Типологии аустрических языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по аустрическим языкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Аустрической макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X аустрических языковых систем, распределённых по 4 семьям и 2 ветвям:

  1. Типологические обзоры языков мяо-яоской семьи (Miao-Yao)
  2. Типологические обзоры языков австроазиатской семьи (Austroasiatic) с праавстроазиатским
  3. Типологический обзор австро-тайского праязыка (Proto-Austro-Tai)
  4. Типологические обзоры языков даической семьи (Daic)
  5. Типологические обзоры языков австронезийской семьи (Austronesian)

Здесь австронезийские языки относятся к австро-тайской надветви, но в даических (паратайских) языках это, почему-то, не указано. Мяо-яо и австроазиатские тоже предполлагаются принадлежащими к мяо-австроазиатской ветви (здесь это не указано).


Типологические обзоры языков мяо-яоской семьи

Number: 2352
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong
Location: Thailand
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao
Other Sources: Smalley, William A. 1976. "The Problems of Consonants and Tone: Hmong (Meo, Miao)," PL C43, 85-??
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ʔt̪h c ch k kh q qh ʔ pl plh t̪l t̪lh t̪s t̪sh č čh f s̪ ṣ̌ šj h v ẓ̌ m ml n̪ ñ m̥ m̥l n̪̥ ñ̥ l̪ l̪̥ ṛ ṛ̥ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h ʔt̪h c ch k kh q qh ʔ Affricates: pl plh t̪l t̪lh t̪s t̪sh č čh Fricatives: f v s̪ ṣ̌ ẓ̌ šj h Nasals: m m̥ ml m̥l n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: ṛ ṛ̥ Modified Consonants: Nc ph b th d ch ɟ kh ɡ qh G pl plh ts tsh č čh ṛ ṛ̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ɨ a o ɔ Diphthongs: ai iǝ ǝɨ uǝ ɔw
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev mid-ris lo-mid-lev lo-mid-lev-breathy lo-lev-glot
Number: 2353
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: Yi
Location: S China (Kweichow)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao
Other Sources: AL 7:9
Consonant system: p ph t th (ṭ) c k kh kʷ (q) ʔ (č) (ṣ) h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph t th (ṭ) c k kh kʷ (q) ʔ Affricates: (č) Fricatives: (ṣ) h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: cj p t c ph ch m n Nc ? Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au aɨ ɑi ɑu ɑɨ
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris mid-lev mid-ris mid-fall lo-lev lo-fall
Number: 2354
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: Black
Location: S China (SE Kweichow)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q qh ʔ č čh f fh v s sh š šh x ɣ h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l ɬ ɬh Stops: p ph t th k kh q qh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f fh v s sh š šh x ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɬh Modified Consonants: cj p ph t th ɬ ɬh l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris hi-mid-lev mid-lev lo-mid-lev lo-lev lo-ris fall
Number: 2355
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: Red
Location: S China (W Hunan)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th c ch k kh q qh ṭs ṭsh ṣ ẓ ṣ̌ h ɦ m n ñ ŋ l l̥ Stops: p ph t th c ch k kh q qh Affricates: ṭs ṭsh Fricatives: ṣ ẓ ṣ̌ h ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-ris mid-fall lo-ris
Syntax: SVO AN/NA ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2356
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: White
Location: N Laos
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao Dictionary: Bertrais-Charrier, Yves. 1964. Dictionnaire hmong (Mèo blanc) - français. Vientiane, Laos: Mission Catholique.
Other Sources: Downer, G. B. 1967. "Tone Change and Tone-Shift in White Miao," BSOAS 30, 589-99.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh c ch k khq qh pl plh ts tsh č čh f v s z š ç j ̂ χ m m̥ ml m̥l n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ l l̥ ḷ ḷ̥ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh c ch k kh q qh Affricates: pl plh ts tsh č čh Fricatives: f v s z š ç j ̂ χ Nasals: m m̥ ml m̥l n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ Laterals: l l̥ ḷ ḷ̥ Modified Consonants: Nc p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh q qh pl plh ts tsh č čh
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ: e o Diphthongs: ai ia aɯ au ua
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev mid-ris mid-fall lo-lev lo-fall lo-ris Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2357
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: Ch'uan Ch'ientien
Location: S China (Kweichow)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao
Other Sources: Mao Tsung-wu and Chou Tsu-yao. 1972. "A Brief Description of the Yao Language," in MYLS, 239-55.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh q qh (ʔ) pl plh tl̥ tl̥hts tsh ṭ̣s ṭsh č čh f v s ṣ ẓ š ž h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l l̥ Stops: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh q qh (ʔ) Affricates: pl plh tl̥ tl̥h ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: f v s ṣ ẓ š ž h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: Nc p ph pl plh ts tsh t th ṭ ṭh ṭ̣̣s ṭsh č čh k kh q qh Glides: (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ua ai eɯ au ou (ie ue ei ia) (uei uai iau iou)
Tones: hi-mid-fall mid-fall hi-lev lo-mid-fall hi-mid-lev lo-ris mid-lev lo-mid-ris Demonstratives: 8 (this/that/that above/that below/that to the side & not seen/that far to the side & not seen/that in front/that inside) + ref
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Dialect differences in phonology: (1) Some dialects lack prenasalized obstruents. (2) Some dialects lack uvular consonants (q qh). (3) Some dialects have preglottalized nasals, laterals, glides and z. (4) Some dialects have nasal vowels. (5) The number of tones in Miao dialects ranges from 4 to 11. (6) Some dialects have additional vowel phonemes: ɛ ɔ ɵ ɣ ɨ ɯ y.
Number: 2358
Language: Miao Alternate Name: Hmong Dialect: Hmong Daw
Location: N Thailand
Population: 4 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Miao Dictionary: Heimbach, Ernest E. 1969. White Meo-English Dictionary. CUDP 75.
Consonant system: p ph mb mph t̪ t̪h ʔt̪h c ch k kh q qh ʔ pl pɬ mbl mpɬ t̪s t̪sh nd̪z ntsh č čh ñɡ̌ ñčh f v s̪ š ž ç h m m̥ ml m̥l n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ (ŋ) l ɬ Stops: p ph mb mph t̪ t̪h ʔt̪h c ch k kh q qh ʔ Affricates: pl pɬ mbl mpɬ t̪s t̪sh nd̪z ntsh č čh ñɡ̌ ñčh Fricatives: f v s̪ š ž ç h Nasals: m m̥ ml m̥l n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ (ŋ) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ǝ̃ õ (ɨ̃ ɔ̃) Diphthongs: ai ia ǝɨ ɔw uǝ
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev-glot hi-fall mid-fall-breathy mid-ris lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN/NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2359
Language: Laka Alternate Name: Yao
Location: S China (Kwangsi)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao
Other Sources: Mao Tsung-wu and Chou Tsu-yao. 1972. "A Brief Description of the Yao Language," in MYLS, 239-55.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔb pl plh ts tsh ʔbl f θ h m ml n ŋ m̥ n̥ l ɬ Stops: p ph ʔb t th k kh Affricates: pl plh ʔbl ts tsh Fricatives: f θ h Nasals: m m̥ ml n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: cj k kh ŋ ŋ̥ h cʷ k kh ŋ h Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i (ɨ) u ɛ (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ũ õ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ie uǝ ai oi ui iu ɛu au ou iẽ ẽi ãi õi ũi iũ ɛ̃u ãu uǝi ieu
Tones: hi-fall lo-mid-ris-fall lo-mid-ris lo-lev hi-lev lo-mid-fall-ris Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND POSS-N
Number: 2360
Language: Punu Alternate Name: Bunu
Location: S China (Kuang-hsi)
Population: 237,000
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao
Other Sources: Mao Tsung-wu and Chou Tsu-yao. 1972. "A Brief Description of the Yao Language," in MYLS, 239-55. Haudricourt, A. G. 1969. "Occlusives latérales dans le sud-est asiatique," BSLP 64, 221-32.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh ts tsh tl tlh f v θ ṣ ẓ z̥̣ ɣ h m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ṇ̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ Stops: p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh Affricates: ts tsh tl tlh Fricatives: f v θ ṣ ẓ z̥̣ ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ṇ̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: Nc p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh ts tsh tl tlh cʷ k kh ŋk ŋkh ŋ ŋ̥ h Glides: j j̥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Diphthongs: ei ai oi au ɤu ua ia iau
Tones: mid-lev lo-ris hi-lev lo-mid-ris-fall hi-mid-fall-to-2 lo-mid-lev hi-mid-fall-to-1 lo-mid-fall Demonstratives: 4 (proximate/medial/distant/that distant and not visible) + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND POSS-N
Number: 2361
Language: Mien Alternate Name: Yao
Location: N Thailand (Chiengrai)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao Dictionary: Lombard, Sylvia J. 1968. Yao-English Dictionary. Ithaca: Dept of Asian Studies, Cornell Univ.
Other Sources: Downer, G. B. 1961. "Phonology of the Word in Highland Yao," BSOAS 24, 531-41. Purnell, Herbert Charles, Jr. 1965. Phonology of a Yao Dialect Spoken in the Province of Chiengrai, Thailand. HSL 15. Callaway, Lois and C. W. Callaway. 1976. "Mien (Yao)," PL C43, 221-37.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ f s̪ h m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh d̪z č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ a only Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C) (No CCCVC) Nˈ
Tones: hi-ris-fall hi-mid-lev mid-fall lo-mid-ris lo-mid-ris-fall lo-level
Syntax: SVO AN/NA GN DN NUM-N
Number: 2362
Language: Mien Alternate Name: Yao Dialect: P'u K'amteng
Location: NW Laos
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ts tsh f s h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: cj = k kh n n̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris-fall hi-mid-lev hi-mid-fall lo-mid-ris lo-lev lo-fall-glot lo-ris-fall
Number: 2363
Language: Mien Alternate Name: Yao Dialect: Pa-P'ai
Location: S China (NE Kwangtung)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao
Other Sources: AL 7:4
Consonant system: p b t d ḍ c k ɡ ʔ f v š h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d ḍ c k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v š h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: mˈ Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall mid-lev mid-fall lo-lev
Number: 2364
Language: Mien Alternate Name: Yao Dialect: Kwangsi
Location: S China (Kwangsi)
Population: 1 million (326,000)
Classification: Austric: Miao-Yao: Yao
Other Sources: Mao Tsung-wu and Chou Tsu-yao. 1972. "A Brief Description of the Yao Language," in MYLS, 239-55.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ (ʔ) (ıIt is highly likely that there were no native aspirated initials in Mien.ı p. 240 ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ f s š h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l ɬ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ (ʔ) (ıIt is highly likely that there were no native aspirated initials in Mien.ı p. 240 Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: cj p ph b m m̥ f ts tsh dz s t th d n n̥ l ɬ cʷ p ph b m m̥ f ts tsh dz s t th d l ɬ č čh ɡ̌ ñ ñ̥ š k kh ɡ ŋ h cjʷ k kh ɡ h Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ei ai ɔi ui iu eu au ou
Tones: mid-lev lo-mid-fall hi-fall lo-mid-ris-fall lo-mid-ris lo-ris hi-lev
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN POSS-N

Типологические обзоры языков австроазиатской семьи

Number: 2365
Language: Proto-Austroasiatic
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic
Other Sources: Benedict, Paul K. 1975. "Austro-Thai and Austroasiatic," in Austro-Thai: Language and Culture, by Paul K. Benedict, 464-90. [Also in AAS 1, 1-36.] Pinnow, H. J. 1965. "Personal Pronouns in the Austroasiatic Languages: A Historical Study," Lingua 14, 3-42.
Consonant system: p b mb t d c ɟ k ɡ q G ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b mb t d c ɟ k ɡ q G ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2366
Language: Korku
Location: C India (NW Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 284,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North
Other Sources: Zide, N. H. 1960. Korku Phonology and Morphophonemics. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Diss. Zide. Norman H. 1979. "Korku Syllables and Syllable Stress," PL C45, 161-86. AL 8:4 WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th c ch k kh ʔ b b̤ d d̤ ɟ ɟ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ s h m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b ph b̤ t th d d̤ c ch ɟ ɟ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w w̃
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2367
Language: Santali
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 3.7 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Santali Dictionary: Bodding, P. O. 1929-36. A Santal Dictionary, 5 vols. Oslo: Jacob Dybwad.
Other Sources: Sebeok, Thomas A. 1943. "Phonemic System of Santali," JAOS 63, 66-7. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ v s̪ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: GN
Number: 2368
Language: Turi
Location: India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Santali
Consonant system:
Number: 2369
Language: Mundari Alternate Name: Bhumij
Location: NE India (N Orissa)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari
Other Sources: Gumperz, John J. 1957. "Notes on the Phonology of Mundari," IL 17, 6-15. Stampe, David L. 1966. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 32, 74-80. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ (ʔ) č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n̪ ṇ l̪ ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ (ʔ) Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai ui oi ae oe au ou oa ua ia ea eo
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Gender: a i
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2370
Language: Mundari Dialect: Hasada
Location: NE India (Bihar)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari
Other Sources: Sinha, N. K. 1974. Mundari Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ʔ) č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ ṇ l r (ɾ̣) Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r (ɾ̣) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ea eo ia iu oa oe ui ua Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2371
Language: Ho
Location: NE India (Bihar)
Population: 800,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari Grammar: Denney, J. n.d. Ho Grammar and Vocabulary. Chaibasa, Bihar: Xavier Ho Publications.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ h m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony v̰ (=glottalized=vʔv) all ṽ̰ all Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: a i Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2372
Language: Korwa
Location: India (Bihar)
Population: 66,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari
Consonant system:
Number: 2373
Language: Birhor
Location: India (Bihar)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari
Consonant system:
Number: 2374
Language: Asuri
Location: India (Bihar)
Population: 5,800
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: North: Kherwari: Mundari
Consonant system:
Number: 2375
Language: Kharia
Location: NE India (Bihar)
Population: 160,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Central Grammar: GD: Biligiri, Hemmige Shriniwasarangachar. 1965. Kharia. Poona: Deccan College.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s d p (anim only)
Gender: a i Demonstratives: 4: 3 + that invisible Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS(kinship terms, body parts) D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2376
Language: Juang Dialect: Phulbadi
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Central Grammar: Matson, D. M. 1964. A Grammarical Sketch of Juang. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Diss.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ s m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 2377
Language: Juang Dialect: Suakati
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Central
Other Sources: Pinnow, H. J. 1966. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 32, 76. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u (o) ɔ (ɑ) Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ei ɛi ai ɑi ɔi oi ui au ɑu ɔu ae ɑe ɔe iɛ uɛ io ao aɔ uɔ ua
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Number: 2378
Language: Gorum
Location: NE India (Orissa)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Sora-Gorum
Other Sources: Bhattacharya, Sudhibhushan. 1954. "Studies in the Parengi Language," IL 14, 512-28. Zide, Arlene R. K. 1963. Parengi Phonology. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania M.A. Thesis. Zide, Arlene R. K. 1972. "Transitive and Causative in Gorum," JL 8, 201-15. Aze, F. Richard. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Parengi-Gorum," in PCSD I, 235-312. Aze, Richard and Trish Aze. 1973. "Parengi Texts," in PCSD III, 213-362.
Consonant system: p b t̪ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2379
Language: Sora
Location: E India (S Orissa)
Population: 220,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Sora-Gorum
Other Sources: Biligiri, H. S. 1965. "The Sora Verb," Lingua 15, 231-50. Stampe, David L. 1965. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 31, 332-41. Starosta, Stanley. 1971. "Derivation and Case in Sora Verbs," IL 32, 194-206. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ɯ u ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV GN DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2380
Language: Juray
Location: E India
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Sora-Gorum
Consonant system:
Number: 2381
Language: Gutob
Location: India (Orissa)
Population: 43,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Gutob-Remo-Gta'
Other Sources: Stampe, David L. 1965. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 31, 332-41. De Armond, Richard C. 1976. "Proto-Gutob-Remo-Gtaq Stressed Monosyllabic Vowels and Initial Consonants," in AAS 1, 213-27.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ (ts) ɡ̌ (f) s z (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ts) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)(C)
Number: 2382
Language: Remo
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Gutob-Remo-Gta' Grammar: Fernandez, Frank. 1967. A Grammatical Sketch of Remo: A Munda Language. Chapel Hill: Univ of North Carolina. Fernandez, F. 1965. A Grammar of Remo. Chapel Hill: Univ of North Carolina Diss.
Other Sources: De Armond, Richard C. 1976. "Proto-Gutob-Remo-Gtaq Stressed Monosyllabic Vowels and Initial Consonants," in AAS 1, 213-27.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s z m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ r̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants:Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ õ Diphthongs: ij aw ẽj ãj õj
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: hum non-hum Demonstratives: 4 (close by/middle distance-near/middle distance-far/far)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2383
Language: Plains Gta'
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Gutob-Remo-Gta'
Other Sources: Stampe, David L. 1965. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 31, 332-341. De Armond, Richard C. 1976. "Proto-Gutob-Remo-Gtaq Stressed Monosyllabic Vowels and Initial Consonants," in AAS 1, 213-27.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Syllable:
Number: 2384
Language: Hill Gta'
Location: E India (Orissa)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Munda: South: Koraput: Gutob-Remo-Gta'
Consonant system:
Number: 2385
Language: Khasi Dialect: Cherrapunji
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 950,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Khasi Grammar: Rabel, Lili. 1961. Khasi, A Language of Assam. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ Press.
Other Sources: AL 8:4 WALS WPF
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d ɡ̌ (ɸ) s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: (ɸ) s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2386
Language: Amwi
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Khasi Grammar: Weidert, Alfons. 1975. I Tkong Amwi. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassomitz.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d č čh ɡ̌ s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o Diphthongs: ia ua iã uã
Syllable: (C)CV(C), nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2387
Language: Mang
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2388
Language: Danau
Location: Myanmar
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East
Other Sources: Luce, G. H. 1965. "Danaw, A Dying Austroasiatic Language," Lingua 14, 98-129.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ ts tsh č ɡ̌ θ s sh h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: ts tsh č ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ s sh h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj b k l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɤ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Tones: lo-lev hi-fall lo-fall (ris)
Number: 2389
Language: Riang
Location: Myanmar
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East
Other Sources: Shorto, H. L. 1963. "The Structural Patterns of Northern Mon-Khmer Languages," in Linguistic Comparison in South East Asia and the Pacific, ed. by H. L. Shorto, London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 45-61. E
Consonant system: p b t d c k ʔ v s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c k ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ch analyzed as clusters (ph th ch kh) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: ua iɛ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)
Tones: lev fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2390
Language: Shwe Alternate Name: Palaung
Location: NC Myanmar
Population: 139,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East: Palaung
Other Sources: Shorto,H. L. 1960. "Word and Syllable Patterns in Palaung," BSOAS 23, ??-??. Shorto, H. L. 1963. "The Structural Patterns of Northern Mon-Khmer Languages," in Linguistic Comparison in South East Asia and the Pacific, ed. by H. L. Shorto, London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 45-61. WALS
Consonant system: p b t̪ d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ f v s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ch & c̥ are analyzed as clusters ch and hc respectively {ch = p t k, c ̥= m n ñ ŋ l r j v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: eo ɛǝ aɛ oǝ iǝ eǝ uǝ (aǝ) (ɔɛ)
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev mid-fall
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N+A+Num+D
Number: 2391
Language: Da'ang Alternate Name: Laiyolo
Location: Indosesia (Sulawesi)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East: Palaung
Consonant system:
Number: 2392
Language: Rumai
Location: Myanmar
Population: 139,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East: Palaung
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2393
Language: Bonglong
Location: N Myanmar
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East: Palaung
Consonant system:
Number: 2394
Language: Pale Alternate Name: Palaung
Location: Myanmar
Population: 250,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: East: Palaung
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2395
Language: Lamet
Location: NW Laos
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Lamet-Khamet
Consonant system:
Number: 2396
Language: Khamet
Location: Thailand
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Lamet-Khamet
Consonant system: Comments: According to the Ethnologue Khamet is the same langauge as Lamet. Khamet is used in Laos and Lamet in Thailand.
Number: 2397
Language: Phang
Location: China
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Bulang
Consonant system:
Number: 2398
Language: P'uman2
Location: S China (Yünnan)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Bulang
Other Sources: Ferrell, Raleigh. 1971. "Le p'u-man, langue austroasiatique," BSLP 66, 405-12.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ɸ β s h m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj t th k h n l cʷ p t k m ŋ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ
Tones: hi lo
Number: 2399
Language: Plang Alternate Name: Blang
Location: China
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Bulang
Consonant system:
Number: 2400
Language: Tai-Loi
Location: Myanmar
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Bulang
Consonant system:
Number: 2401
Language: Kem Degne
Location: China
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Bulang
Consonant system:
Number: 2402
Language: Wa
Location: Myanmar (Kengtung)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Other Sources: Shorto, H. L. 1963. "The Structural Patterns of Northern Mon-Khmer Languages," in Linguistic Comparison in South East Asia and the Pacific, ed. by H. L. Shorto, London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 45-61. E
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ v s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ch analyzed as clusters (ph th ch kh) Glides: j ɥ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ Diphthongs: uǝ ūǝ iǝ īǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev hi-mid-fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2403
Language: Lawa
Location: NW Thailand (Chiang Mai)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Other Sources: Schlatter, Donald. 1976. "Lavüa' (Lawa, Lua')" in PL C43, 273-81. Mitani, Yasuyuki. 1978. Phonological Studies of Lawa: Description and Comparison. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Diss. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p ph ʔb mb t th ʔd nd k kh ŋɡ ʔ č čh ñ̃ɡ̌ f s h m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ñ ʔñ ŋ ŋ̥ ʔŋ l l̥ ʔl ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: p ph ʔb mb t th ʔd nd k kh ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ñ ʔñ ŋ ŋ̥ ʔŋ Laterals: l l̥ ʔl Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Glides: j j̥ ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: iǝ ɨǝ uǝ ei ai ɔi ǝo ǝɨ ao aɨ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2404
Language: La
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2405
Language: Phalok Alternate Name: Parauk
Location: Myanmar
Population: 530,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2406
Language: Son
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2407
Language: En
Location: Myanmar
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2408
Language: K'ala
Location: Myanmar
Population: 12,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Waic: Wa-Lawa
Consonant system:
Number: 2409
Language: Mok
Location: Thailand
Population: 7
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2410
Language: Angku Alternate Name: Mok
Location: Thailand
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2411
Language: Kon Keu
Location: China
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2412
Language: P'uman1 Alternate Name: U
Location: China
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2413
Language: Pou Ma
Location: SE China (Yunnan)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2414
Language: Kiorr
Location: Laos
Population: 2,400
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Palaungic: West: Angkuic
Consonant system:
Number: 2415
Language: Yumbri
Location: N Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Yumbri-Mrabri
Consonant system:
Number: 2416
Language: Mrabri Alternate Name: Mlabri
Location: Thailand
Population: 324
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Yumbri-Mrabri
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2417
Language: Khmu' Alternate Name: Northern Kammu Dialect: Yuan
Location: N Laos
Population: 500,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Mal-Khmu' Dictionary: Lindell, Kristina. 1974. "A Vocabulary of the Yuan Dialect of the Kammu Language," Acta Orientalia 36, 191-207.
