese)
  4. Типобзоры трансновогвинейских языков (Trans-New Guinea)

Странно, что здесь рассмотрены не все Типобзор языка кусунда

Number: 3593
Language: Kusunda
Location: W Nepal
Population: nearly extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kusunda Grammar: GD: Reinhard, Johan and Tim Toba. 1970. A Preliminary Linguistic Analysis and a Vocabulary of the Kusunda Language. Nepal.
Other Sources: Whitehouse, Paul, Timothy Usher, Merritt Ruhlen and William S-Y. Wang. 2004. "Kusunda: an Indo-Pacific Language in Nepal,'' Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 5692--5695.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b b̤ d d̤ ɡ ɡ̤ ts dz s (š) h z m n (ñ) ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s z (š) h Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Kusunda was long misclassified as a Tibeto-Burman language. Whitehouse, Usher, Ruhlen and Wang (2004) have shown that it is rather Indo-Pacific.

Типобзор тасманийского языка

Number: 3594
Language: Tasmanian
Location: Australia (Tasmania)
Population: extinct 1876
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian Dictionary: Plomley, N. J. B. 1976. A Word-List of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Languages. Hobart. Schmidt, Wilhelm. 1952. Die Tasmanischen Sprachen. Utrecht: Spectrum.
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1972. Languages of Australia and Tasmania. The Hague: Mouton. Dixon, R. M. W. 1979. "The Nature and Development of Australian Languages," ARA 8, 431-43. LOA
Consonant system: p t c k h ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t c k Fricatives: ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3
Syntax: NA ND N-POSS

Типобзоры андаманских языков

Number: 3595
Language: Aka-Cari
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3596
Language: Aka-Kora
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3597
Language: Aka-Bo
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3598
Language: Aka-Jeru
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3599
Language: Aka-Kede
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3600
Language: Aka-Kol
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3601
Language: Oko-Juwoi
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3602
Language: A-Pucikwar Alternate Name: Great Andamanese
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: 25
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central Dictionary: Man, E. H. 1919-23. Dictionary of the South Andaman Language.
Other Sources: Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1933. The Andaman Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Bloch, Jules. 1949. "Préfixes et suffixes en andaman," BSLP. Basu, Dwijendra Nath. 1955. "A General Note on the Andamanese Languages," IL 16, 214-25. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3603
Language: Akar-Bale
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3604
Language: Aka-Bea
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Great Andamanese: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3605
Language: Onge
Location: Andaman Islands
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: South Andamanese
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3606
Language: Jarawa2
Location: Andaman Islands
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: South Andamanese Grammar: GD: Senkuttuvan, R. 2000. The Language of the Jarawa. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t ṭ k (q) (ʔ) b d ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ts č f s v m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ ḍ̤ k ɡ (q) (ʔ) Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3607
Language: Sentinel
Location: Andaman Islands
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: South Andamanese
Consonant system:

Типобзоры трансновогвинейских языков

Number: 3608
Language: Oksapmin
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (N Western)
Population: 6,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea
Other Sources: Lawrence, Marshall. 1972a. "Oksapmin Sentence Structure," PL A34, 17-46. Lawrence, Marshall. 1972b. Structure and Function of Oksapmin Verbs," OL 11, 47-66. Lawrence, Helen. 1972. "Viewpoint and Location in Oksapmin," AL 14, 311-6.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ s x m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ x ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ʋ e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Diphthongs: ai
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN ND NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3609
Language: Morwap
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114.
Consonant system: p t k b ɡ f s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t k ɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: final
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3610
Language: Molof
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 3611
Language: Usku
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 3612
Language: Tofamna
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 3613
Language: Dem
Location: C West Irian
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3614
Language: Mor1
Location: C West Irian (N Bomberai Peninsula)
Population: 60
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3615
Language: Kovai
Location: Umboi Island
Population: 3,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3616
Language: Kate
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 6,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern Dictionary: Flierl, W. and H. Strauss, eds. 1977. Kate Dictionary. PL C41.
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS HPL WPF
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kp ŋmɡb ʔ ts dz f s h m n ŋ ľ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kp ŋmɡb ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5 [3 + that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3617
Language: Mape
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 4,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb dz f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: dz Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3618
Language: Dedua
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 4,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb dz f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: dz Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3619
Language: Sene
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 10
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 3620
Language: Momare
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 370
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 3621
Language: Migabac
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 3622
Language: Kube
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 5,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb f s z h m n ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d 5=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3623
Language: Kosorong Alternate Name: Borong
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Eastern
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb dz (f) s m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: dz Fricatives: (f) s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3624
Language: Ono
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb s z m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: [3 + that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3625
Language: Sialum
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 640
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3626
Language: Nomu
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 810
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3627
Language: Kinalakna
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3628
Language: Kumokio
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 550
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3629
Language: Selepet
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 6,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western Dictionary: McElhanon, K. A. and N. A. McElhanon. 1970a. Selepet-English Dictionary. PL C15. Grammar: McElhanon, K. A. 1972. Selepet Grammar. PL B21.
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1970b. Selepet Phonology. PL B14. McElhanon, K. A. 1970c. "Selepet Pronominal Elements," PL A26, 23-48.
Consonant system: ph mb t̪h n̪d̪ kh ŋɡ s h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph mb t̪h n̪d̪ kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: [3 + that above, that below] Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3630
Language: Timbe
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 11,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3631
Language: Komba
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 12,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kph ŋmɡb s z h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kph ŋmɡb Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3632
Language: Tobo
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 2,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb dz s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3633
Language: Yaknge
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb ts dz s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3634
Language: Burum Alternate Name: Mindik
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NE Morobe)
Population: 4,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: HPL
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb ts dz s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kph ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3635
Language: Mesem Alternate Name: Mese
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3636
Language: Nabak
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Huon: Western
Other Sources: Fabian, Edmund, Grace Fabian and Charles Peck. 1971. "The Morphophonemics of Nabak," Kivung 4, 147-60. McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb s z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: [3+that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3637
Language: Abaga
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Eastern Highlands)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre
Consonant system:
Number: 3638
Language: Nuk
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3639
Language: Nek
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3640
Language: Nakama
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3641
Language: Munkip
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3642
Language: Numanggang
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3643
Language: Sauk
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 630
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3644
Language: Gusan
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3645
Language: Finungwa
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 470
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3646
Language: Nimi
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3647
Language: Urii
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Other Sources: Claassen, O. R. and K. A. McElhanon. 1970. "Languages of the Finisterre Range-New Guinea," PL A23, 45-75. Webb, Tom. 1974. "Urii Phonemes," in Phonologies of Four Papua New Guinea Languages," Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 45-96. PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ (ʔ) f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on first long vowel or ɛ, o; if none, then initial)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3648
Language: Mamaa
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 210
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Erap
Consonant system:
Number: 3649
Language: Irumu
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Wantoat
Consonant system:
Number: 3650
Language: Yagawak
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NW Morobe)
Population: 560
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Wantoat
Consonant system:
Number: 3651
Language: Bam
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NW Morobe)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Wantoat
Consonant system:
Number: 3652
Language: Wantoat
Location: E Papua New Guinea (NW Morobe)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Wantoat
Other Sources: Davis, Donald. 1964. "Wantoat Verb Stem Classes and Affixation," in VSFNGL, 131-80. Davis, Donald R. 1969. "The Distinctive Features of Wantoat Phonemes," Linguistics 47, 5-17. Davis, Donald R. 1973. "Wantoat Paragraph Structure," Linguistics 110, 5-16.
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ s nz m n ŋ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s nz Nasals: m n ŋ Modified Consonants: cʷ kh ɡ ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ e æ a o only
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 5: [3 + that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d 5=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3653
Language: Ufim
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Morobe)
Population: 520
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3654
Language: Nahu
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 5,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3655
Language: Rawa Dialect: Northern
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 6,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Other Sources: Claassen, O. R. and K. A. McElhanon. 1970. "Languages of the Finisterre Range-New Guinea," PL A23, 45-75. McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b mb th d nd kh ɡ ŋɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b mb th d nd kh ɡ ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: [3 + that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 4d=4
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 3656
Language: Rawa Dialect: Southern
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 6,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Other Sources: Claassen, O. R. and K. A. McElhanon. 1970. "Languages of the Finisterre Range-New Guinea," PL A23, 45-75.
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3657
Language: Nekgini
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 430
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3658
Language: Neko
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 320
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3659
Language: Ngaing
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3660
Language: Gira
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 280
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Gusap-Mot
Consonant system:
Number: 3661
Language: Dahating Alternate Name: Gwahatike
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 920
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3662
Language: Bulgebi
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 50
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3663
Language: Guiarak
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3664
Language: Morafa
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 610
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3665
Language: Forak
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 160
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3666
Language: Degenan
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3667
Language: Yagomi
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 140
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3668
Language: Asat
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 660
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Warup
Consonant system:
Number: 3669
Language: Mebu
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 320
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3670
Language: Nankina
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3671
Language: Gabutamon
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3672
Language: Domung
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 630
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3673
Language: Bonkiman Dialect: (Yupna)
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Other Sources: PL A23, 64
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kph ŋmɡb ts dz s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ kph ŋmɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3674
Language: Wandabong
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 530
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3675
Language: Nokopo
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3676
Language: Kewieng Alternate Name: Yopno, Yupna
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 940
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Other Sources: McElhanon, K. A. 1973. Towards a Typology of the Finisterre-Huon Languages, New Guinea. PL B22. PLNGLS E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb (ts) s z h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: (ts) Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: [3 + that above, that below]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5=6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3677
Language: Isan
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Yupna
Consonant system:
Number: 3678
Language: Som
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 90
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 3679
Language: Sakam
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 690
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 3680
Language: Yau
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 3681
Language: Komutu
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 610
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 3682
Language: Weleki
Location: E Papua New Guinea (N Morobe)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 3683
Language: Wiru
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Southern Highlands)
Population: 16,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands
Other Sources: LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh m n ŋ l Stops: ph mb th nd kh Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Number: 3684
Language: Kenati
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Eastern Highlands)
Population: 550
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands
Consonant system:
Number: 3685
Language: Gants
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Kalam
Consonant system:
Number: 3686
Language: Kalam
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Kalam
Other Sources: Biggs, Bruce. 1963. "A Non-Phonemic Central Vowel Type in Karam, a 'Pigmy' Language of the Schrader Mountains, Central New Guinea," AL 5:4, 13-7. E
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ ɸ s m n ñ ŋ r Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: aj ej aw
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly final
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3687
Language: Kobon
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Kalam
Other Sources: Dawson, Marcus and May Dawson. 1974. "Kobon Phrase," in Grammarical Studies in Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 119-82.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3688
Language: Owena
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Eastern Highlands)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 3689
Language: Gadsup
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Gadsup
Other Sources: Frantz, Chester I. 1962. "Grammatical Categories as Indicated by Gadsup Noun Suffixes," OLM 6, 44-63. Frantz, Chester and Howard McKaughan. 1964. "Gadsup Independent Verb Affixes," in VSFNGL, 84-99. Frantz, Chester I. and Marjorie E. Frantz. 1966. "Gadsup Phoneme and Toneme Units, PL A7, 1-11. Frantz, Chester I. 1976. "Gadsup Sentence Structure," in Higher Level Studies of Two Papua New Guinea Related Highlands Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 73-191.
Consonant system: p t d k ʔ β m n Stops: p t d k ʔ Fricatives: β Nasals: m n Glides: j Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ā ō Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s d t p d=2 t=3 or several; p=>2
Pronouns: 1 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3690
Language: Gadsup Dialect: Agarabi
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 20,000 (11,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Gadsup Grammar: Goddard, Jean. 1974. "Notes on Agarabi Grammar," in Grammatical Studies in Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 75-118.
Other Sources: Goddard, Jean. 1967. "Agarabi Narratives and Commentary," PL A13, 1-25. Goddard, Jean. 1976. "Higher Levels of Agarabi Grammar," in Higher Level Studies of Two Papua New Guinea Related Highlands Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-72.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ɛ̄ ā ō
Tones: hi lo Articles: def indef
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3691
Language: Auyana Dialect: Usarufa
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 75,000 (1,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Gadsup
Other Sources: Bee, Darlene and Kathleen Barker Glasgow. 1962. "Usarufa Tone and Segmental Phonemes," OLM 6, 111-27. Bee, Darlene. 1965. "Usarufa Distinctive Features and Phonemes," PL A6, 39-68. Longacre, Robert E. 1972. Hierarchy and Universality of Discourse Constituents in New Guinea Languages: Texts. Washington, D.C: Georgetown Univ Press. AL 7:9 WPF
Consonant system: p ʔp t ʔt k ʔk ʔ (Some sources indicate that ǀʔp, ʔt, ʔkǀ are rather ǀb, d, ɡǀ, with ǀb, ɡǀ realized as (β, ð).) m ʔm n ʔn ɾ Stops: p ʔp t ʔt k ʔk ʔ (Some sources indicate that ǀʔp, ʔt, ʔkǀ are rather ǀb, d, ɡǀ, with ǀb, ɡǀ realized as (β, ð).) Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n Glides: j ʔj w ʔw Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo fall
Pronouns: 1 4d 4t 4 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N & Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3692
Language: Awa
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Eastern Highlands)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Gadsup Dictionary: Loving, Richard and Aretta Loving. 1975. Awa Dictionary. PL C30.