Other Sources: Gårding, Eva and Kristina Lindell. 1977. "Tones in Northern Kammu: A Phonetic Investigation," Acta Orientalia 38, 321-32.
Consonant system: p ph ʔb t th ʔd c ch k kh ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph ʔb t th ʔd c ch k kh ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua ǝa
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that far away)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-NUM N+A+Num
Number: 2418
Language: Khmu' Alternate Name: Southern Kammu Dialect: Uu
Location: N Laos
Population: 500,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Mal-Khmu' Dictionary: Lindell, Kristina. 1974. "A Vocabulary of the Yuan Dialect of the Kammu Language," Acta Orientalia 36, 191-207.
Other Sources: Gårding, Eva and Kristina Lindell. 1977. "Tones in Northern Kammu: A Phonetic Investigation," Acta Orientalia 38, 321-32.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s h m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ñ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ñ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua ǝa
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2419
Language: Mal Alternate Name: T'in
Location: N Thailand (Nan)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Mal-Khmu'
Other Sources: Filbeck, David. 1976a. "Mal (Thin)," PL C43, 239-57. Filbeck, David. 1976b. "Toward a Grammar of Relative Clauses in T'in," in AAS 1, 285-307. Filbeck, David. 1978. T'in: A Historical Study. PL B49. Wajanarat, Sujaritlak. 1979. "Classifiers in Mal (Thin)," MKS 8, 295-303.
Consonant system: p b t d c k ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w ɯ̯
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ie ɨa ua
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C)
Tones: lev ris
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 2420
Language: Phray
Location: Thailand
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Mal-Khmu'
Consonant system:
Number: 2421
Language: Phaı̈
Location: Thailand
Population: 31,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Palaungic-Khmuic: Mal-Khmu'
Consonant system:
Number: 2422
Language: Thavung
Location: Thailand
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Other Sources: Ferlus, Michel. 1974. "Problèmes de mutations consonantiques en thavung," BSLP 69, 311-23.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ v s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi hi-glot lo lo-glot
Number: 2423
Language: Thavung Alternate Name: Aheu
Location: Thailand
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Other Sources: Ferlus, Michel. 1974. "Problems de mutations consonantiques en thavung," BSLP 69, 311-23.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh kʷ kʷh ʔ v s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh kʷ kʷh ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi hi-glot lo lo-glot
Number: 2424
Language: Pakatan Alternate Name: Maleng
Location: Laos (Khammoan)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Consonant system:
Number: 2425
Language: Arem
Location: Laos
Population: nearly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Consonant system:
Number: 2426
Language: Poong Alternate Name: Hung
Location: Laos
Population: 3,200
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Consonant system:
Number: 2427
Language: Mày Alternate Name: Chut
Location: Vietnam
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Consonant system:
Number: 2428
Language: Muòng
Location: Vietnam
Population: 914,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong
Consonant system:
Number: 2429
Language: Vietnamese Dialect: Hanoi
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 40 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong Grammar: Emeneau, M. B. 1951. Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) Grammar. UCPL 8. Lê-Van-Ly 1960. Le parler vietnamien. Saigon. Thompson, Laurence C. 1965. A Vietnamese Grammar. Seattle: Univ of Washington Press.
TextBooks: Nguyên Dı̀nh Hoà. 1974. Colloquial Vietnamese. Carbondale: Southern Illionis Univ Press.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ t̪h ṭ c k ʔ ɓ ɗ f s̪ ṣ x h v z̪ ẓ ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l Stops: (p) ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ ṭ c k ʔ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ ṣ ẓ x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w ɯ̯ ɑ̯
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Diphthongs: ie ɨǝ uo ɯɤ ɯa ua ... triphthongs
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Tones: hi-ris hi-ris-glot hi-mid-lev lo-lev lo-fall lo-fall-glot Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 + indef Politeness: many kinds of deferential pronouns for inferiors, superiors, kings, gods, servants, etc.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2430
Language: Vietnamese Dialect: Hi Chi Minh City
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 40 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: North: Viet-Muong Grammar: Nguyкn Dăng Liкm. 1969. Vietnamese Grammar. PL C4.
TextBooks: Thompson, Laurence. 1959. "Saigon Phonemics," Lg 35, 454-76. Nguyкn Dăng Liкm. 1970a. A Contrastive Phonological Analysis of English and Vietnamese PL C8.
Other Sources: Nguyкn Dăng Liкm. 1970b. Vietnamese Pronunciation. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ ṭ c k f v s ṣ x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ ṭ c k Fricatives: f v s ṣ x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: iǝ ɯǝ uǝ ɐu
Syllable: (C)(w)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris mid-ris lo-lev lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Politeness: many forms
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2431
Language: So
Location: C Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2432
Language: Brũ
Location: C Vietnam (Quаng Tri)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Other Sources: Miller, John D. 1964. "Word Classes in Brôu," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 41-62. Miller, Carolyn P. 1964. "The Substantive Phrase in Brôu," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 63-80. Miller, John and Carolyn Miller. 1967. English-Brôu Language Familiarization Manual. Saigon: SIL. Phillips, Richard L., John Miller and Carolyn Miller. 1976. "The Bru Vowel System: Alternate Analyses," MKS 5, 203-17. Thongkum, Theraphan L. 1979. "The Distribution of the Sounds of Bruu," MKS 8, 221-93.
Consonant system: p ph t th c k kh ʔ b d s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d c k kh ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a ɒ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ɒ̃ ũ ɯ̃ ɔ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ɑ̃̄ ɒ̃̄ ũ̄ ɔ̃̄ ʌ̃̄ Modified Vowels: v̤ (breathy) all v̤̄ all but ʌ Diphthongs: ia ea ɯa oa oʌ ua ie̤ ia̤ ɯo̤ oa̤ uo̤ ua̤ ũǝ ũa
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Nˈ Stress: final Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6* *6 has two forms: (1) definite, (2) indefinite.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2433
Language: Mangkong
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2434
Language: Tri
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2435
Language: Chali
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2436
Language: Khua
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2437
Language: Leung
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2438
Language: Kaleu
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2439
Language: Galler
Location: N Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2440
Language: Vân Kiêu
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: So-Bru
Consonant system:
Number: 2441
Language: Suei Alternate Name: Soui
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: Kuy-Suei
Other Sources: Ferlus, Michel. 1971. "La langue souei: Mutations consonantiques et bipartition de système vocalique," BSLP 66, 379-88.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ʔ v s̪ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ʔ Fricatives: v s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: All vowels show two registers: (1) clear (unmarked), (2) somber and breathy, marked by a subscript ̤ v̤̄ all Diphthongs: ia ˨a ua
Number: 2442
Language: Na Nhyang
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: Kuy-Suei
Consonant system:
Number: 2443
Language: Kuy
Location: E Thailand (Surin)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: Kuy-Suei
Other Sources: Johnston, Beulah M. 1976. "Kuy," PL C43, 259-72.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ č čh ɡ̌ (f) s h m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ ʌ ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ɯ̄ ō ɤ̄ ɔ̄ ʌ̄ ɒ̄ Modified Vowels: Vowels exhibit two registers: (1) 'high' register, characterized by stricture in the pharyngeal cavity, with tense, tight, bright voice quality. (2) 'low' register with open pharyngeal cavity and breathy low pitch. Diphthongs: ia ua
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2444
Language: Yeu
Location: Thailand
Population: few
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: West: Kuy-Suei
Consonant system:
Number: 2445
Language: Katang
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2446
Language: Tareng
Location: Laos
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2447
Language: Pacŏh
Location: C Vietnam (Quang Tri)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Pacoh-Phuong
Other Sources: Watson, Saundra K. 1964. "Personal Pronouns in Pacŏh," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 81-97. Watson, Richard. 1964. "Pacŏh Phonemes," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 135-48. Watson, Richard L. 1966. Reduplication in Pacoh. HSL 21. Watson, Saundra K. 1966. "Verbal Affixation in Pacŏh," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 15-30. Watson, Saundra K. 1976. "The Pacŏh Noun Phrase," MKS 5, 219-31. Watson, Richard. 1977. "Discourse Elements in a Pacoh Narrative," MKS 6, 279-322.
Consonant system: p ʔb t ʔd c ʔɟ k ʔ š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ʔb t ʔd c ʔɟ k ʔ Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ph th kh are considered clusters ph th kh. Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) e ǝ o only v̰̄ e ǝ o only There are two registers, tense and lax. Diphthongs: iǝ ɨǝ uǝ ḛa ǝ̰a o̰a
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Demonstratives: 8 (this/that/that far ahead/that very far ahead/that far behind/that very far behind/that to the side/that one (?))
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6sS 6 has two forms: (1) specific, (2) non-specific.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN [quantifiers]) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2448
Language: Phuong
Location: C Vietnam (Thщa Thiкn)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Pacoh-Phuong
Consonant system:
Number: 2449
Language: Katu
Location: C Vietnam (Quang Nam)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Katu-Thap
Other Sources: Wallace, Judith M. 1966. "Katu Personal Pronouns," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon SIL, 55-62. Costello, Nancy A. 1966. "Affixes in Katu," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 63-86.
Consonant system: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2450
Language: Kantu
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Katu-Thap
Consonant system:
Number: 2451
Language: Thap
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Katu-Thap
Consonant system:
Number: 2452
Language: Ta-Oy
Location: Laos
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ta-Oy-Tong
Consonant system:
Number: 2453
Language: Tong
Location: China
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ta-Oy-Tong
Consonant system:
Number: 2454
Language: Ong Dialect: Ir
Location: Laos
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ta-Oy-Tong
Consonant system:
Number: 2455
Language: Kha In
Location: Laos
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ta-Oy-Tong
Consonant system:
Number: 2456
Language: Ngeq
Location: S Laos (Saravane)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ngeq-Nkriang
Other Sources: Smith, Ronald L. 1973a. "Ngeq Phonemes," MKS 4, 77-84. Smith, Ronald L. 1973b. "Reduplication in Ngeq," MKS 4, 85-111.
Consonant system: p (ph) b t (th) d k (kh) ʔ č ɡ̌ s̪ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p (ph) b t (th) d k (kh) ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i̤ e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ̤ ǝ a Back Vowels: ṳ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī̤ ē ɛ̄ ɨ̤̄ ǝ̄ ā ṳ̄ ō ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: There are two registers: tense (v) and lax (v̤). Diphthongs: ɨa ǝa ua ou ǝɔ ǝɔ̄ ɨ̄ǝ ǝā ei̤ ia̤
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2457
Language: Nkriang
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ngeq-Nkriang
Consonant system:
Number: 2458
Language: Kha Koh
Location: Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Katuic: East: Ngeq-Nkriang
Consonant system:
Number: 2459
Language: Stieng
Location: S Vietnam (Phuтc Long)
Population: 48,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Stieng-Chrau
Other Sources: Haupers, Ralph. n.d. Stieng Phrase Book. n.p.: SIL. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p b ʔb t d ʔd c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ch ? ʔN ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ Long Vowels:
Syntax: SVO NG NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 2460
Language: Chrau
Location: S Vietnam (Bien Hoa)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Stieng-Chrau Dictionary: Thomas, David and Thô Sang Luc. 1966. Chrau Vocabulary. Saigon: Bô Giáo-Duc. Grammar: Thomas, David D. 1971. Chrau Grammar. OL Special Publication 7.
Other Sources: Thomas, David D. 1962. "Remarques sur la phonologie du chrau," BSLP 57, 175-91. Thomas, Dorothy. 1964. "Chrau Zoology: An Ethnolinguistic Study," Te Reo 7, 1-14. Thomas, Dorothy. 1966. "Chrau Intonation," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 1-13. Thomas, Dorothy. 1978. "The Discourse Level in Chrau," MKS 7, 233-95. Thomas, Dorothy. 1979. "The Paragraph Level in Chrau," MKS 8, 187-220. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p b (ɓ) t̪ d̪ (ɗ̪) c ɟ k ɡ ʔ (Aspirated stops are analyzed as clusters) s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ̣ Stops: p b (ɓ) t̪ d̪ (ɗ̪) c ɟ k ɡ ʔ (Aspirated stops are analyzed as clusters) Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ǝ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ (ɨǝ)
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 4: (3 + that far) + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5mf 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2461
Language: Sre
Location: S Vietnam (Tuyen Duc)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong Grammar: Manley, Timothy M. 1972. Outline of Sre Structure. OL Special Publication 12.
Other Sources: Smalley, William A. 1954. "Sre Phonemes and Syllables," JAOS 74, 217-222. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p ph b ɓ t th d ɗ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d ɗ c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i̤ (e) ɛ (Vowels show two registers: (1) retracted tongue root, tense, constricted timbre (unmarked); (2) advanced tongue root, deep, breathy, spooky quality (marked by..) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ (o) ɤ ɔ Long Vowels: ī̤ ē ɛ̄ ū ɯ̄ ō ɤ̄ ɔ̄ ɑ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C) Nˈ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4: (3 + that out ot sight)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2mf 5mf 3hH 6hH h=human, H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2462
Language: Maa'
Location: Vietnam
Population: 25,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong
Consonant system:
Number: 2463
Language: Eastern Mnong Dialect: Rolom, Kuanhua
Location: SC Vietnam (S Darlac)
Population: 20,000 (4,000)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong: Mnong
Other Sources: Blood, Evangeline. 1965. "Clause and Sentence Types in Mnong Rolom," Te Reo 8, 23-7. Blood, Henry and Evangeline Blood. 1966. "The Pronoun System of Uon Njuñ Mnong Rolom," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Siagon, SIL, 103-11. Blood, Henry F. 1976. "The Phonemes of Uon Njuñ Mnong Rolom," MKS 5, 4-23.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ (voiced stops (b d ɡ ɡ̌) are optionally prenasalized in words spoken in isolation.) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ie ia uo ua
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5mf 3mf* 6mf politeness: 4 forms: (1) 3 (plain) (2) 3 respectful (3) 3 masc (4) 3 fem
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2464
Language: Biat
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong: Mnong
Consonant system:
Number: 2465
Language: Southern Mnong
Location: S Vietnam (Quang Duc)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong: Mnong
Consonant system:
Number: 2466
Language: Central Mnong
Location: S Vietnam (S Darlac)
Population: 23,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: South: Sre-Mnong: Mnong
Other Sources: Phillips, Richard L. 1973a. "Mnong Vowel Variations with Initial Stops," MKS 4, 119-27. Phillips, Richard L. 1973b. "A Mnong Pedagogical Grammar: The Verb Phrase and Constructions with Two or More Verbs," MKS 4, 129-38.
Consonant system: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ (ɠ) ʔ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ (ɠ) ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ɨ̄ ǝ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2467
Language: Loven
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Other Sources: Ferlus, Michel. 1971. "Simplification des groups consonantiques dans deux dialectes austroasiens de Sud-Laos," BSLP 66, 389-403.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ v v̥ ʔv s̪ ʔs̪ h ʔh m m̥ ʔm n̪ n̪̥ ʔn̪ ñ ʔñ ŋ ŋ̥ ʔŋ l̪ l̪̥ ʔl̪ r ʔr Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v v̥ ʔv s̪ ʔs̪ h ʔh Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n̪ n̪̥ ʔn̪ ñ ʔñ ŋ ŋ̥ ʔŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ ʔl̪ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j j̥ ʔj
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie ɨǝ uo ia ua
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Number: 2468
Language: Lave
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2469
Language: Sok
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2470
Language: Sapuan
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2471
Language: Cheng
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2472
Language: Suq
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2473
Language: Nyahöñ
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Nyahöñ-Prouac
Other Sources: Davis, John J. 1973. "Notes on Nyaheun Grammar," MKS 4, 69-75.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO ND
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2474
Language: Prouac
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Nyahöñ-Prouac
Consonant system:
Number: 2475
Language: Oi
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Oi-The
Consonant system:
Number: 2476
Language: The
Location: S Laos
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Oi-The
Consonant system:
Number: 2477
Language: Brao
Location: NE Cambodia
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Brao-Kravet
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2478
Language: Kru'ng
Location: NE Cambodia
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Brao-Kravet
Consonant system:
Number: 2479
Language: Kravet
Location: NE Cambodia
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: West: Brao-Kravet
Consonant system:
Number: 2480
Language: Bahnar
Location: C Vietnam (Kontum)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: Central
Other Sources: Banker, Elizabeth M. 1964. "Bahnar Affixation," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 99-117. Banker, John E. 1964. "Transformational Paradigms of Bahner Clauses," in Mon-Khmer Studies I, Saigon, SIL, 7-39.
Consonant system: p b ʔb t d ʔd c ɟ ʔɟ k ɡ ʔ š h m n ñ ŋ l ʔl r Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd c ɟ ʔɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʔl Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Long Vowels:
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2481
Language: Alak
Location: S Laos
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2482
Language: Tampuan
Location: NE Cambodia
Population: 25,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2483
Language: Lmam
Location: NE Cambodia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2484
Language: Takua
Location: C Vietnam (Quang Tнn)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2485
Language: Cua
Location: C Vietnam (S Quang Tнn)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: East
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2486
Language: Kayong
Location: C Vietnam (NW Quang Ngai)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2487
Language: Rengao
Location: C Vietnam (Kontum)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West
Other Sources: Gregerson, Kenneth. 1979. Predicate and Argument in Rengao Grammar. Dallas: SIL. GREGERSON, Kenneth J. and Kenneth D. Smith. 1973. "The Development of To'drah Register," MKS 4, 143-84.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I̤ ɛ Central Vowels: a a̤ Back Vowels: ʋ̤ ɔ Long Vowels: ī̤ ē̤ ɛ̄ ā ā̤ ṳ̄ ō̤ ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: There are 2 registers: (1) tense, pharyngealized, tongue root retracted, bright, clear timbre; (2) lax, advanced tongue root, deep, muffled timbre, marked by the subscript ̤ .
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2* 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d *2 forms: (1) respectful, (2) casual
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2488
Language: Duan
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2489
Language: Jeh
Location: C Vietnam (NW Kontum)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Jeh-Halang
Other Sources: Gradin, Dwight. 1966. "Consonantal Tone in Jeh Phonemics," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 41-53. Cohen, Patrick D. 1966. "Presyllables and Reduplication in Jeh," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 31-40. Gradin, Dwight. 1976a. "Word Affixation in Jeh," MKS 5, 25-42. Gradin, Dwight. 1976b. "The Verb in Jeh," MKS 5, 43-75. Cohen, Patrick. 1976. "The Noun Phrase in Jeh," MKS 5, 139-52. Cohen, Nancy. 1976. "Some Interclausal Relations in Jeh," MKS 5, 153-64.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Aspirated stops (ph th kh) are analyzed as clusters: ch. Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ all) Modified Vowels: v̤ (deep) all v̤̄ e a only "The deep vowel quality is produced by relaxing the faucal pillars, lowering the larynx, and giving increased pressure from the diaphragm. The result is a deep, somewhat gruff, voice quality. Pitch is usually lower than that of the clear form. Deepness, when occuring with short vowels, changes the vowel height, forcing it up in most instances. . . Deep vowel in Jeh parallels very closely the description of the 'second register' of the pitch range of Cambodian, . . . the laryngealization of Sedang and the breathiness of Halang." Gradin 1966, 41-6. Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Demonstratives: 6 (this/that/yonder/far away/that above/that below)
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN [quantifiers]) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2490
Language: Halang
Location: C Vietnam (Kontum)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Jeh-Halang
Other Sources: Cooper, James and Nancy Cooper. 1966. "Halang Phonemes," in Mon-Khmer Studies II, Saigon, SIL, 87-98.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Aspirated stops (ph th kh), voiceless nasals (m̥ n̥ ñ̥ ŋ̥) and ɡlides (j̥ w̥), and ɡlottalized nasals (ʔm ʔn ʔñ ʔŋ) and ɡlides (jʔ wʔ) are analyzed as clusters: Ch hN hG ʔN Gʔ, respectively. Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: Vowels belong to two registers: (1) the first register has plain clear voice. (2) The second register has breathy dark sounding voice, and is marked by a subscript ̤ . Second register vowels have less vibration of the vocal cords as well as more oral resonance and increased pulmonic pressure. v̤̄ a only Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ ea oa
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Number: 2491
Language: Sedang
Location: C Vietnam (Kontum)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Sedang-Todrah Dictionary: Smith, Kenneth D. 1967. Sedang Vocabulary. Saigon: Bô Giáo-Duc. Grammar: Smith, Kenneth D. 1979. Sedang Grammar. PL B50.