Other Sources: Loving, Richard and Aretta Loving. 1962. "A Preliminary Survey of Awa Noun Suffixes," OLM 6, 28-43. Loving, Richard and Howard McKaughan. 1964. "Awa Verbs," in VSFNGL, 1-44. Loving, Richard E. 1966. "Awa Phonemes, Tonemes and Tonally Differentiated Allomorphs," PL A7, 23-32. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t k ɡ ʔ ts m n ɾ Stops: p b t k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(N,ʔ)
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s d t p Demonstratives: 5: [2 + that level over there, that above over there, that below over there] + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 4=5
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3693
Language: Tairora
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Eastern Highlands)
Population: 8,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Tairora
Other Sources: Vincent, Alex and Lois Vincent. 1962. "Introductory Notes on Tairora Verb Morphology and Syntax," OLM 6, 4-27. Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2. WPF
Consonant system: p b mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ h m n ɾ Stops: p b mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3694
Language: Binumarien
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Tairora
Other Sources: Oatridge, Des and Jennifer Oatridge. 1966. "Phonemes of Binumarien," PL A7, 13-21.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ɸ s m n (ŋ) ɾ̣ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: ʔc ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ua au ai ia ui iu
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3695
Language: Waffa
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 950
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Eastern: Tairora
Other Sources: Stringer, Mary and Joyce Hotz. 1971. "Waffa Phonemes," Te Reo 14, 42-8.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ ɸ β β̃ s h m n ŋ ɾ ɾ̃ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β β̃ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̃ Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: ref
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3696
Language: Gende
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SC Madang)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2.
Consonant system: p b mb t nd c ɟ ñɟ k ɡ ŋɡ z m n ñ l r Stops: p b mb t nd c ɟ ñɟ k ɡ ŋɡ Fricatives: z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ŋɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3697
Language: Kamano
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 84,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2. Young, Rosemary. 1962. "The Phonemes of Kanite, Kamano, Benabena and Gahuku," OLM 6, 90-110.
Consonant system: p t k ɡ ʔ β f s z h m n ɾ Stops: p t k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β f s z h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ) Stress: phonemic
Number: 3698
Language: Kamano Dialect: Yagaria
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 84,000 (21,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central Dictionary: Renck, G. L. 1977. Yagaria Dictionary. PL C37. Grammar: Renck, G. L. 1975. A Grammar of Yagaria. PL B40.
Other Sources: Renck, G. L. 1967. "A Tentative Statement of the Phonemes of Yagaria," PL A12, 19-48.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ f v s h m n L Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: L Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ɛi ou aɛ ao
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: phonemic [stress and tones are linked]
Noun
Number: (s, d, p suffixes rarely used) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN(NA) GN DN N-NUM/(NUM-N) POSS-N(inalien)/N-POSS(alien) D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3699
Language: Kamano Dialect: Kanite
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 84,000 (3,400)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central
Other Sources: Young, Rosemary. 1962. "The Phoemes of Kanite, Kamano, Benabena and Gahuku," OLM 6, 90-110. McCarthy, Joy. 1965. "Clause Chaining in Kanite," AL 7:5, 59-70.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β f s h m n L Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: L Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ǝi ǝu
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3700
Language: Siane
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 16,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Siane
Other Sources: Lucht, Ramona and Dorothy James. 1962. "Phonemes of Siane," Te Reo 5, 12-6. WALS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) f s m n l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3701
Language: Yabiyufa
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Siane
Consonant system:
Number: 3702
Language: Gahuku
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 23,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Gahuku Grammar: Deibler, Ellis W., Jr. 1976. Semantic Relationships of Guhuku Verbs. SIL 48.
Other Sources: Young, Rosemary. 1962. "The Phonemes of Kanite, Kamano, Benabena and Gahuku," OLM 6, 90-110.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β s z ɣ h m n ɾ̣ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β s z ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: (w) Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ ɤ Long Vowels:
Syllable: [C]V[ʔ]
Tones: hi lo Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN[colors]) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3703
Language: Gahuku Dialect: Asaro
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 23,000 (14,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Gahuku
Other Sources: Strange, Gladys Neeley. 1965. "Nominal Elements in Upper Asaro," AL 7:5, 71-9.
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ ʔ β s z ɣ h m n ľ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s z ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals:Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s d p Articles: def indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3704
Language: Benabena Alternate Name: Dano
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Gahuku
Other Sources: Young, Rosemary. 1962. "The Phonemes of Kanita, Kamano, Benabena and Gahuku," OLM 6, 90-110. Young, Robert A. 1964. "The Primary Verb in Bena-Bena," in VSFNGL, 45-83. Young, Robert and Rosemary Young. 1965. "The Three Dimensional Classification System of Bena-Bena Nouns," AL 7:5, 80-3. Young, R. A. 1971. The Verb in Bena-Bena: Its Form and Function. PL B18.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β f s ɣ h m n ḷ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β f s ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals:Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ) Stress: phonemic Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d 5=6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3705
Language: Fore
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Eastern Highlands)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Gahuku Dictionary: Scott, Graham. 1980. Fore Dictionary. PL C62. Grammar: Scott, Graham. 1978. The Fore Language of Papua New Guinea. PL B47.
Other Sources: Nicholson, Ruth and Ray Nicholson. 1962. "Fore Phonemes and their Interpretation," OLM 6, 128-48. Scott, Graham. 1973. Higher Levels of Fore Grammar. PL B23.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ s̪ m n̪ Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Fricatives:Nasals: m n̪ Modified Consonants: Nc p t k ʔc (perhaps clusters) p t k m n j w Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ā ō Diphthongs: ae ai ao au
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic pitch accent Demonstratives: 9: this above close, that above distant; this here (close), that there (close), that over there (close); that over there (mid), that over there (distant); this below (close), that below (distant)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3706
Language: Gimi
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Eastern Highlands)
Population: 19,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: East-Central: Gahuku
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2.
Consonant system: p b t d k ʔ s m n r Stops: p b t d k ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3707
Language: Medlpa Alternate Name: Hagen, Umbu-Ungu Dialect: Gawigl
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Western Highlands)
Population: 100,000 (31,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central
Other Sources: Blowers, Bruce L. 1970. "Kaugel Phonemic Statement," PL A26, 1-12. E
Consonant system: ph mb t̪h nd kh ŋɡ t̪l n̪d̪z (ts) m n ľ L ɾ Stops: ph mb t̪h nd kh ŋɡ Affricates: t̪l n̪d̪z (ts) Nasals: m n Laterals: ľ L Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3708
Language: Chimbu Alternate Name: Kuman Dialect: Kuman
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 133,000 (66,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu
TextBooks: Trefry, D. and J. F. Trefry. 1967. Kuman Language Course. Port Moresby: Dept of Information & Extension Services.
Other Sources: Trefry, D. 1969. A Comparative Study of Kuman and Pawaian. PL B13. PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ s m n l L ɾ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l L Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 2=5 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3709
Language: Chimbu Dialect: Golin
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 133,000 (27,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu Grammar: Bunn, Gordon. 1974. Golin Grammar. Ukarumpa, PNG: SIL.
Other Sources: Bunn, Gordon, and Ruth Bunn. 1970. "Golin Phonology," PL A23, 1-7.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: on final hi tone Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3710
Language: Chimbu Dialect: Sinasina
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 133,000 (19,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversifacation in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3711
Language: Chimbu Dialect: Salt-Yui
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 133,000 (8,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu Grammar: Irwin, Barry. 1974. Salt-Yui Grammar. PL B35.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: ?3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 2 *3 Number is not distinguished in the pronouns. Irwin 1974, p. 32
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3712
Language: Chuave
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 24,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu
Other Sources: Swick, Joyce. 1966. "Chuave Phonological Hierarchy," PL A7, 33-48. E
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ɸ s m n (ľ) ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: ɸ s Nasals: m n Laterals: (ľ) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)(w)V(C)
Syntax: SOV NA POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3713
Language: Nomane
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Chimbu)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Chimbu
Consonant system:
Number: 3714
Language: Wahgi
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Western Highlands)
Population: 45,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Wahgi
Other Sources: Luzbetak, Louis J. 1956. Middle Wahgi Phonology. OLM 2. Phillips,Donald J. 1976. Wahgi Phonology and Morphology. PL B36.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ n̪d̪z s̪ m n̪ n ŋ l̪ l L Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: n̪d̪z Fricatives:Nasals: m n̪ n ŋ Laterals: l̪ l L Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo ris Stress: phonemic, but mostly final
Noun
Number: s p Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3715
Language: Nii
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Western Highlands)
Population: 9,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Wahgi
Other Sources: Stucky, Al and Dellene Stucky. 1973. "Nii Phonology," in Phonologies of Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 37-78.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ n̪d̪z s̪ m n̪ n ŋ ɬ̪ ľ L̥ ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: n̪d̪z Fricatives:Nasals: m n̪ n ŋ Laterals: ɬ̪ ľ L̥ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Diphthongs: ai ɛi ɛI oi oI ui ou
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi ris Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV N-NUM
Number: 3716
Language: Narak
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Western Highlands)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Jimi
Other Sources: Cook, Edwin A. 1967. "A Preliminary Statement of Narak Spatial Diexis," AL 9:6,1-29. Hainsworth, Joan. 1972. "Narak Noun Possession and Morphophonemic Rules," AL 14, 46-61. Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea HIghlands Languages. PL B2. E
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ndz s m n̪ n ŋ l̪ ľ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ndz Fricatives: s Nasals: m n̪ n ŋ Laterals: l̪ ľ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3717
Language: Maring
Location: C Papua New Guinea (E Western Highlands)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Jimi
Other Sources: Woodward, L. B. 1973. "Maring Sentences," in Three Studies in Sentence Structure, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 1-20.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Articles: indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3718
Language: Ganja
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: Central: Jimi
Consonant system:
Number: 3719
Language: Huli
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central Grammar: Rule, W. M. 1977. A Comparative Study of the Fee, Huli and Pole Languages of Papua New Guinea. OLM 20.
Consonant system: p mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ pɸ h m n ḷ ɾ Stops: p mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Affricates:Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: tones Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d 5=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3720
Language: Enga Alternate Name: Kyaka Dialect: Mai
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Enga Dictionary: Lang, Adrianne. 1973. Enga DIctionary. PL C20.
Other Sources: Hintze, Otto C. 1975. "A Phonemic Statement of Mai Enga," Kivung 8, 145-85. Lang, Adrianne. 1975. The Semantics of Classificatory Verbs in Enga (and Other Papua New Guinea Languages). PL B39. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ts ndz m n ñ ŋ ʎ ɾ̣ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ts ndz Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: ʎ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: cj b d ɡ k m ŋ p s t cʷ b d ɡ k m p s t Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d 5=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N+A+Num+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3721
Language: Katinja
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Enga
Consonant system:
Number: 3722
Language: Nete
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Enga
Consonant system:
Number: 3723
Language: Lembena
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Enga
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3724
Language: Ipili
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Enga
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3725
Language: Angal Dialect: Wela
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa
Other Sources: Rule, Joan. 1965. "A Comparison of Certain Phonemes of the Languages of the Mendi and Nembi Valleys, Southern Highlands, Papua," AL 7:5, 98-105. E
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ s z nz m n l ḷ̌ Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s z nz Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3726
Language: Angal
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1964. Phonological Diversification in Australian New Guinea Highlands Languages. PL B2. Rule, Joan. 1965. "A Comparison of Certain Phonemes of the Languages of the Mendi and Nembi Valleys, Southern Highlands, Papua," AL 7:5, 98-105. E
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ s nz m n l ḷ̌ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s nz Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3727
Language: Kewa Dialect: East
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 43,000 (20,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa
Other Sources: Franklin, Karl and Joice Franklin. 1962. "Kewa I: Phonological Assymetry," AL 4:7, 29-37. Franklin, Karl J. 1964. "Kewa Verb Morphology," in VSFNGL, 100-30. Franklin, Joice. 1965. "Kewa II: Higher Level Phonology," AL 7:5, 84-8. Franklin, Karl J. 1967. "Kewa Sentence Structure," PL A13, 27-59.
Consonant system: mb t nd c k ɸ s x m n ñ ľ ɾ Stops: mb t nd c k Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3=6d
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3728
Language: Kewa Dialect: West
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 43,000 (19,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa Dictionary: Franklin, Karl J. and Joice Franklin. 1978. A Kewa Dictionary. PL C53. Grammar: Franklin, Karl James. 1971. A Grammar of Kewa, New Guinea. PL C16.
Other Sources: Franklin, K. J. 1968. The DIalects of Kewa. PL B10.
Consonant system: mb t nd q pɸ s x m n ľ ɾ Stops: mb t nd q Affricates:Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo downdrift Stress: non-phonemic (usually initial in nouns) Demonstratives: 5: that seen, that unseen, that distant, that above, that below + that neutral (= ref?)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3=6d
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3729
Language: Kewa Dialect: South
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 43,000 (4,000)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa Grammar: Rule, W. M. 1977. A Comparative Study of the Foe, Huli and Pole Languages of Papua New Guinea. OLM 20.
Consonant system: ph mb t nd k kh ŋɡ tr s h m n ḷ Stops: ph mb t nd k kh ŋɡ Affricates: tr Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: ? Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3730
Language: Sau
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Western Highlands)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: East New Guinea Highlands: West-Central: Angal-Kewa
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p mb t nd ŋk s h m n l Stops: p mb t nd ŋk Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Number: 3731
Language: Foe
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Southern Highlands)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kutubuan: East Grammar: Rule, W. M. 1977. A Comparative Study of the Foe, Huli and Pole Languages of Papua New Guinea. OLM 20.
Other Sources: LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t th k ʔ kx f v s h m n ɾ Stops: p t th k ʔ Affricates: kx Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3732
Language: Fiwaga
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Southern Highlands)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kutubuan: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3733
Language: Fasu
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S Southern Highlands)
Population: 650
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kutubuan: West
Other Sources: May, Jean and Eunice Loeweke. 1965. "The Phonological Hierarchy in Fasu," AL 7:5, 89-97. PLNGLS LSGD AL 8:5
Consonant system: p t k f s h m n r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3734
Language: Some
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NW Gulf)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kutubuan: West
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f s h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Number: 3735
Language: Namumi
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NW Gulf)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kutubuan: West
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f s h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Number: 3736
Language: Somahai
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 3737
Language: Kamula
Location: Papua New Guinea (Western)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea
Other Sources: Reesink, Ger P. 1976. "Languages of the Aramia River Area," PL A45, 1-37.
Consonant system: p b t d k ʔ β s h m n l Stops: p b t d k ʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (y) e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=5, 3=6
Syntax: SOV N-NUM
Number: 3738
Language: Iria
Location: Indonesia (W West Irian)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d ɡ ʔ v s h m n r Stops: p b t d ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Number: 3739
Language: Asienara
Location: Indonesia (W West Irian)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Number: 3740
Language: Kamoro
Location: Indonesia (W West Irian)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k m n r Stops: p t k Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3741
Language: Sempan
Location: Indonesia (West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k f s m n r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=6
Number: 3742
Language: Central Asmat
Location: Indonesia (SC West Irian)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro Grammar: GD: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1965. The Flamingo Bay Dialect of the Asmat Language. The Hague: H. L. Smits.
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k č f s (h) m (ʔm) n ɾ Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m (ʔm) n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: generally on second vowel
Noun
Number: a plural exists for a few kinship terms Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3743
Language: Casuarina Coast Asmat
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Consonant system:
Number: 3744
Language: Citak Asmat
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Consonant system:
Number: 3745
Language: North Asmat
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Asmat-Kamoro
Consonant system:
Number: 3746
Language: Sawuy
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s x m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: ? Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Number: 3747
Language: Kotogut
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3748
Language: Mapi
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3749
Language: Ederah
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3750
Language: Kia
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3751
Language: Upper Digul
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3752
Language: Upper Kaeme
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut
Consonant system:
Number: 3753
Language: Siagha
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Awyu
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1970. "Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology," in PL C13, 977-1063. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (č) f s x m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (č) Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3754
Language: Pisa
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Awyu
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1970. "Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology," in PL C13, 997-1063. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s x m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ ?
Noun
Number: [a few kinship terms have a distinct plural]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3755
Language: Aghu
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Awyu
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1970. "Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology," in PL C13, 997-1063. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s x m n Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Stress: final
Noun
Number: [a few nouns have a plural]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3756
Language: Airo
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Awyu
Consonant system:
Number: 3757
Language: Kaeti
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Dumut
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1970. "Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology," in PL C13, 997-1063. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ s m n r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3758
Language: Wambon
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Dumut
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1970. "Proto-Awyu-Dumut Phonology," in PL C13, 997-1063. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ s m n ŋ r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: only a few kinship terms have a distinct plural
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3759
Language: Wanggom Alternate Name: Kombai
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awyu-Dumut: Dumut
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3760
Language: Southern Kati
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Lowland
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k m n ŋ Stops: p mb t nd k Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Tones: ? Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (p)
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3761
Language: Northern Kati
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Lowland
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k m n ŋ Stops: p mb t nd k Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Tones: ? Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3762
Language: Yonggom
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Lowland
Other Sources: PLNGLS WPF
Consonant system: p t d k m n ŋ Stops: p t d k Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: ?
Pronouns: 1 4 2
Number: 3763
Language: Ninggirum
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Lowland
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t d k ɡ β h m n ŋ Stops: p t d k ɡ Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3764
Language: Iwur
Location: WC Papua New Guinea
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Lowland
Consonant system:
Number: 3765
Language: Telefol
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (S West Sepik)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain Dictionary: Healey, Phyllis and Alan Healey. 1977. Telefol Dictionary. PL C46.
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1964. Telefol Phonology. PL B3. Healey, P. M. 1965a. Telefol Noun Phrases. PL B4. Healey, Phyllis M. 1965b. "Telefol Clause Structure," PL A5, 1-26. Healey, Phyllis M. 1965c. "Telefol Verb Phrases," PL A5, 27-53. Healey, P. M. 1966. Levels and Chaining in Telefol Sentences. PL B5. PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t̪h d̪ kh f s̪ m n̪ ŋ l Stops: b t̪h d̪ kh Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ kh Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: ris fall
Noun
Number: some kinship terms have a plural; a few other nouns use reduplication
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 [both forms may be inflected to show: (1) above, (2) up, (3) over, (4) across, (5) down, (6) below, (7) iñout̃up] + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3766
Language: Tifal
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (S West Sepik)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: Steinkraus, Walter. 1969. "Tifal Phonology Showing Vowel and Tone Neutralization," Kivung 2, 57-66. PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t d k ɸ s m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k Fricatives: ɸ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3767
Language: Kauwol
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t d k f s m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: tones
Number: 3768
Language: Faiwol
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (N Western)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: Mecklenburg, Charlotte. 1974. "Phonology of Faiwol," in Studies in Languages of the Ok Family, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 143-65. PLNGLS
Consonant system: b th d kh ɡ f s m n l Stops: b th d kh ɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ kh ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV NA DN N-NUM D+N+A
Number: 3769
Language: Setaman
Location: WC Papua New Guinea
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Consonant system:
Number: 3770
Language: Bimin
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (N Western)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t k ɡ f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: b t k ɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3771
Language: Mianmin
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (S West Sepik)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: Smith, Jean and Pam Weston. 1974a. "Mianmin Phonemes and Tonemes," in Studies in Languages of the Ok Family, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL 5-33. Smith, Jean and Pam Weston. 1974b. "Notes on Mianmin Grammar," in Studies in Languages of the Ok Family, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 35-142. PLNGLS
Consonant system: b th kh ɡ f s h m n ŋ ľ Stops: b th kh ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: cʷ kh ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ a only Diphthongs: ei ai au ou
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo-fall lo-ris Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) (GN) ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3772
Language: Mianmin Dialect: Wagarabai
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (W West Sepik)
Population: 1,500 (500)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t d k f s h m n ŋ l Stops: p t d k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: tones
Number: 3773
Language: Ngalum
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Ok: Mountain
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡʷ pf s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡʷ Affricates: pf Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: tones
Number: 3774
Language: Awin
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awin-Pa
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ s h m n (ŋ) ɾ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (y) e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 ? 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 3775
Language: Pa Alternate Name: Pare
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Awin-Pa
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t nd k ɡ (ɸ) s h m n (ŋ) ɾ Stops: p b t nd k ɡ Fricatives: (ɸ) s h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 ? ? ?
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3776
Language: Nomad Alternate Name: Odoodee Dialect: Samo
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 2,700 (650)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: East Strickland
Other Sources: Daniel, R. and Karen A. Shaw. 1973. "Location: A Linguistic and Cultural Focus in Samo," Kivung 6, 158-72. Daniel, R. and Karen A. Shaw. 1977. "Samo Phonemes," in Phonologies of Five P.N.G. Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 97-135. LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ f s h m (n) l Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m (n) Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ai ae ɔi ɔe ɔu au ãi ɔ̃i ɔ̃e ɔ̃u ãu
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: tones ? Stress: phenemic (first or second syllable) Demonstratives: 5 (this/that/that upstream/that above/that below)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3777
Language: Agala
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: East Strickland
Consonant system:
Number: 3778
Language: Konai
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: East Strickland
Consonant system:
Number: 3779
Language: Beami Alternate Name: Edolo
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b d ɡ f s h m n ɾ̣ Stops: b d ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3780
Language: Onabasulu
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3781
Language: Kaluli Alternate Name: Bosavi
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b th d kh ɡ f ṣ h m n ľ Stops: b th d kh ɡ Fricatives: f ṣ h Nasals: m n Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3782
Language: Kasua
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Consonant system:
Number: 3783
Language: Kware
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Consonant system:
Number: 3784
Language: Tomu
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Consonant system:
Number: 3785
Language: Bainapi Alternate Name: Dibiyaso
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Other Sources: Resnick, Ger P. 1976. "Languages of the Aramia River Area," PL A45, 1-37.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ei ai ia ea ae au ua ou Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3786
Language: Sonia
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Bosavi
Consonant system:
Number: 3787
Language: Duna
Location: C Papua New Guinea (Southern Highlands)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Duna-Pogaya
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ h m n l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 4=5
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3788
Language: Pogaya
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Duna-Pogaya
Consonant system:
Number: 3789
Language: Pogaya Alternate Name: Bogaya
Location: C Papua New Guinea (N Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Duna-Pogaya
TextBooks: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV N-NUM
Number: 3790
Language: Mombum
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian, Komoran Is)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Mombum
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s (z) x m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s (z) x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3791
Language: Koneraw
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian, SE Frederik Hendrik Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Central & South New Guinea: Mombum
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3792
Language: Angaataha Alternate Name: Angaatiha
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: Huisman. Roberta D. 1973. "Angaataha Narrative DIscourse," Linguistics 110, 29-42. Huisman, Ronald D. 1973. "Angaataha Verb Morphology," Linguistics 110, 43-54. LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C), Nˈ
Tones: hi lo hi-fall Stress: non-phonemic
Noun Classes: 12
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3793
Language: Simbari
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ (č) (ñɡ̌) m n ŋ l L r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) (ñɡ̌) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l L Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3794
Language: Baruya
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SE Eastern Highlands)
Population: 4,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: Lloyd, Richard G. 1969. "Gender in a New Guinea Lanugage," PL A22, 25-67. Lloyd, J. and A. Healey. 1970. "Barua Phonemes: A Problem in Interpretation," Linguistics 60, 33-48. LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ ʔ (The Wantakia dialect lasks phonemic voiced stops.) m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ ʔ (The Wantakia dialect lasks phonemic voiced stops.) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ā ō Diphthongs: ɛi iǝ ǝi ia ai ui oi
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Stress: phonemic pitch accent
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3795
Language: Safeyoka Dialect: Wojokeso
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: West Dorothy. 1973. Wojokeso Sentence, Paragraph, and Discourse Analysis. PL B28.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č ɸ s š x m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ s š x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Tones: tones
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3796
Language: Safeyoka Dialect: Aiwomba
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č ɸ s h m n ñ ŋ ľ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ǣ ā Stress: phonemic pitch accent
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3797
Language: Kawatsa
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 30
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts f h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: f h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ei ai ǝi ia oi io
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 2=5d
Number: 3798
Language: Kamasa
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 50
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s h m n ŋ r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d ? 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Number: 3799
Language: Yagwoia
Location: E Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 6,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD E
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: Nˈ lˈ
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3800
Language: Ankave
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NC Gulf)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p (mb) t (nd) k (ŋɡ) ʔ s h m n ŋ r Stops: p (mb) t (nd) k (ŋɡ) ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3801
Language: Ivori
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NC Gulf)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k ʔ h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ia io oi ie
Syllable:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA
Number: 3802
Language: Lohiki Alternate Name: Akoye
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 850
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD E
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) č (ɸ) m n (ŋ) r Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɸ) Nasals: m n (ŋ) Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ǝi ia ea ie iǝ oa
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN
Number: 3803
Language: Menya
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SW Morobe)
Population: 12,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan
Other Sources: LSGD E
Consonant system: p t k q β s z h (β is bilabial with inverted lower lip) m n ŋ Stops: p t k q Fricatives: β s z h (β is bilabial with inverted lower lip) Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ē Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: Nˈ vˈ [syllabic v]
Tones: hi lo
Gender: ?m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND POSS-N N+A+D
Number: 3804
Language: Hamtai Alternate Name: Kapau
Location: E Papua New Guinea (E Gulf)
Population: 32,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Angan Grammar: Oates, William and Lynette Oates. 1968. Kapau Pedagogical Grammar. PL C10.