Other Sources: Smith, Kenneth D. 1968. "Laryngealization and De-laryngealization in Sedang Phonemics," Linguistics 38, 52-69. Smith, Kenneth D. 1969. "The Phonology of Sedang Personal Names," AL 11, 187-98. Smith, Kenneth D. 1976a. "Sedang Pronoun Reference," MKS 5, 165-78. Smith, Kenneth D. 1976b. "Sedang Animal Folk Taxonomy," MKS 5, 179-94.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ č ñɡ̌ v s ṣ h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s ṣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Aspirated stops (ph th kh), voiceless nasals (m̥ n̥ ñ̥ ŋ̥) and liquids (l̥ r̥) and preglotlalized consonants (ʔb ʔd ʔv ʔm ʔñ ʔŋ ʔl ʔr) are analyzed as clusters: Ch hN hL ʔC, respectively. Glides: (j)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but o ǝ Modified Vowels: v̰ (larynɡealized) all ṽ̰ all (Vowels have 2 registers: (1) tense laryngealized, (2) lax, clear.) Diphthongs: ia ua ea oa io uo eo ie oe All diphthongs may be (1) nasalized, (2) laryngealized or (3) both.
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=5
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2492
Language: Hrê
Location: C Vietnam (W Quang Ngai)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Sedang-Todrah
Other Sources: Phillips, Richard L. 1973. "Vowel Distribution in Hrê," MKS 4, 63-8.
Consonant system: p t d k ʔ č s h m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p t d k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j jʔ j̥ w wʔ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i i̤ e e̤ ɛ ɛ̤ Central Vowels: a a̤ Back Vowels: u ṳ o ɔ ɔ̤ Modified Vowels: There are two registers: tense (v) and lax (v̤). Tense vowels are pronounced with tense faucal pillars and tongue root retracted; they are clear and bright. Lax vowels are pronounced with released faucal pillars and tongue root fronted; they are deep, muffled and breathy.
Number: 2493
Language: Monom
Location: C Vietnam (NE Kontum)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Sedang-Todrah
Consonant system:
Number: 2494
Language: Modra
Location: C Vietnam (SE Kontum)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Sedang-Todrah
Other Sources: GREGERSON, Kenneth J. and Kenneth D. Smith. 1973. "The Development of To'drah Register," MKS 4, 143-84.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ ts h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j j̥ jʔ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i i̤ e e̤ ɛ̤ Central Vowels: a a̤ Back Vowels: u ṳ o o̤ ɔ̤ Long Vowels: ī ī̤ ē ā ā̤ ū ṳ̄ ō Modified Vowels: There are two registers: tense (v) and lax (v̤). The term register was first used by Henderson (1952), "The Main Features of Cambodian Pronunciation," BSOAS 14, 149-74. Diphthongs: ia ua ia̤ ua̤
Number: 2495
Language: Didra
Location: C Vietnam (SE Kontum)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Bahnaric: North: West: Sedang-Todrah
Other Sources: GREGERSON, Kenneth J. and Kenneth D. Smith. 1973. "The Development of To'drah Register," MKS 4, 143-84.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s z h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j j̥ jʔ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: (i) i̤ e (e̤) ɛ̤ Central Vowels: a a̤ Back Vowels: (u) ṳ o o̤ ɔ̤ Long Vowels: ī ī̤ ē ē̤ ā ā̤ ū ṳ̄ ō ō̤ Modified Vowels: There are two registers: tense (v) and lax (v̤). Diphthongs: ia ua ea oa ia̤ ua̤
Number: 2496
Language: Khmer Alternate Name: Cambodian Dialect: Surin
Location: NE Thailand
Population: 6 million (400,000)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Khmer
Other Sources: Jenner, Philip N. 1974. "Observations on the Surin Dialect of Khmer," in PL C31, 61-73. Smalley, William A. 1976. "The Problem of Vowels: Northern Khmer," PL C43, 43-83.
Consonant system: p ɓ t ɗ c k ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ɓ t ɗ c k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: There is no register distinction in the vowels of this dialect. Diphthongs: iǝ ɨǝ uǝ īǝ ɨ̄ǝ ūǝ
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Stress: final
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Mutual intelligibility with Standard Cambodian is limited.
Number: 2497
Language: Khmer Alternate Name: Cambodian
Location: Cambodia
Population: 6 million
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Khmer Dictionary: Jacob, Judith M. 1974. A Concise Cambodian-English Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Huffman, Franklin E. and Im Proum. 1977. Cambodian-English Glossary. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. Headley, Robert K. Jr.,et al. 1977. Cambodian-English Dictionary, 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Univ of America Press. Huffman, Franklin E. and Im Proum. 1978. English-Khmer Dictionary. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
TextBooks: Jacob, Judith M. 1968. Introduction to Cambidian. London: Oxford Univ Press. Huffman, Franklin E. 1970. Modern Spoken Cambodian. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Other Sources: Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1952. "The Main Features of Cambodian Pronunciation," BSOAS 14, 149-74. Huffman, Franklin E. 1970. Cambodian System of Writing and Beginning Reader. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p ɓ t̪ ɗ c k ʔ v s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ɓ t̪ ɗ c k ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Ch (C = p t c k) are analyzed as clusters rather than aspirated stops. Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I̤ ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ̤ ǝ̤ a Back Vowels: ʋ̤ o ɑ Long Vowels: ī̤ ē̤ ɛ̤̄ ɨ̤̄ ǝ̤̄ ā ṳ̄ ō̤ ɔ̤̄ ɑ̄ Modified Vowels: Syllable nuclei are divided into two registers: (1) First register (=clear, head, tense voice) is left unmarked. (2) Second register (=breathy, spooky, lax, chest, low-pitched voice) is marked with ̤ under the vowel or diphthong. Diphthongs: ei ǝɨ uǝ ou æɛ aǝ ao ĕǝ ŭǝ ŏǝ i̤ǝ ɨ̤ǝ ɔ̤ǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1* 4* 2* 3* Politeness: the Cambodian pronouns, which are a subclass of nouns, show many nuances of politeness and familiarity in addition to the distinctions for person and number displayed above.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N) N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2498
Language: Pear
Location: SW Cambodia (Pursat)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic Dictionary: Headley, Robert K. Jr. 1977. "A Pearic Vocabulary," MKS 6, 69-149. Headley, Robert K. Jr. 1978. "An English-Pearic Vocabulary," MKS 7, 61-94.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) ʔ č s̪ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̪ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ɨ̄ ǝ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ie iǝ ea ew aɛ aǝ aw ao ɨǝ ǝw uǝ oa
Number: 2499
Language: Suoy
Location: Cambodia
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic
Consonant system:
Number: 2500
Language: Samre
Location: NW Cambodia (Siem Reap)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic
Consonant system:
Number: 2501
Language: Somray
Location: Cambodia
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic
Consonant system:
Number: 2502
Language: Chong
Location: SW Cambodia (Pursat)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic
Consonant system:
Number: 2503
Language: Sa'och
Location: SW Cambodia
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: East: Pearic
Consonant system:
Number: 2504
Language: Mon
Location: S Myanmar (Karen)
Population: 415,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Monic Dictionary: Shorto, H. L. 1962. A Dictionary of Modern Spoken Mon. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Guillon, Emmanuel. 1976. "Some Aspects of Mon Syntax," in AAS 1, 407-21. AL 8:3
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh ʔ č čh s š h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l l̥ r Stops: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Some scholars analyze ch and N̥ L̥ and G̥ as clusters. Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Modified Vowels: v̤̄ all ? Vowels belong to two registers: (1) the first register has clear, head voice. (2) The second register, marked by a subscript ̤ , has breathy, chest voice. Diphthongs: ɔe ao
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2505
Language: Nyah Kur
Location: C Thailand
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Monic
Consonant system:
Number: 2506
Language: Jah Hut
Location: C Malaysia (W Pahang)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian Grammar: Diffloth, G. 1976. "Jah-Hut, an Austroasiatic Language of Malaysia," PL C42, 73-118.
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ: all Diphthongs: jɛ wo wǝ wa wɛ wɔ jɛ̃ wõ wǝ̃ wã wɛ̃ wɔ̃
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that above, that below)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2* 5 3 6 *politeness: familiar/respectful (2)
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2507
Language: Che' Wong
Location: C Malaysia (Pahang)
Population: 270
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ɛ̃ ũ
Number: 2508
Language: Kensiu
Location: N Malaysia (Kedah)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Western
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ũ
Number: 2509
Language: Kenta' Bong
Location: N Malaysia
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Western
Other Sources: Omar, Asmah Haji. 1976. "The Verb in Kentakbong," in AAS 2, 951-70. ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ ǝ̃ ã ũ
Number: 2510
Language: Mos
Location: Thailand
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2511
Language: Jehai
Location: N Malaysia (NE Perak)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Eastern Grammar: Schebesta, P. 1928. "Grammatical Sketch of the Jahai Dialect Spoken by a Negrito Tribe of Ulu Perak and Ulu Kelantan, Malay Peninsula," BSOAS 4, 803-26.
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc: ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi lo Stress: final
Noun
Number: a few plurals for people Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5d=6d; 5=6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2512
Language: Mendriq
Location: N Malaysia (Kelantan)
Population: 120
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Eastern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ʉ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Number: 2513
Language: Bateg Deq
Location: N Malaysia (S Kelantan)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Eastern
TextBooks: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ f s z h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ʉ̃ ã ũ
Number: 2514
Language: Mintil
Location: C Malaysia (NW Pahang)
Population: 40
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Eastern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ f s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc: ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ʉ̃ ǝ̃ ã ɔ̃
Number: 2515
Language: Bateg Nong
Location: C Malaysia (W Pahang)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Semang: Eastern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ɛ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ɔ̃
Number: 2516
Language: Semai
Location: C Malaysia (S Perak)
Population: 15,500
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Senoic
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but u
Number: 2517
Language: Temiar
Location: N Malaysia (S Perak)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Senoic Grammar: GD: Carey, Iskandar. 1961. Tengleq Kui Serok. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Benjamin, Geoffery 1976. "An Outline of Temiar Grammar," in AAS 1, 129-87.
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ʉ̄ ū ɯ̄ ō ɔ̄ ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ʉ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ ı̄̃ ɛ̄̃ ʉ̄̃ ū̃ ɔ̄̃ ɑ̄̃ Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p for a few nouns Demonstratives: 6: 3 + that just out of reach, that above, that below Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d * 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2518
Language: Lanoh
Location: N Malaysia (N Perak)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Senoic
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ǝ̃ ã ... ē̃ ɛ̄̃ ū̃ ... Modified Vowels: v̄̃ ɛ e u
Number: 2519
Language: Sabum
Location: N Malaysia (N Perak)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Senoic
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i ɛ o... Nasal Vowels: ṽ ɛ u...
Number: 2520
Language: Semnam
Location: N Malaysia
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Senoic
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ʉ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ũ ɔ̃ ɛ̃̄
Number: 2521
Language: Mah Meri
Location: SW Malaysia (Malacca)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Southern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ ɾ Stops: p ph b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ʉ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ũ ... v̄̃ i ...
Number: 2522
Language: Semaq Beri
Location: EC Malaysia (Pahang)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Southern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s h m m̥ n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p t c k Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ʉ ǝ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ... ɛ̄̃ ā̃ ɔ̄̃ ...
Number: 2523
Language: Semelai
Location: S Malaysia (S Pahang)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Southern
Consonant system: p b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s sh h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s sh h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p kh ̣ ̣ ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɛ ʉ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ɛ ʉ ...
Number: 2524
Language: Temoq
Location: S Malaysia (S Pahang)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Aslian: Southern
Other Sources: ASP
Consonant system: p b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t th d c ɟ k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p t th Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ũ ɔ̃ ...
Number: 2525
Language: Shompen Alternate Name: Shom Peng
Location: India (Nicobar Islands)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Nicobar Islands
Consonant system:
Number: 2526
Language: Nicobarese Dialect: Nancowry
Location: India (Nicobar Islands)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Nicobar Islands Grammar: GD: Radhakrishnan, R. 1981. The Nancowry Word, Phonology, Affixal Morphology and Roots of a Nicobarese Language. Edmonton, Canada: Linguistic Research.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t c k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ Diphthongs: ia ua ɨa
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: final syllable of root
Number: 2527
Language: Nicobarese Dialect: Car
Location: India (Nicobar Islands)
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Nicobar Islands
Other Sources: Critchfield, Jean. 1966. "Abstracts and Translations," IJAL 32, 393. WALS
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ f s h v m n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t c k ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ɨ̄ o ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ɨ̄ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: VOS NA NUM-N
Number: 2528
Language: Nicobarese Dialect: Nancowry
Location: India (Nicobar Islands)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: South: Nicobar Islands Dictionary: Man, Edward Horace. 1889. A Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language. London: W. H. Allen. Grammar: DG: Radhakrishnan, R. 1981. The Nancowry Word Phonology, Affixal Morphology and Roots of A Nicobarsese Language. Edmonton: Linguistic Research.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t c k ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ Diphthongs: ia ua ɨa
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: final syllable of root Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP

Типологический обзор австро-тайского праязыка

Number: 2529
Language: Proto-Austro-Tai
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Austric: Austro-Tai
Other Sources: Benedict, Paul K. 1975. Austro-Thai: Language and Culture. New Haven: HRAF Press.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q G (ʔ) ts dz s z (š) ž) (x) ɣ (ʁ) h m n ñ ŋ N l ḷ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q G (ʔ) Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s z (š) ž) (x) ɣ (ʁ) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ N Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q G ts dz s z (š) (ž) j Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ia
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Типологические обзоры языков даической семьи

Number: 2530
Language: Lati
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 450
Classification: Austric: Daic: Lati-Gelao
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2531
Language: Gelao
Location: SE China (WC Kweichow)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Lati-Gelao
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2532
Language: Li
Location: SE China (C Hainan Island)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Li-Laqua
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2533
Language: Laqua
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Li-Laqua
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2534
Language: Laha
Location: Vietnam
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Li-Laqua
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2535
Language: Be Alternate Name: Lingao, Ong-Be
Location: Chine (N Hainan Island)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2536
Language: Lakkia
Location: SE China (Kwangsi)
Population: 5,300
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Lakkia
Other Sources: Haudricourt, A.G. 1967. "La langue lakkia," BSLP 62, 165-82.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ ʔb pl plh ts tsh ʔbl f θ h m ml n ŋ m̥ n̥ ŋ̥j l l̥ Stops: p ph ʔb t th k kh ʔ Affricates: pl plh ʔbl ts tsh Fricatives: f θ h Nasals: m m̥ ml n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥j Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: cj k kh ŋ ŋ̥ h cʷ k kh h ŋ Glides: j j̥ ɥ w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɛ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ɛ a u o Modified Vowels: v̄̃ all but ɛ Diphthongs: ie uo ĩe
Tones: hi lev hi fall lo-mid ris lo-mid ris-fall lo-mid fall-ris lo lev Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2537
Language: Kam Alternate Name: Dong
Location: SE China (SE Kweichow)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2538
Language: Mak
Location: SE China (SE Kweichow)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Other Sources: AL 7:3
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b ʔb ʔd ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph b ʔb t th ʔd k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p ph b t th d ʔd m n l cʷ k kh ɡ ʔd č čh s z n ñ ŋ l Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i u ǝ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: i e ǝ a u o
Tones: (hi lev) hi-fall hi-mid lev mid ris mid fall lo-mid ris Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2539
Language: Sui
Location: SE China (SE Kweichow)
Population: 133,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Other Sources: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1948. "The Distribution of Initials and Tones in the Sui Language," Lg 24, 160-7. AL 7:3
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh q qh ʔ b ʔb d̪ ʔd̪ č čh ɸ s š x h z ɣ ʔɣ ʁ m ʔm ʔn̪ ñ ʔñ ŋ ʔŋ m̥ n̪̥ n̥ ñ̥ ŋ̥ l Stops: p ph b ʔb t̪ t̪h d̪ ʔd̪ k kh q qh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: ɸ s z š x ɣ ʔɣ ʁ h Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n̥ n̥̪ ʔn̪ ñ ñ̥ ʔñ ŋ ŋ̥ ʔŋ Laterals: l Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Syllable: C(G)V(C)
Tones: hi hi ris hi fall mid lo lo fall Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2540
Language: Then
Location: SE China (SC Kweichow)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2541
Language: Maonan
Location: SE China
Population: 37,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2542
Language: Mulao
Location: SE China (Guizhou)
Population: 160,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Kam-Sui
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2543
Language: Proto-Tai
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Austric: Austro-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai
Other Sources: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1977. A Handbook of Comparative Tai. OLSP 15.
Consonant system: p ph b ʔb t̪ t̪h d̪ ɗ̪ k kh ɡ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ f v s z x ɣ h m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b ʔb t̪ t̪h d̪ ɗ̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ie ɨe ue ǝi ei ɛi ai ɔi ǝɨ eɨ oɨ ǝu ou au ɛu iu ɨi iau iǝu uai uǝi
Tones: 4 Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2544
Language: Ch'ien-chiang
Location: SE China
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2545
Language: Zhuang
Location: SE China
Population: 14 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2546
Language: Giay
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2547
Language: Hsi-lin
Location: SE China (SE Yunnan)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2548
Language: Kwei-yang
Location: SE China
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2549
Language: Ling-yun
Location: SE China (NW Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2550
Language: Lung-an
Location: SE China (C Kwiangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2551
Language: Nhang
Location: NW Vietnam
Population: 35,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2552
Language: Bouyei
Location: SE China (Guizhou)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2553
Language: Po-se
Location: SE China
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2554
Language: Po-ai
Location: SE China (SE Yunnan)
Population: 3.2 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1977. A Handbook of Comparative Tai. OSLP 15. AL 7:3
Consonant system: p (ph) t̪ (t̪h) k (kh) ʔ č (čh) f v š h m n̪ ŋ l ɬ Stops: p (ph) t̪ (t̪h) k (kh) ʔ Affricates: č (čh) Fricatives: f v š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: i e ɛ ɨ ǝ a uo ɔ Diphthongs: ai au aɨ āi ɔ̄i ōi ūi ɨ̄ɨ āu ɛ̄u ēu īu
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Nˈ lˈ
Tones: hi lev hi-mid lev mid lev mid fall lo-mid lev lo-mid ris Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2555
Language: Qui-chau
Location: Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2556
Language: Saek Dialect: Ban Ba Wa
Location: Thailand (Nakhon Phanom)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: Tongkum, Theraphan L. 1976. "The Saek Language of Ban Ba Wa: Some Phonetic Notes," in GR, 398-409.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ č v s h̃ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s h̃ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: iu eu ɛu ai au ui oi ɤi ɔi iǝ ɯǝ uǝ āi āu iǝu uǝi ɯǝi uǝu
Syllable: (C)CV
Tones: hi hi-fall mid-ris mid-lev-glot mid-fall-glot lo Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2557
Language: Tien-chow
Location: SE China (W Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2558
Language: T'ien-pa
Location: SE China (NE Kweichow)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2559
Language: Zhongjia
Location: SE China
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2560
Language: Tushan
Location: SE China (S Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2561
Language: Wu-ming
Location: SE China (C Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: AL 7:3
Consonant system: p ʔb t ʔd k ʔ m n ŋ l r Stops: p ʔb t ʔd k ʔ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ ŋ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw Back Vowels: o ɑ Long Vowels: i e ɨ a u o
Tones: hi lev hi fall mid lev mid ris lo fall lo ris Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2562
Language: Yay
Location: N Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Northern
Other Sources: Gedney, William J. 1965. "Yay a Northern Tai Language in North Viertnam," Lingua 14, 180-93.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d c ch k kh (ɡ) ʔ f v θ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d c ch k kh (ɡ) ʔ Fricatives: f v θ s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b m cʷ k ʔ h ŋ Glides: j ɥ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ a only Diphthongs: ia ɯa ua
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi lev hi-mid lev lo-mid lev lo-lev ris fall
Syntax: SVO NA Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2563
Language: Man Cao-lan
Location: N Vietnam (Moncay)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2564
Language: Nung
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 170,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Other Sources: Freiberger, Nancy E. 1964. "A Phonemic Description of Nong (Nung)," Te Reo 7, 15-22.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ č f s x m n ñ ŋ l ɬ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: æ a ɒ
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi ris hi glot mid lev lo ris lo fall lo glot
Syntax: SVO NA Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2565
Language: Tay
Location: NE Vietnam
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2566
Language: Tho
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 150,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2567
Language: Tien-pao
Location: SE China (W Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2568
Language: Ts'un-lao
Location: N Vietnam (Monday)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2569
Language: Yung-chu'un
Location: SE China (C Kwangsi)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2570
Language: Lung-chow
Location: SE China (SW Kwangsi)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Central
Other Sources: Li, Fang-Kuei. 1977. A Handbook of Comparative Tai. OLSP 15.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ʔ č čh f v š h m n̪ ŋ l ɬ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f v š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɑ Long Vowels: i e ǝ a u o Diphthongs: ɑi ɑu aǝ āi ōi ūi īu ēu āu
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lev mid lev mid fall lo lev lo fall glott ris Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2571
Language: Khamti
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern Dictionary: Weidert, Alfons 1977. Tai-Khamti Phonology and Vocabulary. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh ʔ ts s h m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɯ Long Vowels: i e ɛ a u ɯ o ɔ
Tones: hi lev hi fall lo lev lo ris lo creaky
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2572
Language: Khün
Location: EC Burma (E Shan)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: Egerod, Søren. 1959. "Essentials of Khün Phonology and Script," Acta Orientalia 24, 123-46.
Consonant system: p ph ʔb t th ʔd k kh ʔ ts ɸ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph ʔb t th ʔd k kh ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Tones: hi lev hi ris hi fall mid fall lo fall lo ris Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2573
Language: Lao Alternate Name: Laotian
Location: Laos
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern Dictionary: Marcus, Russell. 1970. English-Lao : Lao-English Dictionary. Rutland Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle. Kerr, Allen D. 1972. Lao-English Dictionary. Washington, D.C:. Catholic Univ of America Press. Reinhorn, Marc. 1970. Dictionnaire laotien-français, 2 vols. Paris: CNRS. Grammar: Hospitalier, J.-J. 1937. Grammaire Laotienne. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Nginn, Pierre S. 1965. Eléments de grammaire laotienne. Vientiane: Ministère de l'Education Nationale. Morev, Lev N. 1972. Laosskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka.
TextBooks: Roffe, G.Edward and Thelma W. Roffe. 1956-58. Spoken Lao. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies.
Other Sources: Roffe, G. Edward. 1946. "The Phonemic Structure of Lao," JAOS 66, 289-95.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ c k kh ʔ f v s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ c k kh ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: cʷ th k kh č s h n ŋ l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ a) Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua ai ao iā ɨā uā
Syllable: C V (C)
Tones: hi ris hi fall mid lev lo level lo ris lo fall Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1* 4* 2* 5* 3* 6* * The pronoun system shows many gradations of politeness and familiarity
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2574
Language: Lü Alternate Name: Lue
Location: SE China (SW Yunnan)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: Hartmann, John F. 1979. "Comparative Aspects of Lue Syntax," in PL, C49, 1-15. E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2575
Language: Maw
Location: Burma
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2576
Language: Phu Thai
Location: NE Thailand (Sakon Nakhon)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2577
Language: Phuan
Location: C Thailand
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2578
Language: Shan
Location: EC Burma (Shan)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern Dictionary: Cushing J.N. 1914. A Shan and English Dictionary. Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press. [Reprinted 1971 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England] Grammar: GD: Cushing J.N. 1906. Elementary Handbook of the Shan Language. Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press. [Reprinted 1971 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England]
TextBooks: Bigg-Wither. Ferdinand. 1911. A Guide to the Study of Shan Language. Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press.
Other Sources: Egerod Søren 1957. "Essentials of Shan Phonology and Script," Academia Sinica 29:1, 121-9. Egerod Søren. 1962. "Three Shan Texts," Acta Orientalia 26, 149-88.
Consonant system: p ph t th c ch k kh (ʔ) s sh h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th c ch k kh (ʔ) Fricatives: s sh h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: au iu ow oi
Tones: hi, mid, lo, ris, fall
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2579
Language: Thai Alternate Name: Siamese
Location: Thailand
Population: 20 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern Dictionary: McFarland, George B. 1954. Thai -English Dictionary. Stanford: Stanford Univ Press. Haas, Mary R. 1964. Thai-English Student's Dictionary. Stanford: Stanford Univ Press. Manich Jumsai, M.L. 1960. English-Thai Dictioanary. London: Macmillan. Grammar: Noss, Richard B. 1964. Thai Reference Grammar. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute.
TextBooks: Anthony, Edward M., Deborah P. French and Udom Warotamasikkhadit. 1968. Foundations of Thai, 2 vols. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press. Haas, Mary R. and Heng R. Subhanka. 1973. Spoken Thai. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Languages Service.
Other Sources: Abramson, Arthur S. 1962. The Vowels and Tones of Standard Thai. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Warotamasikkhadit. Udom. 1972. Thai Syntax. The Hague: Mouton. Li, Fang Kuei. 1977. A Handbook of Comparative Tai. OLSP 15.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h c ch k kh ʔ b d̪ (ɡ) f s̪ h m n̪ ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ c ch k kh (ɡ) ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɨ ʋ ǝ o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: i e æ ɨ ǝ a u o ɔ Diphthongs: ia ɨa ua iā ɨā uā
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi, mid, lo, ris, fall Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: *1mf 4 2 5 3Pfn 6 P=plain *The pronoun system has numerous polite-intimate distinctions.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2580
Language: Northern Thai
Location: N Thailand
Population: 3 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: Mundhenk, Norman Arthur. 1967. Auxiliary Verbs in Myang of Northern Thailand. HSL 22.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2581
Language: Southern Thai
Location: S Thailand
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2582
Language: White Tai
Location: NW Vietnam (Lai Chau)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: Donaldson, Jean. 1963. White Tai Phonology. HSL 5.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh (ʔ) č čh f s x h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh (ʔ) Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k kh x ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ ā Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi ris, hi ris-glot, mid lev, mid lev glot, lo-mid, lo fall glot, lo ris glot Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2583
Language: Black Tai
Location: NW Vietnam
Population: 300,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: Fippinger, Jay and Dorothy Fippinger. 1970. "Black Tai Phonemes, with Reference to White Tai," AL 12, 83-97.
Consonant system: p b t th d k ʔ (b, d in free variation with ɓ, ɗ) č f v s x h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t th d k ʔ (b, d in free variation with ɓ, ɗ) Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k x ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ a only Diphthongs: iǝ ɨǝ uǝ
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi lev, hi ris, hi-mid lev, mid fall glot, lo-mid lev, lo lev glot
Syntax: SVO NA Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2584
Language: Red Tai
Location: N Vietnam
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2585
Language: Tay Nua
Location: SE China ( S Yunnan)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2586
Language: Ya Alternate Name: Tai Ya
Location: SE China (C Yunnan)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2587
Language: Yuan
Location: Thailand
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2588
Language: Yunnan Shant'ou
Location: SE China (SC Yunnan)
Classification: Austric: Daic: Li-Kam-Tai: Be-Kam-Tai: Kam-Tai: Tai: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Типологические обзоры языков австронезийской семьи

Number: 2589
Language: Proto-Austronesian
Location: SE Asia
Classification: Austric: Austro-Tai: Austronesian
Other Sources: Chrétien, C. Douglas. 1965. "The Statistical Structure of the Proto-Austronesian Morph," Lingua 14, 243-70. Prentice, D. J. 1974. "Yet Another PAN Phoneme," OL 13, 33-75. Wolff, John. 1974. "Proto-Austronesian *r and *d," OL 13, 77-121.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q G ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q G ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)V(C) Comments: There is no concensus on the phonemes of proto-austronesian, the phonological system sketched above is a composite of several different sources.
Number: 2590
Language: Atayal
Location: NC Taiwan
Population: 35,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Atayalic Dictionary: Egerod, Søren. 1965a. "An English-Atayal Vocabulary," Acta Orientalia 29, 203-20. Egerod, Søren. 1980. Atayal-English Dictionary, 2 vols. London: Curzon Press.
Other Sources: Egerod, Søren. 1965b. "Verb Inflection in Atayal," Lingua 15, 251-82. Egerod, Søren. 1966a. "A Statement on Atayal Phonology," Artibus Asiae, Supplement 23, 120-30. Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Austronesian Languages of Formosa," CTIL 8, 168-99. RPTP. Egerod, Søren. 1966b. "Word Order and Word Classes in Atayal," Lg 42, 346-69.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts s x ɦ β ž ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s ž x ɣ ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ (ǝ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i u only Stress: final Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2591
Language: Sedeq Alternate Name: Seediq
Location: EC Taiwan
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Atayalic
Other Sources: Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Austronesian Languages of Formosa," CTIL 8, 168-99. Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279. RPTP
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ̌ s x ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u
Syntax: VOS NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2592
Language: Proto-Tsouic
Location: Taiwan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č θ s h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɾ r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: v θ s z ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ a
Number: 2593
Language: Rukai Dialect: Budai
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 6,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t k b d ḍ ɡ ts θ s v ð m n ŋ ɬ ɾ r Stops: p b t d ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v θ ð s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: ɾ r
Vowel system: i ɨ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2594
Language: Rukai Dialect: Tona
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 6,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ḍ ɡ ts θ s v m n ŋ ɬ Stops: p b t d ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v θ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ
Vowel system: i ɨ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Stress: phonemic
Number: 2595
Language: Rukai Dialect: Mantauran
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 6,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts s h v ð m n ŋ ɬ ɾ r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: ɾ r
Vowel system: i ɨ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Number: 2596
Language: Rukai Dialect: Maga
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic
Other Sources: Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279-369. RPTP
Consonant system: p t k b d ḍ ɡ ts θ s v m n ŋ l ɹ̣ Stops: p b t d ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v θ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ̣
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: phonemic Articles: def
Syntax: VSO NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2597
Language: Rukai Dialect: Taromak
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 6,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic Grammar: Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1973. Rukai Structure. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academica Sinica.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ts v θ ð s h m n ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v θ ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2598
Language: Tsou
Location: SC Taiwan
Population: 3,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic: Tsouic Proper: Northern Grammar: GD: Tung, T'ung-ho, et al. 1964. A Descriptive Study of the Tsou Language, Formosa. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica.
Other Sources: Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Austronesian Languages of Formosa," CTIL 8, 168-99. Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279-369. Stanley, Patricia. 1979. "Morphophonemics of Verb Suffixes in Tsou," PL C45, 187-98.
Consonant system: p ʔb t k ʔ ts f v s z h m n ŋ ʔl Stops: p ʔb t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ʔl
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)V Stress: non-phonemic (usually penultimate) Demonstratives: 6 (this visible/that visible/yonder visible/invisible but already seen/invisible never seen/invisible near)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: Noun Incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2599
Language: Kanakanabu
Location: SC Taiwan
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic: Tsouic Proper: Southern
Other Sources: Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Austronesian Languages of Formosa," CTIL 8, 168-99. RPTP.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts β s (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n only
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u (ɔ) Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C) V Nˈ Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: "Most speak Bunan also. No fluent speakers under 25 (1976). Older speakers are generally fluent in Japanese; younger speakers, in Mandarin. Knowledge of Taiwanese seems rather limited." RPTP, 26.
Number: 2600
Language: Saaroa
Location: SC Taiwan
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Tsouic: Tsouic Proper: Southern
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t k (ɡ) ʔ ts (č) (ɡ̌) β s (h) m n ŋ ɬ ɾ r Stops: p t k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: β s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: ɾ r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (ɛ) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C) V Stress: non-phonemic (penult/antepenult)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: "Most of the Saaroa people, except for the very old, can understand and speak Bunun fluently, but only a few Bununs understand Saaroa. Saaroa children speak Saaroa rather poorly." RPTP, 59.
Number: 2601
Language: Bunun Dialect: Takituduh
Location: SC Taiwan
Population: 24,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic
Other Sources: Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279-369. RPTP
Consonant system: p ʔb t ʔd k q ʔ č v ð s h m n ŋ l Stops: p ʔb t ʔd k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: final Articles: def
Syntax: VSO Comments: The Ishbukun D. differs from the Takituduh D. (1) in lacking q,h,l, (2) in possessing χ, ɬ, and (3) in exhibiting penultimate stress.
Number: 2602
Language: Paiwan
Location: S Taiwan
Population: 45,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p b t d ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q ʔ ts v s z m n ŋ ɬ r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: penult
Number: 2603
Language: Puyuma
Location: SE Taiwan
Population: 7,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic
Other Sources: RPTP
Consonant system: p t ṭ k ʔ ɸ β ð s ẓ̌ h ɦ m n ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p t ṭ k ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β ð s ẓ̌ h ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Number: 2604
Language: Saisiyat
Location: NC Taiwan
Population: 2,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic
Other Sources: Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Austronesian Languages of Formosa," CTIL 8, 168-99. Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279-369. Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1978. "The Case-Marking Systems of the Four Less-Known Formosan Languages," PL C61, 569-615. RPTP
Consonant system: p b t k ʔ s̪ z̪ š h m n ŋ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p b t k ʔ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e œ æ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2605
Language: Ami
Location: E Taiwan
Population: 90,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic
Other Sources: Starosta, Stanley. 1974. "Causative Verbs in Formosan Languages," OL 13, 279-369. RPTP
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts v s ɣ h m n ŋ ɬ ɾ r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Articles: def
Syntax: VSO/VOS NG DN NUM-N Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2606
Language: Kavalan
Location: NE Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Other Sources: Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1978. "The Case-Marking Systems of the Four Less-Known Formosan Languages," PL C61, 569-615.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS/(VSO) NG ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2607
Language: Pazeh
Location: WC Taiwan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Other Sources: Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1978. "The Case-Marking Systems of the Four Less-Known Formosan Languages," PL C61, 569-615. RPTP
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s z x h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: All speakers over 60 (1969)
Number: 2608
Language: Thao
Location: C Taiwan
Population: 320
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Other Sources: Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1978. "The Case-Marking systems of the Four Less-Known Formosan Languages," PL C61, 569-615. RPTP
Consonant system: p ʔb t ʔd k q ʔ f θ ð š h m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p ʔb t ʔd k q ʔ Fricatives: f θ ð š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic (but mostly penult)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN GN DN POSS-N
Number: 2609
Language: Ketangalan
Location: N Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2610
Language: Basay
Location: Taiwan
Population: extinc
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2611
Language: Taokas
Location: NW Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2612
Language: Papora
Location: W Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2613
Language: Babuza
Location: W Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2614
Language: Hoanya
Location: C Taiwan
Population: Possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2615
Language: Siraya
Location: Taiwan
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Paiwanaic: Sinicized
Consonant system:
Number: 2616
Language: Chamorro
Location: Marianas Is (Guam)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western Dictionary: Cruz, F. 1967. Chamorro-English, English-Chamorro Dictionary. Hong Kong: Green Pagoda Press. Topping, Donald M., Pedro M. Ogo and Bernadita C. Dungca. 1975. Chamorro-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. GD: Pressing, Edward Ritter von. 1918. Dictionary and Grammar of the Chamorro Language of the Island of Guam. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Grammar: Pressing, Edward Ritter-von. 1918. Dictionary and Grammar of the Chamorro Language of the Island of Guam. washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Topping, Donald M. 1973. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
TextBooks: Topping, Donald M. 1969a. Spoken Chamorro. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Seiden, William. 1960. "Chamorro Phonemes," AL 2:4, 6-35. Topping, Donald M. 1968. "Chamorro Vowel Harmony," OL 7, 67-79. Topping, Donald M. 1969b. "A Restatement of Chamorro Phonology," AL 11, 62-77. Witucki, Jeannette, 1974. "The Vowels of Chamorro," PL A43, 55-74. Witucki, Jeannette. 1976. "The Consonants of Chamorro, " PL A46, 1-20. AL 7:2
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d g ts dz f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɹ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ̣ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k ɡ s m n l only cʷ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) æ ɒ Front Vowels: i (e) æ Back Vowels: u (o) ɒ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai ao
Syllable: (C) (C) V (C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO AN/(NA[nationality]) NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2617
Language: Palauan
Location: W Caroline Is (Palau Is)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western Dictionary: McManus, Edwin G. 1977. Palauan-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Grammar: Capell, A. 1949. A Grammar of the Language of Palau. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. Josephs, Lewis S. 1975. Palauan Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
TextBooks: Carlson, Clayton H. 1967. Palauan Lessons. Honolulu: Pacific and Asian Linguistic Institute, Univ of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Bender, Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8, 426-65.
Consonant system: t̪ k ʔ b s ð (ɣ) m ŋ l ɾ /ɣ/ has been replaced by /ʔ/ in the speech of all speakers under 50 (1949) Capell p. 4. Stops: b t̪ k ʔ Fricatives: ð s (ɣ) /ɣ/ has been replaced by /ʔ/ in the speech of all speakers under 50 (1949) Capell p. 4. Nasals: m ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i ɛ u o only
Syllable: Nˈ lˈ rˈ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p [human nouns only] Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6h 6 is used for human nouns only
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2618
Language: Yapese
Location: W Caroline Is (Yap Is)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western Dictionary: Jensen, John Thayer. 1977a. Yapese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Grammar: Jensen, John Thayer. 1977b. Yapese Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Bender, Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8, 426-65.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ č̣ f fʔ θ θʔ ṣ (h) β ð (ẓ) ɣ m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ŋ (ʔŋ) l̪ ʔl̪ ṛ Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: č̣ Fricatives: β f fʔ θ θʔ ð ṣ (ẓ) ɣ (h) Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ŋ (ʔŋ) Laterals: l̪ ʔl̪ Vibrants:
Vowel system: i u e ɵ o ɛ a ɑ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS NUM+N+D
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2619
Language: Proto-Philippine
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western
Other Sources: Charles, Mathew. 1974. "Problems in the Reconstruction of Proto-Philippine Phonology and the subgrouping of the Philippine Languages," OL 13, 457-509
Consonant system: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l (r) ʁ Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: penult/final
Number: 2620
Language: Isnag
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 29,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran Dictionary: Vanoverbergh, Morice. 1972. Isneg-English Vocabulary. OLSP 11.
Other Sources: AL 7:2 PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ i e a u ɔ Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2621
Language: Yogad
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran
Other Sources: Healey, Alan. 1958. "Notes on Yogad," OLM 3, 111-20. AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) ɸ s̪ (h) m n̪ ŋ l̪ (r) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: ɸ s̪ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but r j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 4: beside speaker, beside hearer, middle distance, far
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2622
Language: Adasen
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran
Consonant system:
Number: 2623
Language: Malaweg
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran
Consonant system:
Number: 2624
Language: Agta
Location: N Philippines (NE Luzon)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran Grammar: Healey, Phyllis M. 1960. An Agta Grammar. Manila: SIL.
Other Sources: Oates, W. J. and L. F. Oates. 1958."The Phonemes of Central Cagayan Negrito," OLM 3, 48-66. Healey, Phyllis M. 1958. "An Agta Conversational Text," OLM 3, 91-103. Mayfield, Roy. 1972. "Agta Sentence Structure," Linguistics 85, 21-66. PML Al 7:2
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ ɸ β s̪ ž h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ β s̪ ž h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: mostly final, sometimes penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: spoken by Negritos
Number: 2625
Language: Itawis
Location: N Philippines (NE Luzon)
Population: 93,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran
Consonant system:
Number: 2626
Language: Gaddang
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Gaddang
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Number: 2627
Language: Ga-dang
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Gaddang
Other Sources: Walrod, Michael R. 1976. "Case in Ga'dang Verbal Clauses," PL A46, 21-44.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ f s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Articles: def
Syntax: VSO NG DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2628
Language: Ibanag Dialect: Cabagan
Location: N Philippines (NE Luzon)
Population: 247,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Ibanag-Atta
Other Sources: NPL E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2629
Language: Ibanag Dialect: Cagayan
Location: N Philippines (NE Luzon)
Population: 247,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Ibanag-Atta
Other Sources: NPL E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ f v s z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2630
Language: Atta
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Ibanag-Atta
Other Sources: Whittle Claudia. 1971. "Atta Discourse and Paragraph Structure," PL C22, 195-281. PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant] Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2631
Language: Umiray Dumaget
Location: N Philippines (EC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Dumagat
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Number: 2632
Language: Southeast Cagayan Agta
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Dumagat
Number: 2633
Language: Kasiguranin
Location: N Philippines (EC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Dumagat
Consonant system:
Number: 2634
Language: Casiguran Dumagat
Location: N Philippines (EC Luzon)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Dumagat Dictionary: Headland, Thomas N. and Janet D. Headland. 1974. A Dumagat (Casiguran)- English Dictionary. PL C28. Grammar: Vanoverbergh, Morice. 1937. Some Undescribed Languages of Luzon. Nijmegen: Dekker & van de Vegt. Headland, Thomas N. and Alan Healey. 1974. "Grammatical Sketch of Dumagat (Casiguran)," PL A43, 1-54.
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Stress: phonemic, but mostly final Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2635
Language: Paranan
Location: N Philippines (NE Luzon)
Population: 7,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Northern Cordilleran: Dumagat
Consonant system:
Number: 2636
Language: Ilokano
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 4.7 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Ilokano Dictionary: Constantino, Ernesto. 1971. Ilokano Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Carro, Andrés. 1957. Iloko-English Dictionary. Baguio: Catholic School Press. Grammar: Vanoverbergh, Morice. 1955. Iloko Grammar. Baguio City: Catholic School Press. Constantino, Ernesto A. 1971. Ilokano Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: McKaughan, Howard and Jannette Forster. 1963. Ilocano: An Intensive Language Course. Grand Forks, South Dakota: SIL. Bernabe, Emma, Virginia Lapid and Bonifacio Sibayan. 1971. Ilokano Lessons. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1942. "Outline of Ilocano Syntax," Lg 18, 193-200. AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (č) (ɡ̌) (f) (v) s (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) (v) s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3+ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2637
Language: Isinai
Location: N Philippines (C Luzon)
Population: 5,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran
Consonant system:
Number: 2638
Language: Itneg
Location: N Philippines (NW Luzon)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Kalinga-Itneg
Other Sources: Walton, Charles. 1971. "Binongan Itneg Paragraph Structure," PL C22, 283-366. PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2639
Language: Kalinga-Itneg
Location: N Philippines (NW Luzon)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Kalinga-Itneg
Consonant system:
Number: 2640
Language: North Kalinga Alternate Name: Limos Kalinga
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Population: 61,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Kalinga-Itneg
Other Sources: Wiens, Harmut. 1976. "Phonological Features of Limos Kalinga, with Comments on Affected Speech," Philippine Journal of Lingustics 7, 38-47. Wiens, Harmut. 1979. "The Semantic Function of Focus Affixes in Limos Kalinga," PL A50, 19-47. WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NG DN NUM-N
Number: 2641
Language: Central Kalinga
Location: N Philippines (N Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Kalinga-Itneg
Other Sources: Gieser, C. Richard. 1958. "The Phonemes of Kalinga," OLM 3, 13-33. PML AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2642
Language: South Kalinga
Location: N Philippines (NW Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Kalinga-Itneg
Other Sources: Grayden, Bruce. 1979. "The Southern Kalinga /l/" PL A50, 91-100.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ p ʔ s m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Number: 2643
Language: Balangaw
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran Grammar: Shetler, Joanne. 1976. Notes on Balangao Grammar. Huntington Beach, CA: SIL.