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ (ɸ) β (š) h m n ŋ Stops: p t k q ʔ Fricatives: (ɸ) β (š) h Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: Nˈ Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6dmf 6mf 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N(emphasis on noun)/N-POSS(emphasis on pronoun)
Number: 3805
Language: Suki
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (C Western)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Gogodala-Suki
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1970. "Some Notes on the Suki-Gogodala Subgroup of the Central and South New Guinea Phylym," in PL C13, 1247-70. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ s z m n ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s (p)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=4
Syntax: SOV GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3806
Language: Gogodala
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (C Western)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Gogodala-Suki
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1970. "Some Notes on the Suki-Gogodala Subgroup of the Central and South New Guinea Phylym," in PL C13, 1247-70.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ s m n l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s (p)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3807
Language: Waruna
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (C Western)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Gogodala-Suki
Other Sources: Reesink, Ger P. 1976. "Languages of the Aramia River Area," PL A45, 1-37.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3 6 4=5
Number: 3808
Language: Boazi Dialect: South
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Boazi
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1970. "The Languages of the Lake Murray Area," PL A25, 1-18. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q NG f v s z ɣ m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ q NG Fricatives: f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ G Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s (p)
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3809
Language: Zimakani
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (WC Western)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Boazi
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1970. "The Languages of the Lake Murray Area," PL A25, 1-18. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f v s z ɣ m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V Stress: non-phonemic
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV DN
Number: 3810
Language: Marind
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Marind Proper
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s z h m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s z h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic pitch accent, but mostly final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n1 n2 (2 neuters)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV/(SVO)
Number: 3811
Language: Bian Marind
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Marind Proper
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s z ɣ h m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 3812
Language: Yaqay
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Yaqay
Other Sources: PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3813
Language: Warkay
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Marind: Yaqay
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ʔ f s x h m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ʔ Fricatives: f s x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3814
Language: Kaugat
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kayagar
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ č f s̪ x m n̪ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s̪ x Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final in bisyllabic words
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5
Syntax: SOV NA DN
Number: 3815
Language: Kaygir
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kayagar
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea ," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t̪ k f s̪ x m n̪ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: f s̪ x Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final in bisyllabic words
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3816
Language: Tamagario
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Kayagar
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea ," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t̪ k m n̪ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final in bisyllabic words
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG N-POSS
Number: 3817
Language: Demta
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Sentani
Consonant system:
Number: 3818
Language: Sentani
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Sentani Grammar: Cowan, H. K. J. 1965. Grammar of the Sentani Language. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b d k f h m n ľ Stops: b d k Fricatives: f h Nasals: m n Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4(ie) 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3819
Language: Nafri
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Sentani
Consonant system:
Number: 3820
Language: Tanah Merah2 Alternate Name: Tabla
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 3,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Sentani
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3821
Language: Wano
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3822
Language: Western Dani
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Dani
Other Sources: Bromley, H. Myron. 1961. The Phonology of Lower Grand Valley Dani. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ m n l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3823
Language: Grand Valley Dani Dialect: Mugogo
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Dani Grammar: Stap, Petrus Antonius Maria van der. 1966. Outline of Dani Morphology. The Hague: H. L Smits.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ k kh ʔ s̪ h m n̪ l̪ Stops: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ k kh ʔ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ei ai au oi ou
Noun
Number: a plural exists for some kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3824
Language: Grand Valley Dani Dialect: Lower
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Dani
Other Sources: Bromley, H. Myron. 1961. The Phonology of Lower Grand Valley Dani. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s x m n ŋ l Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Diphthongs: ei ai oi au ou
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: plural for a few kinship terms only
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3825
Language: North Ngalik
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 33,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Ngalik-Nduga
Consonant system:
Number: 3826
Language: South Ngalik
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Ngalik-Nduga
Consonant system:
Number: 3827
Language: Nduga
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Southern: Ngalik-Nduga
Consonant system:
Number: 3828
Language: Saberi Alternate Name: Isirawa
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Northern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3829
Language: Samarokena
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3830
Language: Kwerba
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Northern: Kwerba
Other Sources: Silzer, Peter. 1976. "A Six-Week Phonemic Analysis of Air Mati with a Tentative Orthography," in From Baudi to Indonesian, ed. by Ignatius Suharno and Kenneth L. Pike, Irian Jaya. Indonesia, SIL, 192-201.
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) č (ɸ) s m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɸ) s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ p k m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei oi ou
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3831
Language: Airoran
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Northern: Kwerba
Consonant system:
Number: 3832
Language: Sasawa
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Dani-Kwerba: Northern: Kwerba
Consonant system:
Number: 3833
Language: Uhunduni
Location: Indonesia (WC West Irian)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k m n ŋ l Stops: p t k Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: a few kinship terms have a plural suffix
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV/OSV
Number: 3834
Language: Ekagi Alternate Name: Kapauku, Ekari
Location: Indonesia (WC West Irian)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga Dictionary: Doble, Marion. 1960. Kapaunu-Malayan-Dutch-English Distionary. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Steltenpool, J. 1969. Ekagi-Dutch-English-Indonesian Dictionary. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Grammar: Doble, Marion. 1962. "Essays on Kapauku Grammar," Nieuw-Guinea Studien 6, 152-5, 211-8 & 279-98.
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k m n L (= ɡl) Stops: p b t d k Nasals: m n Laterals: L (= ɡl) Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid low
Noun
Number: s (p)
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/(OSV) AN GN DN/ND N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3835
Language: Wodani
Location: Indonesia (WC West Irian)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b mb th d nd kh ŋɡ h m n L Stops: ph b mb th d nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Laterals: L Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: tones
Number: 3836
Language: Moni
Location: Indonesia (WC West Irian)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Wissel Lakes-Kemandoga
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b mb th d nd kh ŋɡ s h m n Stops: ph b mb th d nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: tones
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/(OSV)
Number: 3837
Language: Tanah Merah1
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Mairasi-Tanah Merah
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3838
Language: Mairasi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Mairasi-Tanah Merah
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3839
Language: Northeastern Mairasi
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Mairasi-Tanah Merah
Consonant system:
Number: 3840
Language: Semimi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Mairasi-Tanah Merah
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3841
Language: Karas
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, Karas Is)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: West Bomberai
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ (f) s x m n (ñ) ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s x Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3842
Language: Iha
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Population: 5,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: West Bomberai
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb (č) ɡ̌ (f) x h m n (ñ) ŋ (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) x h Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic (final & penult)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7: fruit, everything connected with the house, flat objects, wooden objects, rifles, animates, inanimate]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3843
Language: Baham
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Population: 450
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: West Bomberai
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ɡ̌ (f) s x m n (ñ) ŋ (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s x Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3844
Language: Guhu-Semane Alternate Name: Guhu Samane
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (N Northern)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: Richard, Ernest and Marjorie Richert. 1972. "Phonology of Guhu-Semane," Te Reo 15, 45-51. Richard, Ernest L. 1975. "Sentence Structure of Guhu-Samane," in SLCSEP, 771-815.
Consonant system: p b t̪ t k ɡ ʔ dz kx s h m n ŋ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ t k ɡ ʔ Affricates: dz kx Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3845
Language: Suena
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Morobe)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean Grammar: Wilson, Darryl. 1974. Suena Grammar. Ukarumpa, PNG: SIL
Other Sources: Wilson, Darryl. 1969a. "Suena Phonology," PL A18, 87-93. Wilson, Darryl. 1969b. "Suena Grammar Highlights," PL A18, 95-110.
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d kh ɡ dz s m n ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d kh ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3846
Language: Yekora
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Morobe)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: BLF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ dz β s m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: β s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but i
Noun
Number: pl suffix for some kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3847
Language: Zia
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Morobe)
Population: 3,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: BLF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ dz β s m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: β s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc d Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but i
Noun
Number: pl suffix for some kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3848
Language: Zia Dialect: Mawai
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Morobe)
Population: 3,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: BLF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ dz β s h m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ a u o
Noun
Number: pl suffix for some kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3849
Language: Binandere
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1969. "The Structure of the Binandere Verb," PL A18, 1-32. BLF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ dz β s m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: dz Fricatives: β s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ u o
Noun
Number: pl suffix for some kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3850
Language: Ambasi
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Consonant system:
Number: 3851
Language: Aeka
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: BLF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ u o
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3852
Language: Orokaiva
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: Healey, Alan, Ambrose Isoroembo and Martin Chittleborough. 1969. "Preliminary Notes on Orokaiva Grammar," PL A18, 33-64. Larsen, Robert and Marlys Larsen. 1977. "Orokaiva Phonology and Orthography," in Phonologies of Five P.N.G. Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-29.
Consonant system: p (m)b t (n)d k (ŋ)ɡ ɡ̌ s h m n (ŋ) Stops: p (m)b t (n)d k (ŋ)ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(N) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: kinship terms have a plural Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 *3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN(NG) ND N-NUM POSS-N(N-POSS) N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3853
Language: Hunjara
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 4,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Consonant system:
Number: 3854
Language: Notu Alternate Name: Ewage
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: BLF E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ dz ̘ɸ β s ɣ m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: ɸ β s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ i o
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 3855
Language: Yega
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Northern)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Consonant system:
Number: 3856
Language: Gaina
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Consonant system:
Number: 3857
Language: Baruga
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 1050
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3858
Language: Mawae
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Number: 3859
Language: Dogoro Alternate Name: Doghoro
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 120
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3860
Language: Korafe
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Northern)
Population: 4,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Binanderean
Other Sources: Farr, James and Cynthia Farr. 1974. "A Preliminary Korafe Phonology," in Three Studies in Languages of Eastern Papua, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-38. Farr, James and Cynthia Farr. 1975. "Some Features of Korafe Morphology," in SLCSEP, 731-69. Farr, Cynthia J. M. 1976. "I Don't Know Whether I'm Coming or Going: A Study of Some Usages of 'Come' and 'Go' in Korafe," Kivung 9, 126-55. BLF
Consonant system: b th d kh ɡ ɡ̌ f v s ɣ m n ɾ Stops: b th d kh ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ɣ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ ɣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die* 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d, 5=6 *There appears to be 3 distinct forms: (1) 4d, (2) 4di, (3) 4de
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3861
Language: Biangai
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Morobe)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Goilalan
Other Sources: Dubert, Raymond and Marjorie Dubert. 1973. "Biangai Phonemes," in Phonologies of Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-35. E
Consonant system: p t k β s z ɣ m n ŋ ľ ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: β s z ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic (final/penult)
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3862
Language: Weri
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Morobe)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Goilalan
Other Sources: Boxwell, Helen and Maurice Boxwell. 1966. "Weri Phonemes," PL A7, 77-93. Boxwell, Maurice. 1967. "Weri Pronoun System," Linguistics 29, 34-43.
Consonant system: p t k s m n ŋ ̌l ľ Stops: p t k Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ̌l ľ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3863
Language: Kunimaipa
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Goilalan Grammar: Geary, Elaine. 1977. Kunimaipa Grammar. Ukarumpa, PNG: SIL.
Other Sources: Pence, Alan. 1964. "Intonation in Kunimaipa (New Guinea)," PL A3, 1-15. Pence, Alan. 1966. "Kunimaipa Phonology: Hierarchical Levels," PL A7, 49-67. Pence, Alan, Elaine Geary and Doris Bjorkman. 1970. "Kunimaipa Nominals," PL A23, 8-35. WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s x m n ŋ l ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5 [this (seen), that (unseen), that below (seen), that above (seen), this below (unseen)] Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ti 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN ND/(DN) N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3864
Language: Tauade
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 8,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Goilalan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3865
Language: Fuyuge
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (NW Northern)
Population: 9,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Goilalan
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3866
Language: Koita
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Koiaric Grammar: GD: Dutton, T. E. 1975. "A Koita Grammar Sketch and Vocabulary," in SLCSEP, 281-412.
Consonant system: (p) b t d k ɡ β s ɣ h m n ɾ Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms only
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN adj of nationality) GN ND/(DN) N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3867
Language: Koiari Alternate Name: Koiali
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Koiaric
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1969. The Peopling of Central Papua. PL B9.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ (ʔ) ɸ β s h m n ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: ɸ β s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms only Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 3868
Language: Mountain Koiari Alternate Name: Koiali (Mountain)
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 3,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Koiaric Grammar: Garland, Roger and Susan Garland. 1975. "A Grammar Sketch of Mountain Koiali," in SLCSEP, 413-70.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ɸ ṣ x m n l Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: ɸ ṣ x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms only Demonstratives: 4 [3 + that still further]
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3869
Language: Managalasi
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Baraic
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1969. The Peopling of Central Papua. PL B9.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č ɡ̌ β s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: pl suffix for a few kinship terms Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 3870
Language: Barai
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Baraic Grammar: Olson, Mike. 1975. "Barai Grammar Highlights," in SLCSEP, 471-512.
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ ɡ̌ ɸ β m n ɾ Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc ɡ̌ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: pl suffix for a few kinship terms Demonstratives: 8: this, that, that to the side, that down at an angle, that up at an angle, that to the side with reference to the person spoken to, that straight down with reference to the speaker, that straight up with reference to the speaker
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3871
Language: Ömie Dialect: Asafa
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Baraic Grammar: Austing, John and Randolph Upia. 1975. "Highlights of Ömie Morphology," in SLCSEP, 513-98.
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1969. The Peopling of Central Papua. PL B9.
Consonant system: b th d kh ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ ɸ β s h m n ľ Stops: b th d kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s h Nasals: m n Laterals:Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 4: this, that, that above, that below
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3872
Language: Ömie Dialect: Zuwadza
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Koiarian: Baraic
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1969. The Peopling of Central Papua. PL B9.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č ɡ̌ β s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3873
Language: Humene
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 440
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Kwalean
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1970. "Notes on the Languages of the Rigo Area of the Central District of Papua," in PL C13, 879-983.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ β ž h m n ɹ Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β ž h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɹ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 (5) 3 6 2=5?
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN nationality) DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3874
Language: Kwale
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 720
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Kwalean
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1970. "Notes on the Languages of the Rigo Area of the Central District of Papua," in PL C13, 879-983. WPF
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ β s ž ɣ h m n ɹ Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β s ž ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɹ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3875
Language: Mulaha Alternate Name: Iaibu
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Kwalean
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3876
Language: Doromu
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 840
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Manubaran
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1970. "Notes on the Languages of the Rigo Area of the Central District of Papua," in PL C13, 879-983.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=5 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3877
Language: Maria
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Manubaran
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1970. "Notes on the Languages of the Rigo Area of the Central DIstrict of Papua," in PL C13, 879-983.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ f v s h m n ŋ r Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=5, 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN nationality) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 3878
Language: Bariji
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Yareban
Consonant system:
Number: 3879
Language: Yareba
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Yareban Grammar: Weimer, Harry and Natalia Weimer. 1975. "A Short Sketch of Yareba Grammar," in SLCSEP, 667-729.
Other Sources: Weimer, Harry and Natalia Weimer. 1970. "Reduplication in Yareba," PL A23, 37-44. Weimer, Harry and Natalia Weimer. 1972. "Yareba Phonemes," Te Reo 15, 52-7. Weimer, Harry. 1972. "Yareba Verb Morphology," Te Reo 15, 58-70.