Other Sources: Shetler, Jo and Anne Fetzer. 1964. "The Obscuring of Word Accent in Balangao", OL 3, 101-9. Shelter, Jo. 1966. "Balangao Phonemes," PL A8, 1-7. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2644
Language: Kiangan
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Ifugao
Consonant system:
Number: 2645
Language: Central Ifugao Dialect: Amganad
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Ifugao
Other Sources: West, Anne. 1973. "The Semantics of Focus in Amganad Ifugao," Linguistics 110, 98-121. PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NG DN N-POSS
Number: 2646
Language: Central Ifugao Dialect: Bayninan
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Ifugao
Other Sources: NPL PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2647
Language: East Ifugao Dialect: Batad
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Ifugao Dictionary: Newell, Leonard E. 1968. A Batad Ifugao Vocabulary. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.
Other Sources: Newell, Leonard E. 1958. "An Ifugao Text" OLM 3, 104-10. PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (s) h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (s) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2648
Language: Sadanga
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok
Consonant system:
Number: 2649
Language: East Bontok
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok
Consonant system:
Number: 2650
Language: East Bontok
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok
Consonant system:
Number: 2651
Language: East Bontok
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok
Consonant system:
Number: 2652
Language: South Bontok
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok
Consonant system:
Number: 2653
Language: Central Bontok
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Bontok Dictionary: Reid, Lawrence A. 1976. Bontok-English Dictionary. PL C36. Grammar: GD: Seidenadel, Carl Wilhelm. 1909. The First Grammar of the Language Spoken by the Bontoc Igorot. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company.
Other Sources: Reud Lawrence A. 1970. Central Bontoc: Sentence, Paragraph and Discourse. SIL 27 AL 7:2 PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s (h) m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ k ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p [few plurals via reduplication] Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG DN/(ND) NUM-N ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2654
Language: Kankanay-Itneg
Location: N Philippines (WC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Kankanay
Consonant system:
Number: 2655
Language: North Kankanay
Location: N Philippines (WC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Kankanay
Other Sources: Chandler, Donna Hettick. 1974. "Verb Stem Classes in Northern Kankanay," PL A41, 1-21. NPL PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s ɣ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2656
Language: Central Kankanay
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Kankanay
Consonant system:
Number: 2657
Language: South Kankanay
Location: N Philippines (WC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Central Cordilleran: Nuclear Cordilleran: Kankanay
Consonant system:
Number: 2658
Language: Ilongot
Location: N Philippines (EC Luzon)
Population: 7,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran
Other Sources: PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s ɣ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2659
Language: Pangasinan
Location: N Philippines (WC Luzon)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic Dictionary: Benton Richard A. 1971a. Pangasinan Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Constantino, Ernesto. 1975. English-Pangasinan Dictionary. Quezon City: Univ of the Philippines, Faculty Center. Grammar: Fidel of Amurrio. 1970. Pangasinan Grammar. Tagaytay. Benton, Richard A. 1971b. Pangasinan Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: Benton, Richard A. 1971c. Spoken Pangasinan. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (ts) s (h) m n (ñ) ŋ l (ʎ) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ts) Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l (ʎ) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Stress: mostly penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2660
Language: I'wak
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Consonant system:
Number: 2661
Language: Inibaloi
Location: N Philippines (WC Luzon)
Population: 88,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Other Sources: AL 7:2 PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d c k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ βʷ s m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: βʷ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2662
Language: Karaw
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Consonant system:
Number: 2663
Language: North Kallahan Dialect: Keley-I
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Other Sources: Hohulin, R. M. 1971. "Cohesive Organization in Keley-I Kallahan," PL A32, 1-17. Hohulin, Lou. 1971. "Complex Predicates in Keley-I Kallahan," PL A32, 19-32. PML
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 2664
Language: North Kallahan Alternate Name: Keley-i Dialect: Kalanguya
Location: N Philippines (NC Luzon)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Other Sources: Hohulin, Lou and Michael Kenstowicz. 1979. "Keley-i Phonology and Morphophonemics," in PL, C49, 241-54. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2665
Language: South Kallahan
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Luzon: Southern Cordilleran: Pangasinic: Benguet
Consonant system:
Number: 2666
Language: Yami
Location: Botel Tobago Is (SE of Taiwan)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Bashic
Consonant system:
Number: 2667
Language: Itbayaten
Location: N Phillipines (Itbayat Is)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Bashic: Ivatan
Other Sources: Cottle, Morris and Shirley Cottle. 1958. "The Significant Sounds of Ivatan, OLM 3, 34-47. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (č) ɡ̌ v s x ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly final Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2668
Language: Ivatanen
Location: N Phillipines (Batan Is)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Bashic: Ivatan Dictionary: Diccionario español-ibatán. 1914. Manila. Grammar: Hidalgo, Cesar A, and Araceli C. Hidalgo. 1971. A Tagmemic Grammar of Ivatan. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
Other Sources: Reid, Lawrence Andrew. 1966. An Ivatan Syntax. OLSP 2. PML AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ v s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic, but mostly final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2669
Language: Babuyan
Location: N Phillipines (Babuyan Is)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Bashic: Ivatan
Consonant system:
Number: 2670
Language: Sinauna
Location: NC Philippines (SW Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Central Luzon
Consonant system:
Number: 2671
Language: Kapampangan
Location: NC Philippines (SW Luzon)
Population: 1.5 Million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Central Luzon Dictionary: Forman, Michael L. 1971a. Kapampangan Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Manalili, Bienvenido M and J. P. Tamayo. 1964. English-Tagalog-Pampango Vocabulary. Quezon City: Pressman. Grammar: Forman, Michael L. 1971b. Kapampangan Grammar Notes. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: Mirikitani, Leatrice T. 1971. Speaking Kapampangan. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: Clardy, Catherine Jane. 1959. "Pampango Phonology," Phonetica 3, 118-44. Mirikitani, Leatrice T. 1972. Kapampangan Syntax. OLSP 10.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ (č) (ɡ̌) (f) (v) s (h) m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) (v) s (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 4: [3 + near speaker and addressee] Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS AN NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2672
Language: Tina
Location: NC Philippines (SW Luzon)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Central Luzon
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2673
Language: Botolan Alternate Name: Sambal
Location: NC Philippines (SW Luzon)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Central Luzon
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2674
Language: Bolinao
Location: NC Philippines (WC Luzon)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Central Luzon
Consonant system:
Number: 2675
Language: Iraya
Location: WC Philippines (NW Mindoro)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Mindoro
Other Sources: Tweddell, Colin E., Thomas E. Tweddell and Hazel A. Page. 1974. "Iraya Mangyan Phonology and Philippine Orthography," AL 16, 368-72.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ s h m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: penult Articles: def
Syntax: VSO POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2676
Language: Alangan
Location: WC Philippines (N Mindoro)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Mindoro
Consonant system:
Number: 2677
Language: Tadyawan Alternate Name: Pul
Location: WC Philippines (NE Mindoro)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Northern Philippines: Northern Mindoro
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2678
Language: Siocon Subanon
Location: S Philippines (W Mindanao)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Other Sources: Hall, William C. 1973. "An Outline of Siocon Subanon Sentence Structure," Philippine Journal of Linguistics 4, 1-22. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NG ND N-POSS
Number: 2679
Language: Kalibugan
Location: S Phillipines (W Mindanao)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Consonant system:
Number: 2680
Language: Sindangan
Location: S Philippines (W Mindanao)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Other Sources: Brichoux, Robert. 1970. "Sindangan Subanun Phonemics," PL A24, 71-7. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (Brichoux also lists kt, kp, ɡb, ŋm as unit phonemes.) s (h) m n ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (Brichoux also lists kt, kp, ɡb, ŋm as unit phonemes.) Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Modified Consonants: cʷ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 4 [3 + far distant] Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2681
Language: Sindangan
Location: S Philippines (mindanao)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s (h) m n ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Modified Consonants: cʷ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 4 [ 3+ far distant]
Syntax: VSO, N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2682
Language: Salug
Location: S Philippines (W Mindanao)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Consonant system:
Number: 2683
Language: Lapuyan
Location: S Philippines (W Mindanao)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Subanun
Consonant system:
Number: 2684
Language: Kagayanen
Location: SW Philippines (Cagayan Is)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: North
Consonant system:
Number: 2685
Language: Binukid
Location: SE Philppines (N Mindanao)
Population: 76,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: North
Other Sources: PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2686
Language: Kinamigin
Location: SE Philippines (Camiguin Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: North
Consonant system: Glides: j w Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Number: 2687
Language: Obo
Location: SE Philippines (SC Mindanao)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2688
Language: Ata
Location: SE Philippines (C Mindanao)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: South
Other Sources: Austin, Virginia Morey. 1966. Attention, Emphasis and Focus in Ata Manobo. HSL 20. Hartung, Patricia M. 1975. "Clause-modifying Particles in Ata Manobo," PL A44, 29-60. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but s h w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 4 [3 + far distant] Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2689
Language: Tigwa
Location: SE Philippines (C Mindanao)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: South
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 3=6
Number: 2690
Language: Agusan
Location: SE Philippines (NE Mindanao)
Population: 47,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: East
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2691
Language: Dibabawon
Location: SE Philippines (E Mindanao)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: East
Other Sources: AL 7:2 PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2692
Language: Rajah Kabungsuan
Location: SE Philippines (E Mindanao)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: East
Consonant system:
Number: 2693
Language: Ilianen
Location: SE Philippines (WC Mindanao)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: West
Other Sources: Wrigglesworth, Hazel J. 1971. "Discourse and Paragraph Structure of Ilianen Manobo" PL C22, 85-194. Shand, Jean. 1976. "Ilianen Manobo Sentence Structure," PL A46, 45-89. WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2694
Language: Western Bukidnon
Location: SE Philippines (C Mindanao)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: Central: West Dictionary: Elkins, Richard E. 1968. Manobo-English Dictionary. OLSP 3. Grammar: Elkins, Richard E. 1970. Major Grammatical Patterns of Western Bukidnon Manobo. SIL 26.
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β s ẓ ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s ẓ ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant] Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2695
Language: Tagabawa
Location: SE Philippines (SC Mindanao)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2696
Language: Sarangani Manobo
Location: SE Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 34,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: South
Other Sources: Meiklejohn, Percy and Kathleen Meiklejohn. 1958. "Accentuation in Sarangani Manobo," OLM 3, 1-5. Dubois, Carl D. 1973. "Connectives in Sarangani Manobo Narratives," Linguistics 110, 17-28. PML WPL
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: C(G)V(C) Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND N-POSS
Number: 2697
Language: Kalamansig Alternate Name: Cotabato
Location: SE Philippines (SW Mindanao)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: South
Other Sources: Kerr, Harland B. 1965. "The Case-marking and Classifying Function of Cotabato Manobo Voice Affixes," OL 4, 15-47. PML
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 4 [3 + far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2698
Language: Tasaday
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Manobo: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2699
Language: Magindanao
Location: SE Philippines (SW Mindanao)
Population: 503,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Danao Dictionary: GD: Porter, R.S. 1903. A Primer and Vocabulary of the Moro Dalect. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. Grammar: Juanmarti, Jacinto. 1906. A Grammar of the Maguindanao Tongue. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2700
Language: Maranao
Location: SE Philippines (WC Mindanao)
Population: 603,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Danao Dictionary: McKaughan, Howard P. and Batua A. Macaraya. 1967. A Maranao Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2701
Language: Iranon
Location: SE Philippines (WC Mindanao)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Southern Philippines: Danao
Consonant system:
Number: 2702
Language: Hanunoo
Location: WC Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: South Mangyan Dictionary: Conklin, Harold C. 1953. Hanunoo-English Vocabulary. UCPL 9.
Other Sources: Conklin, Harold C. 1959. "Linguistic Play in Its Cultural Context," Lg 35, 631-6. AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: aj aw iw uj Stress: final/penult
Number: 2703
Language: Buhid
Location: WC Philippines (SC Mindanao)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: South Mangyan
Other Sources: Barham, R. Marie. 1958. "The Phonemes of the Buhid (Mangyan) Language of Eastern Mindoro, Philippines," OLM 3, 6-12. AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ f s̪ h m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic, but often penult
Number: 2704
Language: Taubuid
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: South Mangyan
Consonant system:
Number: 2705
Language: Kalamianen
Location: WC Philippines (Calamian Is)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Other Sources: Ruch, Edward. 1974. "Role Combinations and Verb Stem Classes in Kalamian Tagbanwa," PL A41, 23-60.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 5 [3 + this close, that far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2706
Language: Agutaynon
Location: WC Philippines (Agutaya Is)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Consonant system:
Number: 2707
Language: Batak
Location: SW Philippines (NE Palawan)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian Dictionary: Warren, Charles P. 1975. "Field Vocabulary of the Batak of Palawan (Philippines)," in Linguistics and Anthropology, ed. by M. Dale Kinkade, Kenneth L. Hale and Oswald Werner, Lisse, Peter de Ridder, 649-75.
Other Sources: PML E WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: aj aw iw oj uj Stress: final/penult Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: The Batak are physically Negritos.
Number: 2708
Language: Tagbanwa
Location: SW Philippines (C Palawan)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Other Sources: PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2709
Language: Palaweño
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Consonant system:
Number: 2710
Language: Molbog
Location: SW Philippines (S Palawan)
Population: 5,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Consonant system:
Number: 2711
Language: Banggi
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Kalamian
Consonant system:
Number: 2712
Language: Tagalog
Location: NC Philippines (S Luzon)
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Tagalog Dictionary: Tablan, Andrea A. and Carmen B. Mallari. 1961. Pilipino-English, English-Pilipino Dictionary. New York: Washington Square Press. Ramos Teresita V. 1971a. Tagalog Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Grammar: Schachter, Paul and Fe T. Otanes. 1972. Tagalog Reference Grammar. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Ramos, Teresita V. 1971b. Tagalog Structures. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: Bowen, J. Donald, et al. 1965. Beginning Tagalog. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Ramos Teresita V. and Videa de Guzman. 1971. Tagalog for Beginners. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: Llamzon, Teodoro A. 1966. Tagalog Phonology," AL 8:1, 30-9. AL 7:2 NPL
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ (č) (f) s h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (e) Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ (o) Long Vowels: v̄ i (e) a u (o) Diphthongs: ej aj oj uj iw ew aw ow
Tones: (C)CV(C) Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/(VOS) AN/NA NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2713
Language: Lubang
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Tagalog
Consonant system:
Number: 2714
Language: Marinduque
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Tagalog
Consonant system:
Number: 2715
Language: Pandan1
Location: EC Philippines (N Catanduanes Is)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2716
Language: Iriga
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Population: 180,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2717
Language: Buhi
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2718
Language: Libon
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2719
Language: Oas
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2720
Language: Daraga
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2721
Language: Virac
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol
Consonant system:
Number: 2722
Language: Naga Alternate Name: Bikol
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bikol Dictionary: Mintz, Malcolm W. 1971a. Bikol Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Grammar: Epstein, Jon. 1967a. Standard Bikol. Washington D.C.: Dept of HEW, Office of Education. Mintz, Malcolm W. 1971b. Bikal Grammar Notes. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: Epstein, Jon. 1967b. Bikol Lessons. Wahsington, D.C.: Dept of HEW, Office of Education. Mintz, Malcolm W. 1971c. Bikol Text. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: NPL
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ (č) ɡ̌ s (š) h m n̪ (ñ) ŋ l (ʎ) ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: s (š) h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l (ʎ) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: iw aj aw oj Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: AN DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2723
Language: Davaweño
Location: SE Philippines (E Mindanao)
Population: 124,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Consonant system:
Number: 2724
Language: Kamayo
Location: SE Philippines (NE Mindanao)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Consonant system:
Number: 2725
Language: Isamal
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Consonant system:
Number: 2726
Language: Caraga
Location: SE Philippines (E Mindanao)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Consonant system:
Number: 2727
Language: Mandayan
Location: SE Philippines (E Mindanao)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Consonant system:
Number: 2728
Language: Mansakan Alternate Name: Mansaka
Location: SE Philippines (SE Mindanao)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Other Sources: PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: v̆ (short vowels) Demonstratives: 4: [3+ far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2729
Language: Kalagan
Location: SE Philippines (SE Mindanao)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Other Sources: Dawson, Francis B. 1958. "The Phonemes of Kalagan," OLM 3, 67-82. WPF
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ s (h) m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2730
Language: Tagakaolo
Location: SE Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 38,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mansakan
Other Sources: AL 7:2 PML
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɸ s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 6
Number: 2731
Language: Mamanwa
Location: SE Philippines (NE Mindanao)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Mamanwa Grammar: Miller, Jeanne and Helen Miller. 1976. Mamanwa Grammar. Huntington Beach, CA: SIL.
Other Sources: Blood, Doris Walker. 1962. "The 'Y' Archiphoneme in Mamanwa," AL 4:4, 29-30. Verstraelen, Eugene. 1965. "Some Elementary Data on the Mamanwa Language," Anthropos 60, 803-15. Miller, Jeanne. 1969. "Nonverbal Clauses in Mamanwa", PL A19,1-9. Miller, Helen W. 1969. "Mamanwa Morphology," PL A19, 11-32. Miller, Helen. 1973. "Thematization in Mamanwa," Linguistics 110, 55-73. Miller, Jeanne. 1973. "Semantic Structure of Mamanwa Verbs," Lingustics 110, 74-81. AL 7:2 PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s ž h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic (but mostly final or penult) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: spoken by Negritos
Number: 2732
Language: Surigaonon
Location: SE Philippines (NE Mindanao)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2733
Language: Jaun-Jaun
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2734
Language: Kantilan
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2735
Language: Tausug
Location: S Philippines (Jolo Is)
Population: 330,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: South
Other Sources: PML WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s ž h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2736
Language: Butuanon
Location: SE Philippines (NE Mindanao)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: South
Consonant system:
Number: 2737
Language: Cebuano
Location: SC Philippines (Cebu Is)
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Cebuan Dictionary: Yap, Elsa Paula and Maria Victoria Bunye. 1971. Cebuano-Visayan Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Wolff John U. 1972. A Dictionary of Cebuano Visayan. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell Univ. Grammar: Nelson Andrew M. 1964. An Introduction to Cebuano. Cebu City: Rotary Press. Buyne, Maria Victoria R. and Elsa Paula Yap. 1971a. Cebuano Grammar Notes. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Wolff John U. 1962. A Description of Cebuano Visayan. Ithaca: Division of Modern Languages, Cornell Univ.
TextBooks: Wolff John U. 1966. Beginning Cebuano, 2 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. Bunye, Maria Victoria R. and Elsa Paula Yap. 1971b. Cebuano for Beginners. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Consonant system: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ij aj uj iw aw Stress: phonemic (but mostly predictable: (1) on long vowel, (2) penult, (3) final) Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far away]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2738
Language: Boholano
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Cebuan
Consonant system:
Number: 2739
Language: Gubat
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2740
Language: North Samar
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2741
Language: Waray Dialect: Waray
Location: EC Philippines (SE Luzon)
Population: 3 million (185,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2742
Language: Waray Dialect: Samar-Leyte
Location: EC Philippines (Samar Is)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Other Sources: NPL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Number: 2743
Language: Camotes
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2744
Language: Bantayan
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2745
Language: Masbate
Location: EC Philippines (Masbate Is)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2746
Language: Hiligaynon
Location: C Philippines (E Panay Is)
Population: 4.2 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central Dictionary: Enrı́quez, Pablo J. 1949. English-Tayalog-Visayan (Cebuano-Illongo) Vocabulary. Manila: Philippine Book Co. Motus, Cecile L. 1971a. Hiligaynon Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Grammar: Wolfenden, Elmer. 1971. Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
TextBooks: Motus Cecile L. 1971b. Hiligaynon Lessons. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: Ghatage, A. M. 1964. "The Phonemes of Hiligaynon," IL 25, 77-82. Wolfenden, Elmer. 1975. A Description of Hiligaynon Syntax. SIL 46.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (ts) (dz) (f) (v) s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ts) (dz) Fricatives: (f) (v) s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N /(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2747
Language: Romblonanon
Location: C Philippines (Romblon Is)
Population: 173,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2748
Language: Banton
Location: C Philippines (Banton Is)
Population: 49,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Banton
Consonant system:
Number: 2749
Language: Odionganon
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: Banton
Consonant system:
Number: 2750
Language: Kuyunon
Location: WC Philippines (Cuyo Is)
Population: 49,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Other Sources: Lackowski, Peter. 1968. "Verb Inflection in Cuyunon," OL 7, 92-103.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ (f) (v) s̪ (h) m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: aj aɨ aw ja jɨ ju wa wɨ wi
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2751
Language: Datagnon
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2752
Language: Kinaray-a
Location: C Philippines (W Panay Is)
Population: 347,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2753
Language: Pandan2
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2754
Language: Looknon
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2755
Language: Bulalakawnon
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2756
Language: Aklanon
Location: C Philippines (N Panay Is)
Population: 411,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Meso-Phillipine: Central Philippines: Bisayan: West
Consonant system:
Number: 2757
Language: Bagobo
Location: SE Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: South Mindanao
Consonant system:
Number: 2758
Language: Tiruray
Location: S Philippines (SW Mindanao)
Population: 34,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: South Mindanao Dictionary: Schlegel, Stuart A. 1971. Tiruray-English Lexicon. UCPL 67.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ̰ɸ s x m n ŋ l r Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Number: 2759
Language: Tboli Alternate Name: Tagabili
Location: S Philippines (SW Mindanao)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: South Mindanao
Other Sources: PML WALS WPF
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ f s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2760
Language: Cotabato Bilaan
Location: SE Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 41,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: South Mindanao
Other Sources: Dean, James C. 1958. "Some Principal Grammatical Relations of Bilaan," OLM 3, 83-90. Abrams, Norman. 1970. "Bilaan Morphology," PL A24, 1-62. PML WPF
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ f s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Demonstratives: 4 [3 + far distant] Articles: DEF
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/(POSS-N ) Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2761
Language: Sarangani Bilaan
Location: SE Philippines (S Mindanao)
Population: 24,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: South Mindanao
Other Sources: McLachlin Betty and Barbara Blackburn. 1971. "An Outline of Sarangani Bilaan Discourse and Paragraph Structure," PL C22, 1-83. PML WPF
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ f s h m n ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2762
Language: Talaud
Location: Indonesia (Talaud Is)
Population: 145,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Consonant system:
Number: 2763
Language: Sangir Alternate Name: Sangi
Location: Philippines
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2764
Language: Sangil
Location: Philippines (Balut Is)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: PML Maryott, Kenneth R. 1975. "Sangil Elevationals and the Performative Analysis," MSILI 1, 28-50.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ β s ɣ h m n ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2765
Language: Bantik
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Consonant system:
Number: 2766
Language: Ratahan
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Consonant system:
Number: 2767
Language: Tonsea
Location: Indonesia (N Sulawesi)
Population: 90,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: Sneddon, J. N. 1978. Proto-Minahasan: Phonology, Morphology and Wordlist. PL B54. Sneddon, J. N. 1977. "Tonsea Text," MSILI 2, 56-63.