Consonant system: b th d kh ɡ dz ɸ v s m n ɾ Stops: b th d kh ɡ Affricates: dz Fricatives: ɸ v s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ b k f m Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei oi au eu ou
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d=4=5
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3880
Language: Doriri
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 570
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Yareban
Consonant system:
Number: 3881
Language: Sirio
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Northern)
Population: 360
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Yareban
Consonant system:
Number: 3882
Language: Abia
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (C Central)
Population: 580
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Yareban
Consonant system:
Number: 3883
Language: Magi Alternate Name: Mailu
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 4,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan Grammar: Thomson, N. P. 1975. "Magi Phonology and Grammar--Fifty Years Afterwards," in SLCSEP, 599-666.
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (v) (s) m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (v) (s) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei oe oi ou
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: pl for relations, friends + 'child' & 'people' Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3884
Language: Domu
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 480
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3885
Language: Morawa
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 750
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3886
Language: Binahari
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 770
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3887
Language: Bauwaki
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3888
Language: Laua Alternate Name: Labu
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 50
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Mailuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3889
Language: Onjob
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Northern)
Population: 160
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3890
Language: Maiwa
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3891
Language: Jimajima Alternate Name: Dima
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 540
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3892
Language: Daga
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (S Central)
Population: 5,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan Grammar: Murane, Elizabeth. 1974. Daga Grammar. SIL 43
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s m n ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3893
Language: Mapena
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3894
Language: Turaka
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3895
Language: Gwedena Alternate Name: Umanakaina
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3896
Language: Ginuman
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 770
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3897
Language: Sona
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (W Milne Bay)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eastern: Dagan
Consonant system:
Number: 3898
Language: Sinsauru
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 480
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Evapia
Consonant system:
Number: 3899
Language: Asas
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Evapia
Consonant system:
Number: 3900
Language: Sausi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 440
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Evapia
Consonant system:
Number: 3901
Language: Kesawai
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 530
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Evapia
Consonant system:
Number: 3902
Language: Dumpu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Evapia
Consonant system:
Number: 3903
Language: Arawum
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 75
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Kabenau
Consonant system:
Number: 3904
Language: Kolom
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 210
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Kabenau
Consonant system:
Number: 3905
Language: Siroi Alternate Name: Suroi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Kabenau Grammar: Wells, Margaret A. 1979. Siroi Grammar. PL B51.
Other Sources: Claassen, O. R. and K. A. McElhanon. 1970. "Languages of the Finisterre Range-New Guinea," PL A23, 45-75.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ f s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: second syllable of stem Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N(1,4)/N-POSS(2,3,5,6) N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3906
Language: Lemio
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 175
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Kabenau
Consonant system:
Number: 3907
Language: Pulabu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 120
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Kabenau
Consonant system:
Number: 3908
Language: Yabong
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 370
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Yaganon
Consonant system:
Number: 3909
Language: Ganglau
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Yaganon
Consonant system:
Number: 3910
Language: Dumun
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 40
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Yaganon
Consonant system:
Number: 3911
Language: Saep
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 580
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Yaganon
Consonant system:
Number: 3912
Language: Usino
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Peka
Consonant system:
Number: 3913
Language: Sumau
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Peka
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3914
Language: Urigina
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Peka
Consonant system:
Number: 3915
Language: Danaru
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 115
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Peka
Consonant system:
Number: 3916
Language: Usu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 90
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3917
Language: Erima Alternate Name: Ogea
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3918
Language: Duduela
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 680
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3919
Language: Kwato
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 750
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3920
Language: Rerau
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 230
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3921
Language: Jilim
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 410
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3922
Language: Yangulam
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 180
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Nuru
Consonant system:
Number: 3923
Language: Bom Alternate Name: Anjam
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Mindjim
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4t 4 2 5d 5t 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3924
Language: Male
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 390
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Mindjim
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3
Number: 3925
Language: Bongu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 410
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Mindjim
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3926
Language: Songum
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 330
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Rai Coast: Mindjim
Consonant system:
Number: 3927
Language: Kare
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso
Consonant system:
Number: 3928
Language: Girawa
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 3,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Kokon
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3929
Language: Munit
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 340
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Kokon
Consonant system:
Number: 3930
Language: Bemal Alternate Name: Kein
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 640
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Kokon
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3931
Language: Sihan
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 310
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Consonant system:
Number: 3932
Language: Gumalu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Consonant system:
Number: 3933
Language: Isebe
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 840
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Consonant system:
Number: 3934
Language: Amele
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3935
Language: Bau
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Consonant system:
Number: 3936
Language: Panim
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Gum
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3937
Language: Rapting
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3938
Language: Wamas
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 135
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3939
Language: Samosa
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 95
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3940
Language: Murupi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 310
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3941
Language: Saruga
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3942
Language: Nake
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 190
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3943
Language: Mosimo
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 60
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3944
Language: Garus
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3945
Language: Yoidik
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3946
Language: Rempi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3947
Language: Bagupi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 50
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3948
Language: Silopi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 140
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3949
Language: Utu
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 580
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3950
Language: Mawan
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3951
Language: Baimak
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 440
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3952
Language: Matepi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 240
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3953
Language: Gal
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Consonant system:
Number: 3954
Language: Garuh Alternate Name: Nobonob
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3955
Language: Kamba Alternate Name: Wagi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 890
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Madang: Mabuso: Hanseman
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3956
Language: Mugil Alternate Name: Saker, Bargam
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3957
Language: Amaimon
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom
Consonant system:
Number: 3958
Language: Wasembo
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NW Morobe)
Population: 475
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3959
Language: Pay Alternate Name: Mala
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (N Madang)
Population: 770
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kaukombaran
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3960
Language: Pila
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (N Madang)
Population: 670
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kaukombaran
Consonant system:
Number: 3961
Language: Saki
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (N Madang)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kaukombaran
Consonant system:
Number: 3962
Language: Tani
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (N Madang)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kaukombaran
Consonant system:
Number: 3963
Language: Ulingan
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (N Madang)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kumilan
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3964
Language: Bepour
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 60
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kumilan
Consonant system:
Number: 3965
Language: Moere
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 60
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Kumilan
Consonant system:
Number: 3966
Language: Kowaki
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 30
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Tiboran
Consonant system:
Number: 3967
Language: Mawak
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 30
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Tiboran
Consonant system:
Number: 3968
Language: Hinihon
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Tiboran
Consonant system:
Number: 3969
Language: Musar
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 680
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Tiboran
Consonant system:
Number: 3970
Language: Wanambre
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 490
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Tiboran
Consonant system:
Number: 3971
Language: Koguman
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 760
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3972
Language: Abasakur
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 670
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3973
Language: Wanuma Alternate Name: Usan
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3974
Language: Yaben
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3975
Language: Yarawata
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3976
Language: Bilakura
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (E Madang)
Population: 35
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3977
Language: Parawen
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 430
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3978
Language: Ukuriguma
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (EC Madang)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Pihom: Omosan
Consonant system:
Number: 3979
Language: Dimir
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Isumrud
Consonant system:
Number: 3980
Language: Korak
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Isumrud: Kowan
Consonant system:
Number: 3981
Language: Waskia
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (Madang, N Karkar Is)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Isumrud: Kowan Grammar: GD: Ross, Malcolm and John Natu Paol. 1978. A Waskia Grammar Sketch and Vocabulary. PL B56.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 (4d) 4 2 (5d) 5 3 (6d) 6
Syntax: SOV NA /(AN nationality) GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3982
Language: Malas
Location: NE Papua New Guinea ( NE Madang)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Isumrud: Mabuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3983
Language: Bunabun Alternate Name: Bunubun
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NE Madang)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Isumrud: Mabuan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3984
Language: Osum
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (WC Madang)
Population: 580
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal
Consonant system:
Number: 3985
Language: Wadaginam
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NC Madang)
Population: 550
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal
Consonant system:
Number: 3986
Language: Sileibi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal: Sikan
Consonant system:
Number: 3987
Language: Katiati
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 3,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal: Sikan
Consonant system:
Number: 3988
Language: Pondoma
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal: Pomoikan
Consonant system:
Number: 3989
Language: Ikundun
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NC Madang)
Population: 1,050
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal: Pomoikan
Consonant system:
Number: 3990
Language: Moresada Alternate Name: Murusapa
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NC Madang)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Josephstaal: Pomoikan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6mf
Number: 3991
Language: Paynamar
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Wanang
Consonant system:
Number: 3992
Language: Atemple Alternate Name: Atemble
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 65
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Wanang: Atan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3993
Language: Angaua Alternate Name: Nend
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Wanang: Atan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3994
Language: Emerum
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 680
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Wanang: Emuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3995
Language: Musak
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (C Madang)
Population: 360
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Wanang: Emuan
Consonant system:
Number: 3996
Language: Isabi
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (SE Madang)
Population: 280
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Brahman
Consonant system:
Number: 3997
Language: Biyom
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (S Madang)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Brahman
Consonant system:
Number: 3998
Language: Tauya
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (S Madang)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Brahman
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3999
Language: Faita
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (S Madang)
Population: 60
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Madang-Adelbert Range: Adelbert Range: Brahman
Consonant system:
Number: 4000
Language: Pawaian Dialect: Northern
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (NC Gulf)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Teberan-Pawaian
Other Sources: Trefry, D. 1969. A Comparative Study of Kuman and Pawaian. PL B13. Trefry, D. 1972. "Phonological Considerations of Pawaia, a Non-Austronesian Language of New Guinea," OLM 15, 106-31. LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) s h m n ḷ̌ Stops: p t k (ʔ) Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: ḷ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (œ) ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 *3
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA only color adjectives if N is also preceded by another adjective) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4001
Language: Dadibi Alternate Name: Daribi
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Chimbu)
Population: 6,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Teberan-Pawaian
Other Sources: MacDonald, George and Georgetta MacDonald. 1974. "Dadibi Phonology," in Phonologies of Four Papua New Guinea Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 129-58. LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh s h m n l Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ai ao eo ae au oi eu ãi õu
Syllable: (C)(w)V
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 (4d) 4 2 (5d) 5 3 (6d) 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4002
Language: Podopa Alternate Name: Folopa
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (NC Gulf)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Teberan-Pawaian
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ɸ s z h m n l r Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4003
Language: Kairi Alternate Name: Rumu
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 650
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Turama-Kikorian
Other Sources: LSGD PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f v s h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4004
Language: Omati
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Turama-Kikorian
Consonant system:
Number: 4005
Language: Ikobi
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (W Gulf)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Turama-Kikorian
Consonant system:
Number: 4006
Language: Mena
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (W Gulf)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Turama-Kikorian
Consonant system:
Number: 4007
Language: Ipiko
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (C Gulf)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Inland Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 4008
Language: Minanibai
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Inland Gulf
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ h m n r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=6
Number: 4009
Language: Tao Alternate Name: Mubami
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SE Western)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Inland Gulf
Other Sources: Reesink, Ger P. 1976. "Languages of the Aramia River Area," PL A45, 1-37. E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ v s ɣ h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 (5d) 5 3 (6d) 6 5=6
Syntax: SOV N-NUM
Number: 4010
Language: Karami
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Inland Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 4011
Language: Mahigi
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Inland Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 4012
Language: Purari
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SC Gulf)
Population: 6,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman
Consonant system:
Number: 4013
Language: Tate Alternate Name: Kaki Ae
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4014
Language: Toaripi
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman: Eastern Dictionary: Brown, H. A. 1968. A Dictionary of Toaripi, 2 vols. OLM 11.
Other Sources: LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k f s h m (n) l Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m (n) Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs Stress: penult
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4015
Language: Uaripi
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4016
Language: Opao
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4017
Language: Keuro
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (SE Gulf)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4018
Language: Orokolo
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SC Gulf)
Population: 6,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Eleman: Western
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p t k (β) h m n l Stops: p t k Fricatives: (β) h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Noun
Number: pl suffix for kinship terms
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN) GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4019
Language: Yelmek
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Bulaka River
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4020
Language: Maklew
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Bulaka River
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s k m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s k Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 4021
Language: Southern Kiwai
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SE Western)
Population: 9,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Other Sources: LSGD PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: au ou
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4d 4t 4 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SOV AN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4022
Language: Wabuda
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SE Western)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4t 4 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Number: 4023
Language: Bamu Kiwai Alternate Name: Buniki
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SE Western)
Population: 4,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4024
Language: Morigi
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Consonant system:
Number: 4025
Language: Kerewo
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Consonant system:
Number: 4026
Language: Northeastern Kiwai
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (SW Gulf)
Population: 3,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β ɣ h m n ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V
Number: 4027
Language: Arigibi
Location: SC Papua New Guinea (C Gulf)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Kiwaian
Other Sources: LSGD
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β v m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β v Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (I) e (ɛ) Central Vowels: (e) a Back Vowels: u o (ʌ)
Number: 4028
Language: Tirio
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 280
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Tirio
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4t 4 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Number: 4029
Language: Aturu
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Tirio
Consonant system:
Number: 4030
Language: Lewada
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 450
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Tirio
Consonant system:
Number: 4031
Language: Mutum
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Tirio
Consonant system:
Number: 4032
Language: Bine Dialect: Kunini
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 1,550
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Eastern
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4033
Language: Bine Dialect: Masingara, Masingle
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 1,550
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Eastern
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 3 6d
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4034
Language: Gizra
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Eastern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4035
Language: Meriam Alternate Name: Meryam Mir
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Eastern
Other Sources: Bartos, George F. 1977. "Miriam Phonemes," Te Reo 20, 29-??. PLNGLS AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i (e) ɑ Diphthongs: ei iu ui eu ue ia ai eo au ua
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4036
Language: Agöb Alternate Name: Dabu
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Pahoturi
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1971. "Notes on the Linguistic Situation in the Trans-Fly Area," PL A28, 115-72. E WPF
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ v s z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i œ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Number: 4037
Language: Idi
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Pahoturi
Consonant system:
Number: 4038
Language: Waia
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (S Western)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Pahoturi
Other Sources: Reesink, Ger P. 1976. "Languages of the Aramia River Area," PL A45, 1-37
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (s) h m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: (s) h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=3 5=6
Number: 4039
Language: Yey Alternate Name: Yei
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4040
Language: Moraori
Location: Indonesia (SE West Irian)
Population: 40
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4041
Language: Nambu
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Nambu
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1971. "Notes on the Linguistic Situation in the Trans-Fly Area," PL A28, 115-72.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ʔ ñɡ̌ f v θ ð s z (š) (ɣ) m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ʔ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z (š) (ɣ) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ cʷ p ɡ kp ŋɡ ŋ ɣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e œ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɒ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Pronouns: 1 (4d) (4t) 4 2 (5d) (5t) 3 2=5 3=6
Syntax: AN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Number: 4042
Language: Dorro
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 75
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Nambu
Consonant system:
Number: 4043
Language: Upper Morehead
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Tonda
Consonant system:
Number: 4044
Language: Lower Morehead
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Tonda
Consonant system:
Number: 4045
Language: Tonda
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Tonda
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1971. "Notes on the Linguistic Situation in the Trans-Fly Area," PL A28, 115-72.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ v θ ð s z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v θ ð s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ cʷ k m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e œ æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: AN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Number: 4046
Language: Kanum
Location: SW Papua New Guinea (SW Western)
Population: 320
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Trans-Fly--Bulaka River: Trans-Fly: Morehead & Upper Maro Rivers: Tonda
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4047
Language: Kosarek Alternate Name: Yale
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4048
Language: Nipsan
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4049
Language: Nalca Alternate Name: Naltya
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph ɓ th ɗ kh ɠ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: ph ɓ th ɗ kh ɠ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o
Tones: hi-fall lo-ris
Number: 4050
Language: Korapun
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4051
Language: Goliath Alternate Name: Una
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4052
Language: Eipo
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4053
Language: Ketengban Alternate Name: Kupel
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4054
Language: Sirkai
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4055
Language: Kinome
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Mek: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4056
Language: Anggor
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 2,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Senagi
Other Sources: Litteral, Shirley. 1972. "Orientation to Space and Participants in Anggor," PL A31, 23-44. PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɸ s x m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4057
Language: Dera
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Senagi
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ m n ŋ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4058
Language: Yafi
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 170
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Pauwasi: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4059
Language: Emumu
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Pauwasi: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4060
Language: Dubu
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 130
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Pauwasi: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4061
Language: Towei
Location: Indonesia (EC West Irian)
Population: 115
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Pauwasi: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 4062
Language: Waris
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 3,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ f s x m n ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4063
Language: Manem Alternate Name: Wembi
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM POSS-N(4,5,6)/N-POSS(1,2,3)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4064
Language: Senggi
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 120
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Consonant system:
Number: 4065
Language: Waina
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Consonant system:
Number: 4066
Language: Daonda
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 135
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Consonant system:
Number: 4067
Language: Simog
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Consonant system:
Number: 4068
Language: Amanab
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 3,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Waris
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4069
Language: Awyi
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 250
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Taikat
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ f s m n ŋ ľ Stops: ph mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 4070
Language: Taikat
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Taikat
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Languages in West Irian, New Guinea," PL A28, 47-114. PLNGLS
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ f s m n ŋ ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV N-POSS
Number: 4071
Language: Pagi
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Bewani
Consonant system:
Number: 4072
Language: Kilmeri
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Bewani
Consonant system:
Number: 4073
Language: Ninggera
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Border: Bewani
Consonant system:
Number: 4074
Language: Turu
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4075
Language: Mawes
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4076
Language: Uria Alternate Name: Orya
Location: Indonesia (C West Irian)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4077
Language: Baburiwa
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4078
Language: Taogwe
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4079
Language: Taori-Kei
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4080
Language: Tori Aikwakai
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4081
Language: Papasena
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4082
Language: Weretai
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4083
Language: Taori-So
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Central Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4084
Language: Taworta
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: East Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4085
Language: Dabra
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: East Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4086
Language: Foau
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: East Lake Plain
Consonant system:
Number: 4087
Language: Berik
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4088
Language: Bonerif
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4089
Language: Mander
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4090
Language: Itik
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4091
Language: Kwesten
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4092
Language: Maremgi
Location: Indonesia (NC West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4093
Language: Wares
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Northern: Tor--Lake Plain: Tor
Consonant system:
Number: 4094
Language: Mekwei
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Nimboran
Consonant system:
Number: 4095
Language: Kemtuk
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Nimboran
Consonant system:
Number: 4096
Language: Nimboran
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Nimboran
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4i 2 3
Syntax: POSS-N
Number: 4097
Language: Sause
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kaure
Consonant system:
Number: 4098
Language: Kapori
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kaure
Consonant system:
Number: 4099
Language: Kaure
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kaure
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4100
Language: Narau
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kaure
Consonant system:
Number: 4101
Language: Kosare
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kaure
Consonant system:
Number: 4102
Language: Barau
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, N Bomberai Peninsula)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4103
Language: Arandai
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, SC Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4104
Language: Tarof
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4105
Language: Kasuweri
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4106
Language: Puragi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 4i=5
Number: 4107
Language: Kampong Baru
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: South Bird's Head Proper
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4108
Language: Inanwatan
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: Inanwatan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4109
Language: Duriankere
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: Inanwatan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4110
Language: Konda
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: Konda-Yahadian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4111
Language: Yahadian
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, S Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: South Bird's Head: Konda-Yahadian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4112
Language: Kimaghama Alternate Name: Kimaghama
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian, E Kolopom Is)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kolopom
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ β ɣ m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ø ɛ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: phonemic ?
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4113
Language: Riantana
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian, N Kolopom Is)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kolopom
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ β m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4114
Language: Ndom
Location: Indonesia (S West Irian, W Kolopom Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Kolopom
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ f θ s x m n r Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f θ s x Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: final
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4115
Language: Oirata
Location: Indonesia (Kisar Island)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4116
Language: Lovaea
Location: Indonesia (NE Timor Is.)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1972. "Portuguese Timor: Two More Non-Austronesian Languages," OLM 15, 95-104.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 ? 3 6
Number: 4117
Language: Fataluku
Location: Indonesia (NE Timor Is)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1972. "Portuguese Timor : Two More Non-Austronesian Languages," OLM 15, 95-104.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 4118
Language: Kairui
Location: Indonesia (NE Timor Is.)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4119
Language: Bunak
Location: Indonesia (C Timor Is)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4120
Language: Kolana
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4121
Language: Tanglapui
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4122
Language: Makasai
Location: Indonesia (NE Timor Is)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4123
Language: Kui
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Consonant system:
Number: 4124
Language: Woisika Dialect: Aleita
Location: Indonesia (C Alor Is.)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Other Sources: Kamengmai, L. L. and W. A. L. Stokhof. 1978. "Woisika Text," MSILI 5, 34-57.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: v̱ (tense) all There is a tense/lax distinction for all five vowels. Diphthongs: ae ao Stress: phonemic ? Demonstratives: 4: (3 + that near you) + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 4125
Language: Abui
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Consonant system:
Number: 4126
Language: Kelon
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Consonant system:
Number: 4127
Language: Kafoa
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Consonant system:
Number: 4128
Language: Kabola
Location: Indonesia (Alor Is.)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Alor
Consonant system:
Number: 4129
Language: Blagar
Location: Indonesia (Pantar Is.)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Pantar
Other Sources: Steinhauer, H. 1977. " 'Going' and 'Coming' in the Blagar of Dolap (Pura-Alor-Indonesia)," MSILI 3, 38-48.
Consonant system: p b ɓ t d k ɡ ʔ v s z h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult Demonstratives: ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4130
Language: Tewa
Location: Indonesia (Pantar Is.)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4131
Language: Nedebang
Location: Indonesia (Pantar Is.)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4132
Language: Lamma
Location: Indonesia (Pantar Is.)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Timor-Alor-Pantar: Alor-Pantar: Pantar
Consonant system:
Number: 4133
Language: Amberbaken Alternate Name: Mpur
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, N Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4134
Language: Karon Pantai Alternate Name: Abun
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, N Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: North-Central: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4135
Language: Madik
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, N Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: North-Central: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4136
Language: Karon Dori
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, C Bird's Head Peninsula)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: North-Central: Central
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 4137
Language: Brat Alternate Name: Maybrat
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, C Bird's Head Peninsula)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: North-Central: Central
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4138
Language: Kuwani
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Consonant system:
Number: 4139
Language: Tehit
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4140
Language: Kalabra
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4141
Language: Seget
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4142
Language: Moi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4143
Language: Moraid
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, W Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Bird's Head: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4144
Language: Borai
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, NE Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Borai-Hattam
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4145
Language: Hattam
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, NE Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Borai-Hattam
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4146
Language: Ternate
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: South
Consonant system:
Number: 4147
Language: Tidore
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: South
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4148
Language: Galela
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4149
Language: Tobelo
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4150
Language: Loda
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4151
Language: Ibu
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4152
Language: Sahu
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4153
Language: Modole
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4154
Language: Tabaru
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4155
Language: Pagu
Location: Indonesia (N Halmahera Is)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Consonant system:
Number: 4156
Language: West Makian
Location: Indonesia (Makian Is)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: West Papuan: Northern Halmahera: North
Other Sources: Watuseke, F. S. 1976. "West Makian, a Language of the North Halmahera Group of the West-Irian Phylum," AL 18, 274-85. WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ f s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ a o
Syntax: SVO POSS-N
Number: 4157
Language: Mantion Alternate Name: Sougb
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, SE Bird's Head Peninsula)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Bird's Head
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4158
Language: Meax
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, E Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Bird's Head
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4159
Language: Meningo
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian, E Bird's Head Peninsula)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Bird's Head
Consonant system:
Number: 4160
Language: Yava Dialect: Mantembu
Location: Indonesia (C Yapen Is)
Population: 4,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Geelvink Bay
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 4161
Language: Turunggare
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Geelvink Bay
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 1=21 and 22=3; there are two 2 pronouns, one is the same as 1 while the other is the same as 3.
Number: 4162
Language: Baropasi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Geelvink Bay
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4163
Language: Bauzi
Location: Indonesia (NW West Irian)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Geelvink Bay
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4164
Language: Bapu
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 4165
Language: Sko
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Vanimo
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, C. L. 1971. "Miscellaneous Notes on Language in West Irian New Guinea" PL A28, 47-114.
Consonant system: p b t k f h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t k Fricatives: f h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi-fall mid-fall mid-ris
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 4166
Language: Sangke
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Vanimo
Consonant system:
Number: 4167
Language: Wutung
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 410
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Vanimo
Consonant system:
Number: 4168
Language: Vanimo Alternate Name: Dumo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Vanimo
Other Sources: PLNGLS WALS WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4dim 4demf 4 2 5dmf 5 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc (1) there are two 4de forms: he & I, she & I (2) there are two 5d forms: thou & he, thou & she
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4169
Language: Krisa Alternate Name: I'saka
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Krisa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4170
Language: Rawo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 510
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Krisa
Consonant system:
Number: 4171
Language: Puari
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 370
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Krisa
Consonant system:
Number: 4172
Language: Warapu
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sko: Krisa
Other Sources: Laycock, Don. 1973. "Sissano, Warapu, and Melanesian Pidginization," OL 12, 245-77.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) (v) (x) m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: (v) (x) Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA N-POSS
Number: 4173
Language: Pyu
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kwomtari-Baibai
Consonant system:
Number: 4174
Language: Kwomtari
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 820
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kwomtari-Baibai: Kwomtari
Consonant system:
Number: 4175
Language: Fas
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kwomtari-Baibai: Kwomtari
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4176
Language: Baibai
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 270
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kwomtari-Baibai: Baibai
Consonant system:
Number: 4177
Language: Biaka
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NW West Sepik)
Population: 450
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Kwomtari-Baibai: Baibai
Consonant system:
Number: 4178
Language: Rocky Peak
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 275
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Other Sources: Conrad, Robert and Wayne Dye. 1975. "Some Language Relationships in the Upper Sepik Region of Papua New Guinea," in PL A40, 1-35.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɸ s h m n l Stops: p b t d k Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V
Number: 4179
Language: Iteri
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 90
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Consonant system:
Number: 4180
Language: Bo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 175
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Consonant system:
Number: 4181
Language: Ama
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Consonant system:
Number: 4182
Language: Nimo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 410
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Consonant system:
Number: 4183
Language: Owiniga
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Arai
Consonant system:
Number: 4184
Language: Amto
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 230
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Amto-Musian
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4185
Language: Musian
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 75
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Amto-Musian
Consonant system:
Number: 4186
Language: Urim
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4187
Language: One
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: West Wapei
Other Sources: Laycock, Donald C. 1968. "Language of the Lumi Sub-District (West Sepik District, New Guinea)," OL 7, 36-66. WALS
Consonant system: p t k m n l r Stops: p t k Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4188
Language: Seta
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 155
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: West Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4189
Language: Seti
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N West Sepik)
Population: 115
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: West Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4190
Language: Urat
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 4,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4191
Language: Yis
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 490
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4192
Language: Yau
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 140
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:
Number: 4193
Language: Olo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 10,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p t k f s m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5dmf 5 3mf 6dmf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 4194
Language: Elkei
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: Laycock, Donald C. 1968. "Language of the Lumi Sub-District (West Sepik District, New Guinea), OL 7, 36-66.