Consonant system: p t d k ʔ β s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t d k ʔ Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2768
Language: Tondano
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan Grammar: Snedden, J. N. 1975. Tondano Phonology and Grammar. PL B38.
Other Sources: Sneddon, J. N. 1978. Proto-Minahasan: Phonology, Morphology and Wordlist. PL B54.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d k ɡ ʔ s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but usually penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS NUM+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2769
Language: Tombulu
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: Sneddon, J. N. 1978 Proto-Minahasan: Phonology, Morphology and Wordlist. PL B54.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β s ẓ̌ ɣ h m n ŋ ɮ r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β s ẓ̌ ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 2770
Language: Tontemboan
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: Sneddon, J. N. 1978. Proto-Minahasan: Phonology, Morphology and Wordlist. PL B54.
Consonant system: p t (d) k ʔ β s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t (d) k ʔ Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 2771
Language: Tonsawang
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Sangir-Minahasan
Other Sources: Sneddon, J. N. 1978. Proto-Minahasan: Phonology, Morphology and Wordlist. PL B54.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ t̪s s h m n ŋ ḷ̌ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: ḷ̌ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 2772
Language: Ponosakan
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2773
Language: Mongondow
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Population: 400,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2774
Language: Bintauna
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2775
Language: Kaidipang
Location: Indonesia (N Celebes)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2776
Language: Bolango
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2777
Language: Atinggola
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2778
Language: Suwawa
Location: Indonesia (N Celebes)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2779
Language: Gorontalo
Location: Indonesia (N Celebes)
Population: 900,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2780
Language: Buol
Location: Indonesia (N Celebes)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Mongondow-Gorantalo
Consonant system:
Number: 2781
Language: Banggai
Location: Indonesia (Banggi Is)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2782
Language: Saluan
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 2783
Language: Andio
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 2784
Language: Balantak
Location: Indonesia (EC Celebes)
Population: 125,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 2785
Language: Balaesan
Location: Indonesia (NE Celebes Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central
Consonant system:
Number: 2786
Language: Tolitoli
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2787
Language: Tomini
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Is)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2788
Language: Bolano
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2789
Language: Dondo
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2790
Language: Dampelasa
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2791
Language: Kasimbar
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Is)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2792
Language: Petapa
Location: Indonesia (NW Celebes Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2793
Language: Ndau
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Tomini
Consonant system:
Number: 2794
Language: Kaili
Location: Indonesia (C Celebes )
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2795
Language: Pipikoro
Location: Indonesia (C Celebes )
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2796
Language: Lindu
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2797
Language: Sedoa
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2798
Language: Napu
Location: Indonesia (C Celebes )
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2799
Language: Bada
Location: Indonesia (C Celebes )
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2800
Language: Rampi
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2801
Language: Pamona
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Kaili-Pamona
Consonant system:
Number: 2802
Language: Bungku
Location: Indonesia (EC Celebes)
Population: 180,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Bungku-Mori
Consonant system:
Number: 2803
Language: Mori
Location: Indonesia (Celebes)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Bungku-Mori
Consonant system:
Number: 2804
Language: Lalaki
Location: Indonesia (SE Celebes)
Population: 125,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Bungku-Mori
Consonant system:
Number: 2805
Language: Mekongka
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Central Sulawesi: West Central: Bungku-Mori
Consonant system:
Number: 2806
Language: Makassarese
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2807
Language: Bugis Alternate Name: Bugi
Location: Indonesia (SW Celebes)
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi Grammar: Samsuri. 1965 Introduction to a Rappang Buginese Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ Diss.
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ (x) h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s̪ (x) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 politeness: 2 forms for 2 & 5: (1)equal or inferior (2)superior
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2808
Language: Mandar
Location: Indonesia (WC Celebes)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2809
Language: Sa'dan Dialect: Kesu'
Location: Indonesia (WC Celebes)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Other Sources: Sande, J. S. and W. A. L. Stokhof. 1977. "On the Phonology of the Toraja Kesuʔ Dialect," MSILI 4, 19-34.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (č) (ɡ̌) s (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k m n ŋ s l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Number: 2810
Language: Massenrempulu
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2811
Language: Pitu Ulunna Salo
Location: Indonesia (Celebes)
Population: 175,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2812
Language: Mamuju
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2813
Language: Seko
Location: Indonesia (WC Celebes)
Population: 275,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2814
Language: Wotu
Location: Indonesia (C Celebes )
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: South Sulawesi
Consonant system:
Number: 2815
Language: Muna
Location: Indonesia (Muna Island)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2816
Language: Wolio
Location: Indonesia (Butung Is)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton Grammar: Anceaux, J.C. 1952. The Wolio Language. The Hague: H. L. Smits.
Consonant system: p (b) ɓ t (d) ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ (f) s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p (b) ɓ t (d) ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Glides: (j) w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V Stress: "Word accent consists of a high pitch of the penultimate vowel." Anceaux, p. 9 Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2817
Language: South Buton
Location: Indonesia (Butung Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Consonant system:
Number: 2818
Language: Buton
Location: Indonesia (Butung Island)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Consonant system:
Number: 2819
Language: Tukang-Besi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Other Sources: WALS
Syntax: VOS
Number: 2820
Language: Bonerate
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Consonant system:
Number: 2821
Language: Kalaotoa
Location: Indonesia (Tukangbesi Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Consonant system:
Number: 2822
Language: Layolo
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Celebes: Muna-Buton
Consonant system:
Number: 2823
Language: Ida'an
Location: Malaysia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo
Consonant system:
Number: 2824
Language: Selungai Murut
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Consonant system:
Number: 2825
Language: Kolod Alternate Name: Okolod Murut
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Other Sources: Prentice, D. J. 1971. The Murut Language of Sabah. PL C18.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 2826
Language: Sumambu Alternate Name: Lowland Murut
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Other Sources: Prentice, D. J. 1969. "Phonemes of Sabah Murut," PL A20, 23-41. Prentice, D. J. 1971. The Murut Language of Sabah. PL C18.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s m n (ñ) ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2827
Language: Sumambu Alternate Name: Salalir Murut
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Consonant system:
Number: 2828
Language: Paluan
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Consonant system:
Number: 2829
Language: Timugon Alternate Name: Highland Murut
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Other Sources: Prentice, D. J. 1971. The Murut Language of Sabah. PL C18.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (ɡ̌) s m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 2830
Language: Beaufort Murut
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Consonant system:
Number: 2831
Language: Keningau Murut
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Murut
Consonant system:
Number: 2832
Language: Tidong
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Tidong
Consonant system:
Number: 2833
Language: Sembakung
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Tidong
Consonant system:
Number: 2834
Language: Baukan
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Tidong
Consonant system:
Number: 2835
Language: Kalabakan
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Tidong
Consonant system:
Number: 2836
Language: Serudung
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Tidong
Consonant system:
Number: 2837
Language: Gana
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2838
Language: Kuijau
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2839
Language: Kadazan-Dusun
Location: Malaysia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Other Sources: Prentice, D. J. 1974. "Yet Another PAN Phoneme," OL 13, 33-75.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (ɡ̌) (v) s (z) h m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (v) s (z) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 2840
Language: Lotud
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2841
Language: Papar Alternate Name: Coastal Kadazan
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2842
Language: Rungus
Location: Malaysia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2843
Language: Eastern Kadazan Dialect: Labuk
Location: Malaysia (Sabah)
Population: 24,000 (15,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Other Sources: Prentice, D. J. 1974. "Yet Another PAN Phoneme," OL 13, 33-75. Hurlbut, Hope M. 1979. "Some Features of Narrative Discourse in Kadazan," in PL, C49, 255-82.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (ɡ̌) (v) s (z) h m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (v) s (z) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Articles: def
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2844
Language: Klias River Kadazan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Number: 2845
Language: Kimaragang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2846
Language: Garo
Location: NE India (W Assam)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2847
Language: Tebilung
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Dusun
Consonant system:
Number: 2848
Language: Tatana
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Bisayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2849
Language: Northern Bisaya
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Bisayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2850
Language: Southern Bisaya
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Bisayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2851
Language: Tutong1
Location: Malaysia (N Sarawak)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Bisayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2852
Language: Dumpas
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2853
Language: Lingkabau
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2854
Language: Abai Sungai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2855
Language: Tambanua
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2856
Language: Upper Kinabatangan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2857
Language: Lobu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Northeast: Paitanic
Consonant system:
Number: 2858
Language: Lundayeh
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Apo Duat
Consonant system:
Number: 2859
Language: Kelabit
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Apo Duat
Consonant system:
Number: 2860
Language: Sa'ban Alternate Name: Long Benga'
Location: Malaysia (N Sarawak)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Apo Duat
Other Sources: Clayre, I. F. C. S. 1973. "The Phonemes of Sa'ban, " Linguistics 100, 26-46. Clayre, I. F. C. S. 1970. "Sa'ban Revisited," Sarawak Museum Journal 18, 319-??.
Consonant system: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k ɡ̌ s r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ̄ā Diphthongs: ǝi ai ɔi iǝ ɛǝ ɨǝ uǝ ɔe ǝu au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN [colors]) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2861
Language: Lengilu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Apo Duat
Consonant system:
Number: 2862
Language: Putoh
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Apo Duat
Consonant system:
Number: 2863
Language: Melanau
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Lower Rejang
Other Sources: Clayre, I. F. C. S. 1970. "The Spelling of Melanau (née Milano)," Sarawak Museum Journal 18, 330-52. Clayre, Iain. 1973. "Notes on Spatial Deixis in Melanau," AL 15, 71-86.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s j ̂ h m n ñ ŋ l r ʁ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s j ̂ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: final
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2864
Language: Kanowit
Location: Malaysia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Lower Rejang
Consonant system:
Number: 2865
Language: Tanjong
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Lower Rejang
Consonant system:
Number: 2866
Language: Bintulu
Location: Borneo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Bintulu
Other Sources: Clayre, I. F. C. S. 1970. "The Spelling of Melanau (née Milano)," Sarawak Museum Journal 18, 330-52.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ v s z j ̂ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z j ̂ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Number: 2867
Language: Lahanan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Bintulu
Consonant system:
Number: 2868
Language: Kajaman
Location: Malaysia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Bintulu
Consonant system:
Number: 2869
Language: Bukitan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Bintulu
Consonant system:
Number: 2870
Language: Lelak
Location: Malaysia (N Sarawak)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Baram-Tinjar
Consonant system:
Number: 2871
Language: Narom
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Baram-Tinjar
Consonant system:
Number: 2872
Language: Kiput
Location: Malaysia (N Sarawak)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Baram-Tinjar
Consonant system:
Number: 2873
Language: Tutong2
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Baram-Tinjar
Consonant system:
Number: 2874
Language: Berawan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Baram-Tinjar
Consonant system:
Number: 2875
Language: Punan Bah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Sajau
Consonant system:
Number: 2876
Language: Punan Merap
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Sajau
Consonant system:
Number: 2877
Language: Sajau Basap
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Sajau
Consonant system:
Number: 2878
Language: Burusu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Sajau
Number: 2879
Language: Basap
Location: Indonesia (E Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Rejang-Baram: Rejang-Sajau
Consonant system:
Number: 2880
Language: Silakau
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2881
Language: Lara'
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2882
Language: Jagoi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2883
Language: Singgie
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2884
Language: Biatah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2885
Language: Bukar Sadong
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Other Sources: Court, Christopher. 1967. "Some Areal Features of Mĕntu Land Dayak," OL 6, 46-50. Court, Christopher. 1977. "Irregular Verbs in Mĕntu Land Dayak (Bukar-Sadong, Ulu Sekayam): Some Remarks on Verb Morphology," PL A33, 1-7.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc = p t d k č . . . Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Stress: NH
Number: 2886
Language: Bekati'
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2887
Language: Benyadu'
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2888
Language: Kembayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2889
Language: Ribun
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2890
Language: Djongkang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2891
Language: Sanggau
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Land Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2892
Language: Punan-Nibong
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Punan-Nibong
Consonant system:
Number: 2893
Language: Murik Kayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan
Consonant system:
Number: 2894
Language: Rejang Kayan Alternate Name: Uma Juman
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Other Sources: Blust, Robert A. 1977. "Sketches of the Morphology and Phonology of Bornean Languages 1: Uma Juman (Kayan), PL A33, 8-122.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ v s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: uj (aw)
Syllable: (C) V (C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2895
Language: Baram Kayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2896
Language: Mendalam Kayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2897
Language: Kayan Mahakam
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2898
Language: Busang
Location: Indonesia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2899
Language: Bahau
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2900
Language: Kayan River Kayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2901
Language: Wahau Kayan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 2902
Language: Modang
Location: Indonesia (E Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Modang
Consonant system:
Number: 2903
Language: Segai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Modang
Consonant system:
Number: 2904
Language: Aoheng
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2905
Language: Havongan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2906
Language: Kereho-Uheng
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2907
Language: Bukat
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2908
Language: Punan Aput
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2909
Language: Punan Merah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kayan: Muller-Schwaner "Punan''
Consonant system:
Number: 2910
Language: Bakung Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2911
Language: Sebob Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2912
Language: Tutoh Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2913
Language: Punan Tubu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2914
Language: Wahau Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2915
Language: Western Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2916
Language: Upper Baram Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2917
Language: Bahau River Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2918
Language: Kayan River Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2919
Language: Mahakam Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2920
Language: Kelinyao Kenyah
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Kenyah: Main Kenyah
Consonant system:
Number: 2921
Language: Lawangan
Location: Indonesia (SE Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: East
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ̌ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 2922
Language: Dusun Deyah
Location: Indonesia (S Borneo)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: East
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p t k ɡ̌ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 2923
Language: Ma'anyan
Location: Indonesia (SE Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: East
Other Sources: AL 7:2 WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2924
Language: Malagasy
Location: Madagascar
Population: 5 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: East Dictionary: Richardson, J. 1885. A New Malagasy-English Dictionary. Tananarive: London Missionary Society. [Reprinted 1967 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England] Abinal, Antoine and V. Malzac. 1963. Dictionnaire malgache-français. Paris: Editions Maritimes et Coloniales. An Elementary English-Malagasy Dictionary. 1970. Tananarive: Andro Vaovao & Trano Printy Loterana. Malzac, V. 1963. Dictionnaire français-malgache. Paris: Editions Maritimes et Coloniales. GD: Deschamps, Hubert. 1936. Le dialecte antaisaka (langue malgache). Tananarive: Pitot de la Beaujardière. Grammar: Malzac, V. 1960. Grammaire malgache. Paris: Société d'Editions Géographiques Maritimes et Coloniales. Arakin, V. D. 1963. Mal'gashskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury. Garvey, Catherine J., et al. 1964. A Sketch of Malagasy Grammar. Washington, D.C.:CAL
TextBooks: Garvey, Catherine J., et al. 1964. Malagasy Introductory Course. Washington D.C.:CAL. Stark, Elsie L. 1969. Malagasy without Moans. Tananarive: Trano Printy Loterana.
Other Sources: Dahl, Otto C. 1952. " Etude de phonologie et de phonétique malgaches," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap" 16, 148-200. Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "Malagasy," CTIL 8, 211-39. Keenan, Edward Louis and Elinor Ochs. 1979. "Becoming a Competent Speaker of Malagasy," in LTS, 113-58. Dez, Jacques. 1978. "Le malgache," in IEL, 331-49.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ts dz f v s z h m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d̪ ḍ ɡ dz (The prenasalized voiceless stops mp, nt̪, nṭ, ŋk, nts, reported in the early literature, have apparently vanished from the contemporary language.) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (ɔ) Diphthongs: ai au ui
Syllable: (C) V (C) Stress: penult & antepenult, sometimes phonemic Demonstratives: 6: this, that, that further away, that far away, that very far away, that's so far away it cannot be seen Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG DND[both obligatory] N-NUM N-POSS D+N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Genetically closest to Ma'anyan
Number: 2925
Language: Dohoi
Location: Indonesia (S Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Northwest
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p b t d k č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: oi ou
Number: 2926
Language: Siang
Location: Indonesia (S Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Northwest
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p b t d k č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: oi ou
Number: 2927
Language: Kapuas Dialect: Ngaju
Location: Indonesia (S Borneo)
Population: 500,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Southwest
Other Sources: Mihing, T. W. J. and W. A. L. Stokhof. 1977. "On the Ngaju Dayak Sound System," MSILI 3, 49-??.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: aw aj uj oj ej ij
Number: 2928
Language: Kapuas Dialect: Ba'amang
Location: Indonesia (S Borneo)
Population: 500,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Southwest
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: ei au
Number: 2929
Language: Katingan
Location: Indonesia (SC Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Southwest
Other Sources: Hudson, Alfred B. 1967. The Barito Isolects of Borneo. CUDP 68.
Consonant system: p b t d k č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: ei au
Number: 2930
Language: Kahayan
Location: Indonesia (Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Southwest
Consonant system:
Number: 2931
Language: Bakumpai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: West: Southwest
Consonant system:
Number: 2932
Language: Tunjung
Location: Indonesia (E Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: Mahakam
Consonant system:
Number: 2933
Language: Ampanang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Borneo: Barito: Mahakam
Consonant system:
Number: 2934
Language: Abaknon
Location: WC Philippines (Capul Is)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw
Consonant system:
Number: 2935
Language: Batuan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw
Consonant system:
Number: 2936
Language: Yakan
Location: S Philippines (E Basilan Is)
Population: 52,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw
Other Sources: Hooker, Betty. 1975. "Some Nominal Phrases in Yakan," PL A44, 1-12. Behrens, Dietlinde. 1975. "Yakan Phonemics and Morphophonemics," PL A44, 13-28.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ ɡ̌ h j Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 4 : [3 + that out of sight]
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS NUM+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2937
Language: Sibutuq
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw
Consonant system:
Number: 2938
Language: North Sama
Location: S Philippines (Tungkil Is)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Inner Sulu Sama
Other Sources: Gault, Jo Ann. 1979. "Phonemics and Morphophonemics of Sama Baangingi," PL A50, 49-68. PML
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2939
Language: Central Sama Alternate Name: Samal
Location: S Philippines (N Tawitawi Is)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Inner Sulu Sama
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 2940
Language: South Sama
Location: S Philippines (Sibutu Is)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Inner Sulu Sama
Consonant system:
Number: 2941
Language: Pangutaran
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Western Sulu Sama
Consonant system:
Number: 2942
Language: Jama Mapun
Location: SW Philippines (Cagayan de Sulu Is)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw
Consonant system:
Number: 2943
Language: Kota Belud
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: North Borneo
Consonant system:
Number: 2944
Language: Kawang
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: North Borneo
Consonant system:
Number: 2945
Language: Putatan
Location: Malaysia (N Borneo)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: North Borneo
Consonant system:
Number: 2946
Language: Sulamu
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2947
Language: Kajoa
Location: Indonesia (Kajoa Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2948
Language: Roti1
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Number: 2949
Language: Jaya Bakti
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2950
Language: Poso
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2951
Language: Tongian1
Location: Indonesia (Togian Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2952
Language: Tongian2
Location: Indonesia (Togian Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2953
Language: Wallace
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sama-Bajaw: Borneo Coast Bajaw: Indonesian
Consonant system:
Number: 2954
Language: Javanese
Location: Indonesia (Java)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic Dictionary: Horne, Elinor C. 1974. Javanese-English Dictionary. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
TextBooks: Horne, Elinor C. 1961. Beginning Javanese. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. Horne, Elinor C. 1963. Intermediate Javanese. New Haven: Yale Univ Press. Herrfurth, Hans. 1968. Lehrbuch des modernen Djwanisch. Leipzig: Enzyklopädie.
Other Sources: Uhlenbeck, E. M. 1950. "The Structure of the Javanese Morpheme," Lingua 2, 239-70. Uhlenbeck, E. M. 1953. "The Study of Word Classes in Javanese," Lingua 3, 322-54. Uhlenbeck, E.M. 1965. "Some Preliminary Remarks on Javanese Syntax," Lingua 15, 53-70.