Consonant system: p t k m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (y) e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Number: 4195
Language: Au
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: Scorza, David. 1973. "Sentence Structures of the Au Language," in Three Studies in Sentence Structure, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 165-246.
Consonant system: p t k s ɣ m n ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4196
Language: Yil
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: Martens, Mary and Salme Tuominen. 1977. "A Tentative Phonemic Statement in Yil in West Sepik District," in Phonologies of Five P.N.G. Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 29-48.
Consonant system: p t k s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ay ei
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) [No ccvcc] Stress: initial
Syntax: ND
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4197
Language: Alu
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4198
Language: Ningil
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 520
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: Manning, Margaret and Naomi Saggers. 1977. "A Tentative Phonemic Statement in Yil in West Sepik District," in Phonologies of Five P.N.G. Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 49-71.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ɸ s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u (ɔ)
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Number: 4199
Language: Gnau
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4200
Language: Galu
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 210
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4201
Language: Yapunda
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 70
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Consonant system:
Number: 4202
Language: Valman Alternate Name: Walman
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Wapei
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4203
Language: Nambi
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 480
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4204
Language: Agi
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 670
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4205
Language: Aruop
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 330
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4206
Language: Kayik
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 770
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Other Sources: Laycock, Donald C. 1968. "Language of the Lumi Sub-District (West Sepik District, New Guinea), OL 7, 36-66.
Consonant system: p t k f s x m n ŋ r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4207
Language: Aiku
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 820
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4208
Language: Bragat
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 350
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4209
Language: Aru
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 125
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Wapei-Palei: Palei
Consonant system:
Number: 4210
Language: Laeko
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai
Consonant system:
Number: 4211
Language: Beli
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 1,240
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai
Consonant system:
Number: 4212
Language: Wiaki
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 560
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai
Consonant system:
Number: 4213
Language: Siliput
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai: Maimai Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 4214
Language: Yahang
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai: Maimai Proper
Other Sources: Laycock, Donald C. 1968. "Language of the Lumi Sub-District (West Sepik District, New Guinea), OL 7, 36-66.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f s h ? l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: ? Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4215
Language: Heyo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 1,870
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Maimai: Maimai Proper
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4216
Language: Eitiep
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 390
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Consonant system:
Number: 4217
Language: Lou
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 950
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Consonant system:
Number: 4218
Language: Kombio
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 2,150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4219
Language: Yambes
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 860
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Consonant system:
Number: 4220
Language: Aruek
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE West Sepik)
Population: 610
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Consonant system:
Number: 4221
Language: Wom
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 1,880
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Kombio
Consonant system:
Number: 4222
Language: Mountain Arapesh Alternate Name: Bukiyip
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 10,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Arapesh
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4223
Language: Southern Arapesh Alternate Name: Mufian
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 10,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Arapesh
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4224
Language: Bumbita
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Kombio-Arapesh: Arapesh
Consonant system:
Number: 4225
Language: Bungain
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4226
Language: Mandi
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 160
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4227
Language: Muniwara
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 830
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4228
Language: Urimo
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 830
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4229
Language: Kamasau
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 790
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4230
Language: Elepi
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 150
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4231
Language: Buna
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 1,260
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Marienberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4232
Language: Monumbo
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 450
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Monumbo
Other Sources: Höltker, Georg. 1964. "Zur Sprache der Monumbo-Papua in Nordost-Neuguinea," Anthropos 59, 860-903. WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kp q ts (dz) β (ɣ) m n l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kp q Affricates: ts (dz) Fricatives: β (ɣ) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfjH 6dmfjn 6mfjn j=juvenile, H=non-human 6f=6j=6H
Number: 4233
Language: Lilau
Location: NE Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 410
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Toricelli: Monumbo
Consonant system:
Number: 4234
Language: Gapun
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 75
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu
Consonant system:
Number: 4235
Language: Biksi
Location: Indonesia (NE West Irian)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ɸ β s m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: ɸ β s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: AN
Number: 4236
Language: Abau
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (WC West Sepik)
Population: 4,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Upper Sepik
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. "Three Upper Sepik Phonologies," OL 4, 113-8. PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system: p k s h m n r Stops: p k Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12: human, animate, round objects, pointed objects, geographical terms, flat objects + 6 others
Gender: m f [All nouns are m or f; the 12 noun classes cross out this basic distinction.]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 5d=6d, 5=6
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4237
Language: Iwam
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 3,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Upper Sepik: Iwam
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. "Three Upper Sepik Phonologies," OL 4, 113-8. Conrad, Robert J. 1972. "Distribution and Internal Structure of Some Iwam Noun Phrases," Linguistics 79, 5-30. Conrad, Robert J. 1976. "Batteries of Transformations in May River Iwam," Linguistics 184, 4-44. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: initial
Noun Classes: 5: human male, human female + 3 others
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+NUM
Number: 4238
Language: Amal
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 390
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Upper Sepik: Iwam
Consonant system:
Number: 4239
Language: Wogamusin
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 370
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Upper Sepik: Wogamusin
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. "Three Upper Sepik Phonologies," OL 4, 113-8. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ŋ ľ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: [pl suffix for kinship terms]
Noun Classes: 5: human, animate, plants + 2 others
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: NA POSS-N
Number: 4240
Language: Chenapian
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 190
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Upper Sepik: Wogamusin
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ñɡ̌ s h m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun Classes: 5: human, anim plants + 2 others
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: NA POSS-N
Number: 4241
Language: Karawa
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 45
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Ram
Consonant system:
Number: 4242
Language: Bouye
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 520
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Ram
Consonant system:
Number: 4243
Language: Autu Alternate Name: Awtuw
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (NC West Sepik)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Ram
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4244
Language: Kalou
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 820
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Tama
Consonant system:
Number: 4245
Language: Pasi
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 160
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Tama
Consonant system:
Number: 4246
Language: Pahi
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 540
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Tama
Consonant system:
Number: 4247
Language: Mehek
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 3,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Tama
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ f s h m n l r Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: NA
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4248
Language: Mayo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Tama
Other Sources: Foreman, Velma and Helen Marten. 1973. "Yessan-Mayo Phonemes," in Phonologies of Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 37-78. PLNGLS
Consonant system: mb th nd kh ŋɡ ɸ s h m n l ɾ Stops: mb th nd kh ŋɡ Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ kh ŋɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(G)(C) Stress: on first syllable containing a; if no a, then initial
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4249
Language: Namie Alternate Name: Namia
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Yellow River
Other Sources: PLNGLS SOV
Consonant system: p b t c k ɡ m n l Stops: p b t c k ɡ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA
Number: 4250
Language: Ak
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 85
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Yellow River
Consonant system:
Number: 4251
Language: Awun
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (C West Sepik)
Population: 380
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Yellow River
Consonant system:
Number: 4252
Language: Yerakai
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 390
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik
Consonant system:
Number: 4253
Language: Kwoma Alternate Name: Washkuk
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 2,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Nukuma Grammar: Kooyers, Orneal. 1974. "Washkuk Grammar Sketch," in Grammatical Studies in Three Languages of Papua New Guinea, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-74.
Other Sources: Kooyers, Orneal, Martha Kooyers and Darlene Bee. 1971. "The Phonemes of Washkuk (Kwoma)," Te Reo 14, 36-41. PLNGLS WPF
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ č ñ̃ɡ̌ ɸ β s š h m n ñ ɾ Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: č ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ mb k ŋɡ ɸ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 4d=5d, 4=5
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N D+NUM+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4254
Language: Kwanga
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 13,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Nukuma
Other Sources: PLNGLS E
Consonant system: p t k č f s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 4d=5d
Syntax: OSV N-POSS
Number: 4255
Language: Ngala
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 140
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. The Ndu Language Family. PL C1.
Consonant system: p b t k ɡ č ɡ̌ f m n ñ l r Stops: p b t k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1mf 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 2f=3f
Syntax: SOV N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4256
Language: Manambu
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: Allen, Janice D. and Phyllis W. Hurd. 1972. "Manambu Phonemes," Te Reo 15, 36-44.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ñɡ̌ v s m n ñ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k ŋɡ m Glides: j w Central Vowels: ɨ a Long Vowels: v̄ a only (= aʔa)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4257
Language: Kaunga
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 230
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. The Ndu Language Family. PL C1.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ β m n ñ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Number: 4258
Language: Abelam Alternate Name: Ambulas
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW East Sepik)
Population: 39,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu Grammar: Laycock, D. C. 1965. The Ndu Language Family. PL C1.
Other Sources: Wilson, Patricia R. 1973. "Abulas Sentences" in Three Studies in Sentence Structure, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 21-164. Wilson, Patricia. 1976. "Abulas Dialect Survey," in Surveys in Five P.N.G. Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 51-79. PLNGLS E
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ñɡ̌ β s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: OSV NA(AN) GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N D+A+N+NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4259
Language: Boiken
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 31,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: Freudenburg, Allen and Marlene Freudenburg. 1974. "Boiken Phonemes," in Phonologies of Four Papua New Guinea Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 45-96. Laycock, D. C. 1965. The Ndu Language Family. PL C1.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ t̪s ɸ s x ɣ m n l r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: t̪s Fricatives: ɸ s x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj (n̪) l̪ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV GN DN N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4260
Language: Sawos
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NC East Sepik)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Consonant system:
Number: 4261
Language: Iatmul
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 9,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: Laycock, D. C. 1965. The Ndu Language Family. PL C1. Staalsen, Philip. 1966. "The Phonemes of Iatmul" PL A7, 69-76. Staalsen, Philip. 1972. "Clause Relationships in Iatmul" PL A31, 45-69. Staalsen, Philip. 1969. "The Dialects of Iatmul," PL A22, 69-84. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ndz β s ɣ m n ñ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ndz Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) [ no CCVCC or CCCVCC] Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 5d=6d
Syntax: SOV AN NUM-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4262
Language: Kwasengen Alternate Name: Hanga Hundi
Location: PNG (East Sepik)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Middle Sepik: Ndu
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4263
Language: Sanio Alternate Name: Saniyo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 640
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Other Sources: Lewis, R. K. 1972 "Sanio-Hiowe Paragraph Structure," PL A31, 1-9. Lewis, Sandra C. 1972. "Sanio-Hiowe Verb Phrases," PL A31, 11-22.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4264
Language: Paka
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Consonant system:
Number: 4265
Language: Gabiano Alternate Name: Niksek
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4266
Language: Piame
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Consonant system:
Number: 4267
Language: Bikaru
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Consonant system:
Number: 4268
Language: Hewa Dialect: Yoliapi
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (NW Western Highlands)
Population: 1,000 (150)
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Sanio
Other Sources: Cochran, Anne. 1968. "Notes on Yoliapi," Kivung 1, 134-45.
Consonant system: p t k ɸ β s x ɣ m n l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: ɸ β s x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN [in locative phrases]) GN ND/(DN [in locative phrases]) N-NUM N-POSS/(POSS-N [with kinship nouns in locative phrases]) N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4269
Language: Bitara
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (EC West Sepik)
Population: 180
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Consonant system:
Number: 4270
Language: Bahinemo
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 430
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Other Sources: Longacre, Robert E. 1972. Hierarchy and Universality of Discourse Constituents in New Guinea Languages: Texts. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4271
Language: Mari
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (SE West Sepik)
Population: 120
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Consonant system:
Number: 4272
Language: Bisis
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Consonant system:
Number: 4273
Language: Watakataui
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 160
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Consonant system:
Number: 4274
Language: Kapriman Alternate Name: Sare
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4275
Language: Sumariup
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 65
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Bahinemo
Consonant system:
Number: 4276
Language: Kaningara
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 360
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Alamblak
Consonant system:
Number: 4277
Language: Alamblak
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Sepik: Sepik Hill: Alamblak Grammar: Bruce, Leslie P., Jr. 1979. A Grammar of Alamblak (Papua New Guinea). Canberra: Australian National University Diss.
Other Sources: Bruce, Leslie P., Jr. 1975. "Alamblak Alveopalatals - Dead Portmanteaus," PL A40, 91-102.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4278
Language: Walio
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 140
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Walio
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: yes
Number: 4279
Language: Pai
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 210
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Walio
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: yes
Syntax: NA
Number: 4280
Language: Yabio
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Walio
Consonant system:
Number: 4281
Language: Tuwari
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 120
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Walio
Consonant system:
Number: 4282
Language: Papi
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 75
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Papi
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: yes
Number: 4283
Language: Duranmin
Location: WC Papua New Guinea (SC West Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Leonard Schultze: Papi
Consonant system:
Number: 4284
Language: Murik
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Nor Grammar: GD: Schmidt, Josef, 1953. Vokabular und Grammatik der Murik-Sprache in Nordost-Neuguinea. Posieux, Switzerland: Anthropos Institut.