Consonant system: p b̤ t̪ d̪̤ t d̤ k ɡ̤ ʔ ts d̤z (f) s (z̤) h m n̪ ñ ŋ l l̤ r Stops: p b̤ t̪ d̪̤ t d̤ k ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: ts d̤z Fricatives: (f) s (z̤) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̤ = b̤ mb̤ d̤̪ nd̤̪ d̤ nd̤ ɡ̤ ŋɡ̤ d̤z nd̤z l̤ (z̤) Heavy consonants have a murmured fuzzy quality which affects the vowel after them by making of a bit a lower in pitch and giving it a breathy sound. Horne 1961. XXIX Nc = b̤ d̪̤ d̤ ɡ̤ d̤z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C) (C) V (C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 [that = ref] Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2955
Language: Sundanese
Location: Indonesia (W Java)
Population: 15 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic Dictionary: Lezer, Leo A. 1931. Lezer's soendasch woordenboek. Bandoeng: L. A. Lezer. Grammar: Pavlenko, Andrei P. 1965. Sundanskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Robins, R. H. 1953. "The Phonology of the Nasalized Verbal Forms in Sundanese," BSOAS 15, 138-45. Robins, R. H. 1959. "Nominal and Verbal Derivation in Sundanese," Lingua 8, 337-69. Van Syoc, Wayland Bryce. 1959. The Phonology and Morphology of the Sundanese Language. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Diss. Robins, R. H. 1965. "Some Typological Obsevations on Sundanese Morphology," Lingua 15, 435-50. Robins, R. H. 1968. "Basic Sentence Structure in Sundanese." Lingua 21, 351-8. WALS
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s̪ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C) (C) V (C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO GN ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2956
Language: Mbaloh
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic
Consonant system:
Number: 2957
Language: Gayo
Location: Indonesia (N Sumatra)
Population: 120,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic
Consonant system:
Number: 2958
Language: Lampung Dialect: Pesisir
Location: Indonesia (S Sumatra)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Lampung Grammar: Walker, Dale F. 1976. A Grammar of the Lampung Language: The Pesisir Dialect of Way Lima. Jakarta: Baden Penyelenggara Seri NUSA.
Other Sources: Walker, Dale F. 1975. "A Lexical Study of Lampung Dialects," MSILI 1, 11-22.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s̪ x h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ (r) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ x h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C) (C) (C) V (C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3+ ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 3 5 3 6 [All pronouns except 4i have two forms: formal and informal.]
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2959
Language: Komering
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Lampung
Consonant system:
Number: 2960
Language: Bali
Location: Indonesia (Bali Is)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Bali-Sasak
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 2961
Language: Sasak
Location: Indonesia (E Lombok Is)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Bali-Sasak
Consonant system:
Number: 2962
Language: Sumbawa
Location: Indonesia (W Sumbawa Island)
Population: 114,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Bali-Sasak
Consonant system:
Number: 2963
Language: Lom
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra
Consonant system:
Number: 2964
Language: Mentawai
Location: Indonesia (Mentawai Islands)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra
Consonant system:
Number: 2965
Language: Enggano
Location: Indonesia (Enggano Island)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2966
Language: Simeulue
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2967
Language: Nias
Location: Indonesia (Nias Island)
Population: 230,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Northern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 2968
Language: Simalungan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Batak
Consonant system:
Number: 2969
Language: Alas
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Batak: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2970
Language: Karo Batak
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Batak: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 2971
Language: Toba Batak
Location: Indonesia (N Sumatra)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Batak: Southern Grammar: Tuuk, H. N. van der. 1971. A Grammar of Toba Batak. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Other Sources: AL 7:2 WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: usually penult in nouns Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1* 4ie 2 5 3 6 *various polite pronouns
Syntax: VOS NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2972
Language: Mandailing
Location: Indonesia (Sumatra)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Sumatra: Batak: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 2973
Language: Madurese
Location: Indonesia (Madura Is)
Population: 5 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic Dictionary: Kiliaan, H. N. 1904, 1905. Madoereesch-nederlandsch woordenboek, 2 vols. Leiden: E.J.Brill.
Other Sources: Stevens, Alan M. 1965. "Language Levels in Madurese," Lg 41, 294-302. Stevens, Alan M. 1966. "The Madurese Reflexes of Proto-Malayopolynesian," JAOS 86, 147-56. Stevens, Alan M. 1968. Madurese Phonology and Morphology. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ t th d k kh ɡ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C) V (C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 [that = ref] Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2974
Language: Iban Alternate Name: Seberuang
Location: Indonesia (Borneo)
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Malayic Dayak
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2975
Language: Malayic Dayic
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Malayic Dayak
Consonant system:
Number: 2976
Language: Moklen
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Moklen
Consonant system:
Number: 2977
Language: Moken
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Moklen
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 2978
Language: Minangkabau
Location: Indonesia (C Sumatra)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w ǝ̯
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 2979
Language: Minangkabau Dialect: Kerinchi
Location: Indonesia (C Sumatra)
Population: 2 million (200,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Other Sources: Prentice, D.J. and A. Hakim Usman. 1978. " Kerinci Sound-Changes and Phonotactics," PL C61, 121-63. Steinhauer, H. and A. Hakim Usman. 1978. "Notes on the Morphemics of Kerinci (Sumatra), " PL C61, 483-502. AL 7:2 E
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ z̪ (x) h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s̪ z̪ (x) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ej ɔj aj ow ew ɛw aw Stress: final
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM/NUM-N N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2980
Language: Minangkabau Dialect: Agam
Location: Indonesia (C Sumatra)
Population: 2 million (200,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Other Sources: Johns, Anthony H. 1958. Rantjak Dilabueh: A Minangkabau Kaba. CUDP 32. E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ f s z h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai Stress: final
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM/NUM-N N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2981
Language: Urak Lawoi'
Location: S Thailand (Phuket Is)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Other Sources: Hogan, David W. 1976. "Urak Lawoi' (Orang Laut)," PL C43 283-302.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: C V (C)
Syntax: SVO NG NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2982
Language: Duano'
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2983
Language: Rejang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Para-Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2984
Language: Temuan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Aboriginal Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2985
Language: Orang Hulu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Aboriginal Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2986
Language: Orang Kanaq
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Aboriginal Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2987
Language: Orang Seletar
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Aboriginal Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2988
Language: Malay
Location: Malaysia
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Local Malay Dictionary: Winstedt, Richard. 1959. An Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary. Kuala Lumpur: Marican & Sons. Winstedt, Richard. 1972. An Unabridged English-Malay Dictionary. Kuala Lumpur: Marican & Sons. Grammar: Winstedt, Richard. 1957. Colloquial Malay. Singapore: Marican & Sons. Verguin, Joseph. 1967. Le malais. The Hague: Mouton. Pearce, James. 1960. A Simple but Complete Grammar of the Malay Language. Singapore: Malaya Publishing House.
TextBooks: Lewis. M. Blanche. 1959. Teach Yourself Malay. London: English Universities Press. Dyen, Isidore, et al. 1971. Spoken Malay, 2 vols. Ithaca: Spoken Language Services. Lewis, M. Blanche. 1969. Sentence Analysis in Modern Malay. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Payne, Edward M. F. 1970. Basic Syntactic Structures in Standard Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka. Abdullah, Hassan. 1974. The Morphology of Malay. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaki.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ (f) (θ) (ð) s z š (x) h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (θ) (ð) s z š (x) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ai au ia
Syllable: (C) V (C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1* 4ie 2 5 3 6 *Many polite-familiar distinctions (depending on social caste, nationality, etc.) characterize the pronoun system.
Syntax: SVO NA NG(GN) ND NUM-N N-POSS(POSS-N) Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2989
Language: Malay Dialect: Mentok
Location: Indonesia (Bangka Is)
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Local Malay
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C) V (C) Stress: non-phonemic
Number: 2990
Language: Malay Dialect: Sea Dayak
Location: Malaysia (Sarawak)
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Local Malay Dictionary: Scott, N.C. 1956. A Dictionary of Sea Dayak. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: aj aw uj
Number: 2991
Language: Indonesian Alternate Name: Indonesian Malay
Location: Indonesia
Population: 10 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Local Malay Dictionary: Echols, John M. and Hassan Shadily. 1974. An Indonesian-English Dictionary. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Press. Echols, John M. and Hasan Shadily. 1975. An English-Indonesian Dictionary. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Press. Grammar: Kahler, Hans. 1964. Grammatik der Bahasa Indonesia. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. MacDonald, R. Ross and Soenjono Dardjowidjojo. 1967. A Student's Reference Grammar of Modern Formal Indonesian. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
TextBooks: Wolff, John U. 1971. Beginning Indonesian, 2 vols. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell Univ. Danoesoegondo, Poerwanto. 1966-71. Bahasa Indonesia for Beginners. Sydney: Sydney Univ Press. Kwee, John B. 1974. Teach Yourself Indonesian. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono. 1978. Sentence Patterns in Indonesian. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ (f) (v) s̪ (z̪) š (x) h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ (z̪) š (x) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (I) e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Diphthongs: aj aw oj ow ej
Syllable: (C) V (C) Stress: penult (and final)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Many formal-informal distinctions in the pronoun system.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2992
Language: Orang Laut
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Local Malay
Consonant system:
Number: 2993
Language: Achinese
Location: Indonesia (N Sumatra)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Achinese
Other Sources: Cowan, H.K.J. 1974. "Evidence of Long Vowels in Early Achehnese," OL 13, 187-212.
Consonant system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ɨǝ ɔǝ ɛǝ iǝ uǝ
Syntax: NG ND NUM-N
Number: 2994
Language: Huihui
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: North
Consonant system:
Number: 2995
Language: Jarai
Location: SC Vietnam
Population: 150,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 2996
Language: Rhade
Location: SC Vietnam
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 2997
Language: Haroi Alternate Name: Hroy
Location: SC Vietnam
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Plateau
TextBooks: Mundhenk, Alice Tegenfeldt and Hella Goschnick. 1977. "Haroi Phonemes," in PL A48, 1-15. Goschnick, Hella. 1977. "Haroi Clauses," in PL A48, 105-24.
Consonant system: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ c k kh ʔ š h hʷ m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: p ph ɓ t̪ t̪h ɗ c k kh ʔ Fricatives: š h hʷ Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Glides: j j̥ ʔj w w̥ ʔw Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ e ǝ ā ɔ̄) Diphthongs: ia ea ɨa ua oa iā ēā ɨ̄a ūā ōā ẽa õa ẽ̄a ɨ̃̄a ȭa ũ̄a
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Stress: on main syllable [ word=presyllable+main syllable]
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2998
Language: East Cham
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Cham-Chru Dictionary: Moussay, Gérard. 1971. Dictionnaire cam-vietnamien-français. Phanrang: Centre Culturel Cam.
Other Sources: Blood, David L. 1967. "Phonological Units in Cham," AL 9:8, 15-32. Dyen, Isidore. 1971. "The Chamic Languages," CTIL 8, 200-10.
Consonant system: p ph (ʔ)b t th (ʔ)d c ch k kh ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph (ʔ)b t th (ʔ)d c ch k kh ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ
Syllable: (C) (C) C V (C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS NUM+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 2999
Language: West Cham
Location: SE Cambodia
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Cham-Chru
Other Sources: Blood, David L. 1977. " A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cham Sentences," in PL A48, 53- Friberg, Timothy and Kvoeu Hor. 1977. "Register in Western Cham Phonology," in PL A48, 17-38. Blood, Doris Walker. 1977. "Clause and Sentence Final Particles in Cham," in PL A48, 39-51.
Consonant system: p ph ʔb t th ʔd c ch ʔɟ k kh ʔ s h m n ñ ŋ l r rʔ Stops: p ph ʔb t th ʔd c ch ʔɟ k kh ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r rʔ Glides: j j̥ jʔ w wʔ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i e ɛ ɨ ǝ a u o ɔ Modified Vowels: Syllables belong to one of two registers, with tongue root advancement affecting the consonant and register: (1) First register vowels have normal, clear, tense `head' voice, higher pitch, and follow initial voiceless consonants. (2) Second register vowels have deep, breathy, sepulchral, relaxed, 'chest' voice, lower pitch, and follow initial voiced consonants. Diphthongs: iǝ ɛǝ uǝ ɔǝ Stress: on mainsyllable [=final]
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3000
Language: Chru Alternate Name: Churu
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Cham-Chru
Other Sources: Fuller, Eugene. 1977. "Chru Phonemes," in PL A48, 77-87.
Consonant system: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j jʔ w wʔ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i e ɛ ǝ a u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Modified Vowels: Chru seems to have a non-contrastive feature of register.
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) Stress: final [=on main syllable]
Number: 3001
Language: South Raglai
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Raglai
Consonant system:
Number: 3002
Language: North Raglai
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Raglai
Other Sources: AL 7:2
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ ɓ ɓ̤ t th d d̤ ɗ ɗ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r Stops: p ph b b̤ ɓ ɓ̤ t th d d̤ ɗ ɗ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3003
Language: Cacgia Raglai
Location: S Vietnam
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Western: Sundic: Malayic: Chamic: South: Coastal: Raglai
Consonant system:
Number: 3004
Language: Teor
Location: Indonesia (Kai Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3005
Language: Ambelau
Location: Indonesia (Amblau Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3006
Language: Buru
Location: Indonesia (Buru Island)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3007
Language: Taliabo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3008
Language: Sula Alternate Name: Sanana
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3009
Language: Mangoli
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3010
Language: Banda
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Banda
Consonant system:
Number: 3011
Language: Geser
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Banda
Consonant system:
Number: 3012
Language: Watubela
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Banda
Consonant system:
Number: 3013
Language: Bobot
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: East Seram
Consonant system:
Number: 3014
Language: Masiwang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: East Seram
Consonant system:
Number: 3015
Language: Seti
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: East Seram
Consonant system:
Number: 3016
Language: Kayeli
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3017
Language: Nuaulu
Location: Indonesia (Maluku)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Central Seram
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3018
Language: Manusela
Location: Indonesia (Ceram Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Central Seram
Consonant system:
Number: 3019
Language: Wemale
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3020
Language: Atamanu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3021
Language: Saleman
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3022
Language: Hulung
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3023
Language: Loun
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3024
Language: Lisabata
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3025
Language: Naka'ela
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Consonant system:
Number: 3026
Language: Alune
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Three Rivers
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3027
Language: Asilulu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3028
Language: Boano
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3029
Language: Wakasihu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3030
Language: Manipa
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3031
Language: Luhu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Number: 3032
Language: Batumerah
Population: extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3033
Language: Teluti
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3034
Language: Kaibobo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3035
Language: Hitu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3036
Language: Paulohi
Location: Indonesia (Ambon Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3037
Language: Saparua
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3038
Language: Haruku
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3039
Language: Nusalaut
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3040
Language: Amahai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3041
Language: Selaru
Location: Indonesia (Tanimbar Is)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3042
Language: Kei
Location: Indonesia (Kai Islands)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3043
Language: Yamdena
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3044
Language: Selwasa
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3045
Language: Ujir
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3046
Language: Kamarian
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Central Maluku: East: Seram: Nunusaku: Piru Bay: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3047
Language: Kola
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3048
Language: Dobel
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3049
Language: Barakai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3050
Language: Tarangan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Southeast Malaku
Consonant system:
Number: 3051
Language: Helong
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores
Consonant system:
Number: 3052
Language: Naueti
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores
Consonant system:
Number: 3053
Language: Sikka Alternate Name: Maumere
Location: Indonesia (C Flores Island)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Flores-Lembata
Other Sources: Rosen, Joan M. 1979a. "The Verbal Particle Leu in the Maumere Language," in South-East Asian Linguistic Studies, vol. 4 (=PL C49), 283-303. Rosen, Joan M. 1979b. "The Verbal Particle Man in the Maumere Language," Philippine Journal of Linguistics 10, 84-108.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ v s h m n ŋ l ʔl r ʔr Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʔl Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w ʔw Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̤ all but ǝ
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3054
Language: Lamaholot
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Flores-Lembata
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3055
Language: Kedang
Location: Indonesia (NE Lomblen Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Flores-Lembata
Consonant system:
Number: 3056
Language: Roti2
Location: Indonesia (Roti Island)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3057
Language: Roti2
Location: Indonesia (Roti Is)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3058
Language: Roti2
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3059
Language: Timorese
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3060
Language: Tetun
Location: Indonesia (Timor Island)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor Dictionary: Dores, Raphael Das. 1907. Diccionario teto-português. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional.
Consonant system: b t d k f s h m n l r Stops: b t d k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ã ũ õ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3061
Language: Kemak
Location: Indonesia (Timor Is)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Other Sources: Stevens, Alan M. 1967. "Kemak: An Austronesian Language," AL 9:1, 26-32. E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ? cʷ b k m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: OSV N-POSS
Number: 3062
Language: Tukudede
Location: Indonesia (E Timor Is)
Population: 45,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3063
Language: Mambai
Location: Indonesia (C Timor)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3064
Language: Galoli
Location: Indonesia (E Timor Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3065
Language: Idate
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3066
Language: Lakalei
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3067
Language: Wetar Alternate Name: Tugun
Location: Indonesia (Maluku)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3068
Language: Roma
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3069
Language: Kisar
Location: Indonesia (Kisar Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3070
Language: Letri Lgona Alternate Name: Luang Dialect: Leti
Location: Indonesia (Leti Islands)
Population: 27,500 (7,500)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Other Sources: Mills, Roger F. and John Grima. 1980. "Historical Developments in Lettinese," in ANS, 273-84.
Consonant system: p t d k s m n l r Stops: p t d k Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̃ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3071
Language: Letri Lgona Alternate Name: Luang Dialect: Moa
Location: Indonesia (Leti Islands)
Population: 27,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Other Sources: Mills, Roger F. and John Grima. 1980. "Historical Developments in Lettinese," in ANS, 273-84.
Consonant system: p t d k s ɣ m n l r Stops: p t d k Fricatives: s ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3072
Language: Dai
Location: Solomon Is (Ndai Is)
Population: 135
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3073
Language: Dawera
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3074
Language: Masela
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3075
Language: Damar
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3076
Language: Teun
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3077
Language: Serua
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Timor-Flores: Timor
Consonant system:
Number: 3078
Language: Waima'a
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Waima'a
Consonant system:
Number: 3079
Language: Habu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Waima'a
Consonant system:
Number: 3080
Language: Kairui
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Waima'a
Consonant system:
Number: 3081
Language: Bima
Location: Indonesia (E Sumbawa Island)
Population: 177,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3082
Language: Kodi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3083
Language: Weyewa
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3084
Language: Lamboya
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3085
Language: Wanukaka
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3086
Language: Anakalangu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3087
Language: Mamboru
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3088
Language: East Sumbanese
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3089
Language: Savu
Location: Indonesia (Sawu Island)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Other Sources: Walker, Alan. 1979. Sawu Grammar. [Diss in progress] AL 7:2
Consonant system: p b ɓ t̪ d ɗ ʄ k ɡ ɠ ʔ ɡ̌ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d ɗ ʄ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Articles: art
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS N+A+D Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3090
Language: Ndao
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3091
Language: Manggarai
Location: Indonesia (W Flores Island)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba Dictionary: Verheijen, Jilis A. J. 1967, 1970. Kamus Manggarai, 2 vols. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3092
Language: Riung
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3093
Language: Ngada Alternate Name: Ngad'a
Location: Indonesia (SC Flores Island)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Other Sources: Moore, Patrick. 1980. "Nga'da Phonology," in ANS, 203-12. Djawanai, Stephanus. 1977. "A Description of the Basic Phonology of Nga'da and the Treatment of Borrowings," MSILI 4, 10-18. Djawanai, Stephanus. 1978. "Participant Relationships in Nga'da Discourse," MSILI 5, 20-35. WALS
Consonant system: ph b ɓ d̪ th ɗ̣ kh ɡ ʔ ɡ̌ f v s z x ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b ɓ d̪ th ɗ̣ kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n b ŋ ɾ s Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)V Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 3 6
Syntax: SVO N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3094
Language: Ende Alternate Name: Ngao
Location: Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Number: 3095
Language: Lio
Location: Indonesia (C Flores Island)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3096
Language: Palu'e
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Central: Bima-Sumba
Consonant system:
Number: 3097
Language: Kaiwai
Location: Indonesia (NW Irian Jaya)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3098
Language: Uruangnirin
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3099
Language: Onin
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3100
Language: Sekar
Location: Indonesia (NW Irian Jaya)
Population: 450
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3101
Language: Arguni
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3102
Language: Bedoanas
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3103
Language: Erokwanas
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3104
Language: Irahutu Alternate Name: Irarutu
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 3,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3105
Language: Nabi
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Bomberai
Consonant system:
Number: 3106
Language: Gane
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: South
Consonant system:
Number: 3107
Language: East Makian Alternate Name: Taba
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: South
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3108
Language: Buli
Location: Indonesia (S Halmahera Is)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3109
Language: Maba
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3110
Language: Patani
Location: Indonesia (SE Halmahera Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3111
Language: Sawai
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3112
Language: Weda
Location: Indonesia (S Halmahera Is)
Population: 900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3113
Language: Misool
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3114
Language: Amber
Location: Indonesia (Waigeo Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3115
Language: Wajamli
Location: Indonesia (Halmahera Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3116
Language: Bichole
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3117
Language: Giman
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3118
Language: Salawati
Location: Indonesia (Salawati Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3119
Language: Waigeo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3120
Language: Batanta
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3121
Language: As
Location: Indonesia (NW Irian Jaya)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3122
Language: Maya
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3123
Language: Maden
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3124
Language: Palamul
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3125
Language: Matbat
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3126
Language: Laganyan
Location: Indonesia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3127
Language: Kawe
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3128
Language: Gebe
Location: Indonesia (Gebe Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: South Halmahera: Central-East
Consonant system:
Number: 3129
Language: Waropen
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 3130
Language: Mor2
Location: Indonesia (Irian Jaya)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay Grammar: GD: Laycock, Don. 1978. "A Little Mor," PL C61, 285-316.