Consonant system:
Number: 4285
Language: Kopar
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 230
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Nor
Consonant system:
Number: 4286
Language: Chambri
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (WC East Sepik)
Population: 1,050
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Pondo
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p b t d ɟ k ɡ s m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Noun
Number: s d p
Noun Classes: yes
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA
Number: 4287
Language: Yimas
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (SC East Sepik)
Population: 200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Pondo
Consonant system:
Number: 4288
Language: Karawari
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (SC East Sepik)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Pondo
Consonant system:
Number: 4289
Language: Angoram
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 6,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Nor-Pondo: Pondo
Other Sources: Litteral, Shirley. 1972. "Orientation to Space and Participants in Anggor," PL A31, 23-44.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɸ s x m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4290
Language: Langam
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 250
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Mongol-Langam
Consonant system:
Number: 4291
Language: Mongol
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 340
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Mongol-Langam
Consonant system:
Number: 4292
Language: Yaul
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 810
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Mongol-Langam
Consonant system:
Number: 4293
Language: Maramba
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba
Consonant system:
Number: 4294
Language: Changriwa
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba: Yuat
Consonant system:
Number: 4295
Language: Mekmek
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 1,040
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba: Yuat
Consonant system:
Number: 4296
Language: Miyak
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 580
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba: Yuat
Consonant system:
Number: 4297
Language: Biwat
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba: Yuat
Consonant system:
Number: 4298
Language: Bun
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 190
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Yuat-Maramba: Yuat
Consonant system:
Number: 4299
Language: Waibuk Alternate Name: Haruai
Location: C Papua New Guinea (NE Western Highlands)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Waibuk
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4300
Language: Aramo
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Waibuk
Consonant system:
Number: 4301
Language: Pinai
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SC East Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Waibuk
Consonant system:
Number: 4302
Language: Wapi
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Yuat-Waibuk: Waibuk
Consonant system:
Number: 4303
Language: Banaro Alternate Name: Banaro
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (SE East Sepik)
Population: 2,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Grass
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4304
Language: Kambot
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (C East Sepik)
Population: 5,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Grass
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd ñ̃ɟ k ŋɡ v s m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p mb t nd ñ̃ɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 (4die) 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4305
Language: Aion Alternate Name: Ambakich
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 770
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Grass
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4306
Language: Adjora
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NE East Sepik)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Grass
Consonant system:
Number: 4307
Language: Gorovu
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (E East Sepik)
Population: 50
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Grass
Consonant system:
Number: 4308
Language: Alfendio
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S East Sepik)
Population: 630
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Arafundi
Consonant system:
Number: 4309
Language: Meakambut
Location: C Papua New Guinea (S East Sepik)
Population: 100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Arafundi
Consonant system:
Number: 4310
Language: Rao
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 5,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Annaberg
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4311
Language: Anor
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 570
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Annaberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4312
Language: Aiome
Location: C Papua New Guinea (SW Madang)
Population: 830
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Annaberg
Consonant system:
Number: 4313
Language: Watam
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 370
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Ottilien
Consonant system:
Number: 4314
Language: Gamei Alternate Name: Borei
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Ottilien
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 ? ?
Number: 4315
Language: Kaian
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 280
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Ottilien
Consonant system:
Number: 4316
Language: Bosman Alternate Name: Bosngun
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 760
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Ottilien
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4317
Language: Awar Alternate Name: Nubia
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 530
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Ottilien
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4318
Language: Giri Alternate Name: Kire
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Misegian
Other Sources: Stanhope, John M. 1972. "The Language of the Kire People, Bogia, Madang District, New Guinea," Anthropos 67, 49-71.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ f v s z h m n ŋ r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: (j) w Front Vowels: I ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ a ɛ ...
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: on first vowel after first consonant
Noun
Number: s d p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4319
Language: Sepen
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 430
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Misegian
Consonant system:
Number: 4320
Language: Mikarew Alternate Name: Makarub
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 5,900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Ruboni: Misegian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4321
Language: Andarum
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 720
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Ataitan
Consonant system:
Number: 4322
Language: Igom
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Ataitan
Consonant system:
Number: 4323
Language: Tangu Alternate Name: Tanggum
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 2,700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Ataitan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4324
Language: Tanguat
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 510
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Ataitan
Consonant system:
Number: 4325
Language: Romkun
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 390
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4326
Language: Breri
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4327
Language: Kominimung
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 330
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4328
Language: Igana
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 115
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4329
Language: Akrukay
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 190
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4330
Language: Itutang
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (NW Madang)
Population: 220
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4331
Language: Midsivindi
Location: NC Papua New Guinea (W Madang)
Population: 690
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Sepik-Ramu: Ramu: Ramu Proper: Goam: Tamolan
Consonant system:
Number: 4332
Language: Yele Alternate Name: Yeli Dnye
Location: Papua New Guinea (Rossel Island)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons Grammar: Henderson, J. E. 1975. "Yeletnye, the Language of Rossel Island," in SLCSEP, 817-33.
Other Sources: Ray, Sidney H. 1938. "The Language of the Eastern Luisades Archipelago," BSOAD 9, 363-84. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb tp t nd k ŋɡ kp ŋmɡb č ñ̃ɡ̌ β ɣ m nm n ŋ ŋm l Stops: p mb tp t nd k ŋɡ kp ŋmɡb Affricates: č ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: β ɣ Nasals: m nm n ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p t l ... cʷ k ŋ mb Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I Y e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ ʌ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N N+A+NUM
Prep/Post: POST Comments: The vowel system appears to be phonetic rather than phonemic.
Number: 4333
Language: Kazukuru
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Kazukuru
Consonant system:
Number: 4334
Language: Guliguli
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Kazukuru
Consonant system:
Number: 4335
Language: Dororo
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Kazukuru
Consonant system:
Number: 4336
Language: Bilua
Location: Solomon Is (Vella Lavella Is)
Population: 4,300
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Central Solomons
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 4337
Language: Baniata
Location: Solomon Is (Rendova Is)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Central Solomons
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s d t p
Gender: m f n1 n2 [2 neuters] Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4dimf 4demf 4timf 4temf 4ie 2 5dmf 5tmf 5 3mfn1n2* 6dmfn 6tmfn 6mfn [6m=6f] * there are two distinct neuters
Syntax: AN DN
Number: 4338
Language: Lavukaleve
Location: Solomon Is (Russel Is)
Population: 700
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Central Solomons
Other Sources: PLNGLS WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6dmfn *6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Number: 4339
Language: Savosavo
Location: Solomon Is (Savo Is)
Population: 950
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: Yele-Solomons: Central Solomons
Other Sources: PLNGLS
Consonant system: p mb t nd ñɟ k ŋɡ v s z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4340
Language: Sulka
Location: Papua New Guinea (E New Britain)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4341
Language: Kol
Location: Papua New Guinea (E New Britain)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4342
Language: Wasi
Location: Papua New Guinea (EC New Britain)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain
Consonant system:
Number: 4343
Language: Anem
Location: Papua New Guinea (W New Britain)
Population: 500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4344
Language: Panaras Alternate Name: Kuot
Location: Papua New Guinea (C New Ireland)
Population: 900
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4345
Language: Baining
Location: Papua New Guinea (E New Britain)
Population: 4,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain: Baining-Taulil
Other Sources: Parker, Jim and Diana Parker. 1974. "A Tentative Phonology of Baining," in Phonologies of Four Papua New Guinea Languages, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-43.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) s ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ ɣ ŋ Glides: w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ɛi
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) [no CCVCC] lˈ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p Articles: art
Syntax: SVO
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4346
Language: Taulil
Location: Papua New Guinea (E New Britain)
Population: 400
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain: Baining-Taulil
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4347
Language: Butam
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Yele-Solomons--New Britain: New Britain: Baining-Taulil
Consonant system:
Number: 4348
Language: Nasioi
Location: Papua New Guinea (S Bougainville)
Population: 11,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: East: Nasioi
TextBooks: TD: Hurd, Conrad and Phyllis Hurd. 1966. Nasioi Language Course. Port Moresby: Dept of Information and Extension Services.
Other Sources: Hurd, Conrad and Phyllis Hurd. 1970. "Nasioi Verbs," OL 9, 37-78.
Consonant system: p b t d k ʔ m n ŋ Stops: p b t d k ʔ Nasals: m n ŋ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ Stress: non-phonemic (initial/second)
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4349
Language: Nagovisi
Location: Papua New Guinea (S Bougainville)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: East: Nasioi
Consonant system:
Number: 4350
Language: Buin
Location: Papua New Guinea (S Bougainville)
Population: 9,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: East: Buin
Other Sources: Laycock, Don. 1969. "Sublanguages in Buin: Play, Poetry, and Preservation," PL A22, 1-23. Griffin, Margie. 1970 "Buin Directionals," PL A26, 13-22. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k ɡ m n ŋ r Stops: p t k ɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Noun
Number: s d p for kinship terms
Gender: m f ... Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6dmf* 6mf* 4d=5d 4=5 *For groups consisting of both men and women, the feminine non-singular forms are used.
Syntax: SOV GN DN POSS-N(1)/N-POSS(2-6)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4351
Language: Siwai
Location: Papua New Guinea (S Bougainville)
Population: 6,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: East: Buin
Consonant system:
Number: 4352
Language: Konua
Location: Papua New Guinea (N Bougainville)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: West
Consonant system:
Number: 4353
Language: Keriaka
Location: Papua New Guinea (N Bougainville)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: West
Consonant system:
Number: 4354
Language: Rotokas
Location: Papua New Guinea (C Bougainville)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: West: Rotukas
Other Sources: Firchow, Irwin and Jacqueline Firchow. 1969. "An Abbreviated Phoneme Inventory," AL 11, 271-6. Firchow, Irwin B. 1971. "Rotokas Referentials," Kivung 4, 175-86. PLNGLS
Consonant system: p t k ɡ β ıThe absence of nasal phonemes in the main dialect makes this lanɡuaɡe a curiosity.ı Firchow & Firchow 1969, 271. ɾ Stops: p t k ɡ Fricatives: β Nasals: "The absence of nasal phonemes in the main dialect makes this lanɡuaɡe a curiosity." Firchow & Firchow 1969, 271. Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4355
Language: Eivo
Location: Papua New Guinea (C Bougainville)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Bougainville: West: Rotukas
Consonant system:
Number: 4356
Language: Aiwo Alternate Name: Reefs, Ayiwo, Nifiloe
Location: Santa Cruz Archipelago (Reef Islands)
Population: 3,600
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1970. "Austronesian and the Vocabulary of Languages of the Reef and Santa Cruz Islands - A Preliminary Approach" in PL C13, 467-553. Wurm, S. A. 1972. "Notes on the Indication of Possession with Nouns in Reef and Santa Cruz Islands," PL A35, 85-113. ANLGS ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k (kh) ŋɡ v s m n ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k (kh) ŋɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: ? cj p nd n cʷ p mb k (ŋɡ) m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ej ow Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/OVS NA ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4357
Language: Santa Cruz Dialect: Nelua
Location: Santa Cruz Is (N Santa Cruz Is)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1970. "Austronesian and the Vocabulary of Languages of the Reef and Santa Cruz Islands - A Preliminary Approach," in PL C13, 467-553. ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v m n ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj t n cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: The women are reported to speak differently from the men, using different words." ML, 487.
Number: 4358
Language: Santa Cruz Dialect: Malo
Location: Santa Cruz Is (S Trevanion Is)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1970. "Austronesian and the Vocabulary of Languages of the Reef and Santa Cruz Islands - A Preliminary Approach," in PL C13, 467-553. Wurm, S. A. 1972. "Notes on the Indication of Possession with Nouns in Reef and Santa Cruz Islands," PL A35, 85-113. ANLGS
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ v s m n ŋ l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p (mb) k n cʷ p mb t nd k ŋɡ m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ı̃ æ̃ ǝ̃ ã ũ õ ɒ̃ Diphthongs: ej Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(OVS) NA N-POSS
Number: 4359
Language: Santa Cruz Dialect: Eastern Nea
Location: Santa Cruz Is (SW Santa Cruz)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1972. "Notes on the Indication of Possession with Nouns in Reef and Santa Cruz Islands," PL A35, 85-113. ANLGS
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ v s m n ŋ l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p nd n cʷ p mb t nd k ŋɡ m n ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ỹ̃ ẽ ø̃̃ ǝ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Diphthongs: aj ej ɛj ǝw ow ao Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(OVS) NA N-POSS
Number: 4360
Language: Santa Cruz Dialect: Western Nea
Location: Santa Cruz Is (SW Santa Cruz)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1970. "Austronesian and the Vocabulary of Languages of the Reef and Santa Cruz Islands - A Preliminary Approach," in PL C13, 467-553. Wurm, S. A. 1972. "Notes on the Indication of Possession with Nouns in Reef and Santa Cruz Islands," PL A35, 85-113. ANLGS
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ v s m n ŋ l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p nd n cʷ p mb t (nd) (k) ŋɡ m n (ŋ) Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ̃ỹ ø̃ ǝ̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: aj ej ɛj ǝw ao Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(OVS) NA N-POSS
Number: 4361
Language: Nanggu
Location: Santa Cruz Is
Population: 250
Classification: Indo-Pacific: East Papuan: Reef Islands-Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. 1972. "Notes on the Indication of Possession with Nouns in Reef and Santa Cruz Islands," PL A35, 85-113. Wurm, S. A. 1970. "Austronesian and the Vocabulary of Languages of the Reef and Santa Cruz Islands - A Preliminary Approach" in PL C13, 467-553. ANLGS
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ m n ŋ l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p mb t nd m n l cʷ p mb t nd k ŋɡ m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ǝ̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: aj ej ow aw ɔw Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(OVS) NA N-POSS
Number: 4362
Language: Yau
Classification: Indo-Pacific: Trans-New Guinea: Central & Western: Finisterre-Huon: Finisterre: Uruwa
Consonant system:

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