Consonant system: (p) (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ β s h m n r Stops: (p) (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic ?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN/NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3131
Language: Iresim
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 3132
Language: Yaur
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 3133
Language: Yeretuar
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 3134
Language: Tandia
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay
Consonant system:
Number: 3135
Language: Biak
Location: Indonesia (Biak Island)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Biakic
Consonant system:
Number: 3136
Language: Ron
Location: Indonesia (Ron Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Biakic
Consonant system:
Number: 3137
Language: Dusner
Location: Indonesia (W Irian Jaya)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Biakic
Consonant system:
Number: 3138
Language: Meoswar
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Biakic
Consonant system:
Number: 3139
Language: Wabo
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3140
Language: Kurudu
Location: Indonesia (Kurudu Island)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3141
Language: Wandamen
Location: Indonesia (N West Irian)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3142
Language: Ansus
Location: Indonesia (Sapan Island)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3143
Language: Woi
Location: Indonesia (Mios Num Is)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3144
Language: Pom
Location: Indonesia (Japen Is.)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3145
Language: Aibondeni
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3146
Language: Marau1
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Number: 3147
Language: Munggui
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3148
Language: Papuma
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3149
Language: Busami
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3150
Language: Serui-Laut
Location: Indonesia (Japen Is.)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3151
Language: Wadapi-Laut
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Consonant system:
Number: 3152
Language: Ambai
Location: Indonesia (N Irian Jaya)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: South Halmahera-Northwest New Guinea: Geelvink Bay: Yapen
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3153
Language: Proto-Oceanic
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic
Other Sources: Pawley, Andrew. 1973. "Some Problems in Proto-Oceanic Grammar," OL 12, 103-88. Lincoln, Peter C. 1973. "Some Possible Implications of POC *t as /l/ in Gedaged," OL 12, 279-93.
Consonant system: p t d k q s m n ñ ŋ l R Stops: p t d k q Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: R Modified Consonants: Nc p t d k s cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Pawley 1973 estimates the breakup of Proto-Oceanic as no later than about 3,000 BC.
Number: 3154
Language: Maisin
Location: SE Papua New Guinea (Northern)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3155
Language: Sobei
Location: Indonesia (NE Irian Jaya)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Sarmi
Consonant system:
Number: 3156
Language: Bongo
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Sarmi
Consonant system:
Number: 3157
Language: Tarpia
Location: Indonesia (NE Irian Jaya)
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Sarmi
Consonant system:
Number: 3158
Language: Yotafa Alternate Name: Tobati
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Yotafa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 3159
Language: Ormu
Location: Indonesia (NE Irian Jaya)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Yotafa
Consonant system:
Number: 3160
Language: Kayupulau
Location: Indonesia (NE Irian Jaya)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Sarmi-Yotafa: Yotafa
Consonant system:
Number: 3161
Language: Sera
Location: NW PNG (N West Sepik)
Population: 430
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Western
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3162
Language: Sissano
Location: NW PNG (N West Sepik)
Population: 4,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Western
Other Sources: Laycock, Don. 1973. "Sissano Warapu, and Melanesian Pidginization," OL 12, 245-77.
Consonant system: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ β s (ɣ) m n ŋ l r Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Fricatives: β s (ɣ) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Number: 3163
Language: Tumleo
Location: NW PNG (N West Sepik)
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Western
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3164
Language: Ali
Location: NW PNG (N West Sepik)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Western
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3165
Language: Ulau
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Western
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 3166
Language: Kis
Location: N Papua New Guinea (N East Sepik)
Population: 220
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3167
Language: Kairiru
Location: NW Papua New Guinea (N East Sepik)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Kairiru
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3168
Language: Kaiep
Location: N PNG (N East Sepik)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Kairiru
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3169
Language: Wogeo
Location: N PNG (Wogeo Is)
Population: 1,240
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Manam
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3170
Language: Bam
Location: N PNG (Bam Is)
Population: 1,450
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Manam
Consonant system:
Number: 3171
Language: Sepa
Location: N PNG (N East Sepik)
Population: 265
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Manam
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3172
Language: Manam
Location: N PNG (Manam Island)
Population: 5,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Manam
Other Sources: Gregersen, Edger A. 1976. "A Note on the Manam Language of Papua New Guinea," AL 18, 95-111.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ɡ̌) s̪ (h) m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s̪ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(w)V(ŋ)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3173
Language: Medebur
Location: N PNG (N Madang)
Population: 430
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Sepik: Eastern: Manam
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3174
Language: Takia
Location: N PNG (S Karkar Is)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3175
Language: Megiar
Location: N PNG (N Madang)
Population: 860
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3176
Language: Matukar
Location: N PNG (N Madang)
Population: 220
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3177
Language: Gedaged
Location: N PNG (Madang)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel Dictionary: Mager, J. 1952. Gedeged-English Dictionary. Columbus, Ohio: Board of Foreign Missions of the American Lutheran Church.
Other Sources: Lincoln, Peter C. 1973. "Some Possible Implications of POC *t as /l/ in Gedaged," OL 12, 279-93. AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3178
Language: Bilbil
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3179
Language: Ham Alternate Name: Marik
Location: N PNG (Madang)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Bel
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3180
Language: Wab
Location: NE PNG (Madang)
Population: 140
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Astrolaban
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3181
Language: Biliau Alternate Name: Bilau
Location: NE PNG (Madang)
Population: 620
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Astrolaban Dictionary: Simons, Gary and Linda Simons. 1977. A Vocabulary of Biliau, an Austronesian Language of New Guinea, with Notes on Its Development from Proto-Oceanic. Ithaca: Dept of Modern Languages and Linguistics, Cornell Univ.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s z m n ŋ l ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only (= aʔa)
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3182
Language: Mindiri
Location: NE PNG (Madang)
Population: 90
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Madang: Astrolaban
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3183
Language: Sio
Location: NE PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ kp ʔ s z ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ʔ Fricatives: s z ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b ɡ kp z Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3184
Language: Mangap Alternate Name: Mbula
Location: NE PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3185
Language: Lukep Alternate Name: Arop-Lokep
Location: PNG (Morobe)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast: Korap
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3186
Language: Malasanga
Location: NE PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast: Korap
Consonant system:
Number: 3187
Language: Barim
Location: NE PNG (Umboi Island)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast: Korap
Consonant system:
Number: 3188
Language: Nengaya Alternate Name: Mato
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast: Roinji-Nengaya
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3189
Language: Roinji
Location: PNG (E Madang)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Rai Coast: Roinji-Nengaya
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3190
Language: Tami
Location: E PNG (Tami Island)
Population: 900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Ngero
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3191
Language: Mutu Alternate Name: Tuom
Location: NE PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Ngero
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ti 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6t
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3192
Language: Gitua
Location: NE PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Ngero
Consonant system:
Number: 3193
Language: Malalamai Alternate Name: Bonga
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Ngero
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3194
Language: Maleu
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Bariai
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3195
Language: Kilenge
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Bariai
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3196
Language: Bariai
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Bariai
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3197
Language: Kove Dialect: Kaliai
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 3,000 (1,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Bariai Grammar: Counts, David R. 1969. A Grammar of Kaliai-Kove. OLSP 6.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) β s ɣ h m n ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: penult
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 3198
Language: Kove
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Bariai-Ngero: Bariai
Other Sources: Chowning, Ann. 1973. "Milke's 'New Guinea Cluster': The Evidence from Northeast New Britain," OL 12, 189-243.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ β s ɣ h m n ŋ l ɹ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN N-NUM POSS-N(3)/N-POSS(1,2,4,5,6)
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 3199
Language: Yabim Alternate Name: Jabem
Location: E PNG (NE Morobe)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1949. "Two Tonal Languages of New Guinea," BSOAS 13, 184-99. AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ s nz h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s nz h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ z cʷ p b ɡ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ae ao ai au ea ɔa oe
Tones: hi lo Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3200
Language: Bukawac
Location: E PNG (E Morobe)
Population: 9,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1949. "Two Tonal Languages of New Guinea," BSOAS 13, 184-99.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ cʷ p b ɡ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ae ao ai au ea ɔa oe
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo ris Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3201
Language: Lae Alternate Name: Aribwatsa
Location: E PNG (E Morobe)
Population: 4
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3202
Language: Labu
Location: E PNG (E Morobe)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 3203
Language: Kela
Location: E PNG (E Morobe)
Population: 2,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Other Sources: Collier, Ken and Margaret Collier. 1975. "A Tentative Phonemic Statement of the Apoze Dialect, Kela Language," PFAL, 129-61.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ai ae au oi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Number: 3204
Language: Kaiwa
Location: E PNG (E Morobe)
Population: 920
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 3205
Language: Siboma
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Siassi: Huon Gulf
Consonant system:
Number: 3206
Language: Silisili
Location: E PNG (SW Morobe)
Population: 870
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Lower Watut
Consonant system:
Number: 3207
Language: Dangal
Location: E PNG (SW Morobe)
Population: 365
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Lower Watut
Consonant system:
Number: 3208
Language: Maralango
Location: E PNG (SW Morobe)
Population: 170
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Lower Watut
Consonant system:
Number: 3209
Language: Adzera
Location: E PNG (NW Morobe)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Other Sources: Holzknecht, K. G. 1973a. "The Phonemes of the Adzera Language," PL A38, 1-11. Holzknecht, K. G. 1973b. "Morphophonemics of the Adzera Language," PL A38, 13-19. Holzknecht, K. G. 1973c. "A Synopsis of Verb Forms in Adzera," PL A38, 21-8.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts dz f s h m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts dz Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ i a o Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 4: [+far away]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3* 6*
Syntax: SVO N-POSS
Number: 3210
Language: Wampur
Location: E PNG (NW Morobe)
Population: 270
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3211
Language: Unank
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3212
Language: Sukurum
Location: E PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 580
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3213
Language: Ngariawan
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3214
Language: Sirasira
Location: E PNG (N Morobe)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3215
Language: Wampar
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Markham Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 3216
Language: Sirak
Location: E PNG (NC Morobe)
Population: 145
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Busu
Consonant system:
Number: 3217
Language: Guwot
Location: E PNG (NC Morobe)
Population: 360
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Busu
Consonant system:
Number: 3218
Language: Musom
Location: E PNG (NC Morobe)
Population: 230
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Busu
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3219
Language: Yalu
Location: E PNG (NC Morobe)
Population: 540
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Adzera: Busu
Consonant system:
Number: 3220
Language: Mumeng Dialect: Patep
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 6,600 (1,200)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Other Sources: Adams, Karen and Linda Lauck. 1975. "A Tentative Phonemic Statement of Patep," PFAL, 71-128. Lauck, Linda M. 1976. "Patep Sentences," in Grammatical Studies in Patep, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 5-122.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ ndz ñɡ̌ β s ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ndz ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p mb t nd β m n cʷ p mb k ŋɡ m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: initial Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3221
Language: Piu
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 130
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Consonant system:
Number: 3222
Language: Kapin
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3223
Language: Mapos
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 6,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Other Sources: Hooley, Bruce A. 1964. "A Problem in Buang Morphology," PL A3, 35-42. E
Consonant system: p mb t̪ nd̪ k ŋɡ q NG ñɡ̌ v s ɣ h m n̪ ŋ N l̪ ɾ Stops: p mb t̪ nd̪ k ŋɡ q NG Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ N Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3224
Language: Manga Alternate Name: Mangga
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 2,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3225
Language: Vehes
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Buang
Consonant system:
Number: 3226
Language: Hote
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Hote
Consonant system:
Number: 3227
Language: Yamap
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Hote
Consonant system:
Number: 3228
Language: Misim
Location: E PNG (C Morobe)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Markham: Hote
Consonant system:
Number: 3229
Language: Misima
Location: SE PNG (Misima Is)
Population: 7,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Eastern
Other Sources: Ray, Sidney H. 1938. "The Languages of the Eastern Louisiade Archipelago," BSOAS 9, 363-84. AL 6:9 E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s h m n (ŋ) l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b k ɡ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3230
Language: Nimowa
Location: SE PNG (Pana Tinani Is)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Eastern
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3231
Language: Tagula Alternate Name: Sudest
Location: SE PNG (Tagula Is)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Eastern
Other Sources: Ray, Sidney H. 1938. "The Languages of the Eastern Louisiade Archipelago," BSOAS 9, 363-84. AL 6:9 WALS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ɡ̌ (f) v s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3232
Language: Miniafia
Location: SE PNG (Northern)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Miniafia-Ubir
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3233
Language: Ubir
Location: SE PNG (Northern)
Population: 910
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Miniafia-Ubir
Consonant system:
Number: 3234
Language: Doga
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Consonant system:
Number: 3235
Language: Anuki
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Consonant system:
Number: 3236
Language: Mukawa
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3237
Language: Gapapaiwa Alternate Name: Paiwa
Location: PNG (Milne Bay)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3238
Language: Boianaki Alternate Name: Boanaki
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3239
Language: Wataluma
Location: SE PNG (N Goodenough Is)
Population: 190
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Mukawa
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3240
Language: Dawawa
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 1,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Kakabai
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3241
Language: Igora Alternate Name: Kakabai
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Kakabai
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3242
Language: Wedau
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Taupota-Wedau
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3243
Language: Taupota
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Taupota-Wedau
Consonant system:
Number: 3244
Language: Garuwahi
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Taupota-Wedau
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3245
Language: Kehelala Alternate Name: Tawala
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Taupota-Wedau
Other Sources: ANLGS E WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ľ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: cʷ p b k ɡ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3246
Language: Kukuya Alternate Name: Minaveha
Location: SE PNG (SW Fergusson Island)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Taupota-Wedau
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3247
Language: Suau
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 6,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Suau
Other Sources: Lynch, John. 1973. "Verbal Aspects of Possession in Melanesian Languages," OL 12, 69-102. Cooper, Russell E. 1975. "Coastal Suau: A Preliminary Study of Internal Relationships," in SLCSEP, 227-78. ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ (f) s h m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: GN ND POSS-N(alien) N-POSS(inalien)
Number: 3248
Language: Bohutu
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Suau
Consonant system:
Number: 3249
Language: Wagawaga
Location: SE PNG (Milne Bay)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Suau
Consonant system:
Number: 3250
Language: Tubetube
Location: SE PNG (Engineer Island)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Duau
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3251
Language: Duau
Location: SE PNG (E Normanby Island)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Duau
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3252
Language: Bunama
Location: SE PNG (S Normanby Island)
Population: 1,050
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Duau
Consonant system:
Number: 3253
Language: Kurada Alternate Name: Nuakata
Location: SE PNG (Nuakata Is)
Population: 940
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Duau
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3254
Language: Mwatebu
Location: SE PNG (C Normanby Is)
Population: 170
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Duau
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3255
Language: Sewa Bay
Location: SE PNG (Normanby Is)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Dobu
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3256
Language: Dobu
Location: SE PNG (SE Fergusson Is)
Population: 7,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Dobu
Other Sources: Lithgow, Daphne. 1977. "Dobu Phonemics," in Phonologies of Five P.N.G. Languages," Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 73-96. WPF
Consonant system: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ s m n ľ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: cʷ ph b kh ɡ ʔ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 3257
Language: Molima
Location: SE PNG (S Fergusson Is)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Dobu
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3258
Language: Galeya
Location: SE PNG (NE Fergusson Is)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Dobu
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3259
Language: Bosilewa
Location: SE PNG (N Fergusson Is)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Dobu
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3260
Language: Gumasi Alternate Name: Gumawana
Location: SE PNG (Fergusson Island)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Gumasi
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3261
Language: Yamalele Alternate Name: Iamalele
Location: SE PNG (N Fergusson Is)
Population: 2,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3262
Language: Fagululu
Location: SE PNG (W Fergusson Is)
Population: 420
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka
Consonant system:
Number: 3263
Language: Kalokalo
Location: SE PNG (NW Fergusson Is)
Population: 725
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka
Consonant system:
Number: 3264
Language: Bwaidoka
Location: SE PNG (S Goodenough Is)
Population: 5,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka Dictionary: GD: Jenness, D. and A. Ballantyne. 1928. Language Mythology and Songs of Bwaidoga. New Plymouth, New Zealand.
Other Sources: Young, Maribelle. 1979. Bwaidoka Tales. PL D16.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ f v s h m n l Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ b k f m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3265
Language: Diodio
Location: SE PNG (SW Goodenough Is)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka
Consonant system:
Number: 3266
Language: Iduna
Location: SE PNG (Goodenough Is)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Bwaidoka
Other Sources: Huckett, Joyce. 1974. "Notes on Iduna Grammar," in Three Studies in Languages of Eastern Papua, Ukarumpa, PNG, SIL, 63-133.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ʔ f v s h m n l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: +ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N(alien) N-POSS(inalien) D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3267
Language: Budibud
Location: SE PNG (Laughlin Island)
Population: 170
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Kilivila
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3268
Language: Muyuw
Location: SE PNG (Woodlark Is)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Kilivila
Other Sources: ANLGS WPF
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s m n ľ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: cʷ p b k ɡ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3269
Language: Kilivila
Location: SE PNG (Trobriand Is)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Milne Bay: Western: Kilivila
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3270
Language: Mekeo Alternate Name: Kovio
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3271
Language: Roro Alternate Name: Waima
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western
Other Sources: Bluhme,H. 1970. "The Phoneme System and Its Distribution in Roro," in PL C13, 867-77. Davis, Michael M. 1974. "The Dialects of the Roro Language of Papua: A Preliminary Survey," Kivung 7, 3-15. E WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ β h m n̪ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄ e a o) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 3272
Language: Kuni
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3273
Language: Nara Alternate Name: Pokau
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 7,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western Grammar: Lanyon-Orgill, P. A. 1945. "Grammar of the Pokau Language, Central Division of Papua, New Guinea," BSOAS 11, 641-55.
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ʔ v s z h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ʔ Fricatives: v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i a o Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3274
Language: Gabadi Alternate Name: Kabadi
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3275
Language: Doura
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Western
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3276
Language: Sinagoro Alternate Name: Sinaugoro Dialect: Balawaia
Location: SE PNG (C Central)
Population: 12,000 (1,000)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Motu-Sinagoro Grammar: Kolia, J. A. 1975. "A Balawaia Grammar Sketch and Vocabulary," in SLCSEP, 107-226.
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ β ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: β ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ɣ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl only for a few words] Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV (AN [nationality])/NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3277
Language: Motu
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Motu-Sinagoro Grammar: GD: Lister-Turner, R. and J. B. Clark. 1931. A Grammar of the Motu Language of Papua. Sydney.
Other Sources: ANLGS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s ɣ h m n l ɹ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei eu oe oi ou
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien=body parts, personal relationship & attributes)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3278
Language: Keapara Dialect: Galoma
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 16,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Motu-Sinagoro Grammar: GD: Short, Lillian Mary Theakston. 1965. THe Phonetics and Grammar of the Hula Language. Adelaide: Univ of Adelaide Thesis.
Other Sources: Dutton, T. E. 1970. "Notes on the Languages fo the Rigo Area of the Central District of Papua," in PL C13, 879-983. Lynch, John. 1973. "Verbal Aspects of Possession in Melanesian Languages," OL 12, 69-102. ANLGS
Consonant system: p t k β ð ɣ m n l ɹ Stops: p t k Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ Modified Consonants: cʷ k Glides: w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffixes seldom used] Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 3279
Language: Ouma
Location: SE PNG (E Central)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Magori
Consonant system:
Number: 3280
Language: Magori
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Magori
Consonant system:
Number: 3281
Language: Yoba
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Magori
Consonant system:
Number: 3282
Language: Bina
Location: SE PNG (E Central)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Central Province: Eastern: Magori
Consonant system:
Number: 3283
Language: Melamela Alternate Name: Meramera
Location: PNG (E New Britain)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Nakanai
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3284
Language: Bileki Alternate Name: Nakanai
Location: PNG (C New Britain)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Nakanai
Other Sources: Chowning, Ann. 1973. "Milke's 'New Guinea Cluster': The Evidence from Northwest New Britain," OL 12, 189-243. AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ β s h m l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ei ea eu oi ou ui ae au ue Stress: penult Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 3285
Language: Xarua
Location: PNG (C New Britain)
Population: 850
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Willaumez
Consonant system:
Number: 3286
Language: Bola
Location: PNG (NC New Britain)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Willaumez
Consonant system:
Number: 3287
Language: Bulu
Location: PNG (NC New Britain)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Willaumez
Consonant system:
Number: 3288
Language: Vitu Alternate Name: Bali-Vitu
Location: PNG (Vitu Islands)
Population: 6,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Kimbe: Bali-Vitu
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3289
Language: Tumuip
Location: PNG (E New Britain)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain
Consonant system:
Number: 3290
Language: Arawe
Location: PNG (SW New Britain)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Arawe
Consonant system:
Number: 3291
Language: Moewehafen
Location: PNG (SC New Britain)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Arawe
Consonant system:
Number: 3292
Language: Gasmata
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Arawe
Consonant system:
Number: 3293
Language: Longa Alternate Name: Amara
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3294
Language: Idne
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Consonant system:
Number: 3295
Language: Mok
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Consonant system:
Number: 3296
Language: Lamogai
Location: PNG (WC New Britain)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Consonant system:
Number: 3297
Language: Pulie
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Consonant system:
Number: 3298
Language: Rauto
Location: PNG (W New Britain)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Lamogai
Consonant system:
Number: 3299
Language: Pasismanua Alternate Name: Kaulong
Location: PNG (E New Britain)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Whiteman
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3300
Language: Kapore
Location: PNG (NC New Britain)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Whiteman
Consonant system:
Number: 3301
Language: Mangseng
Location: PNG (EC New Britain)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Whiteman
Consonant system:
Number: 3302
Language: Uvol
Location: PNG (EC New Britain)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Mengen
Consonant system:
Number: 3303
Language: Mamusi
Location: PNG (E New Britain)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Mengen
Consonant system:
Number: 3304
Language: Mengen Alternate Name: Poeng
Location: PNG (E New Britain)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Britain: Mengen
Other Sources: AL 6:9 E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3305
Language: Barok
Location: PNG (SC New Ireland)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Consonant system:
Number: 3306
Language: Patpatar
Location: PNG (SC New Ireland)
Population: 4,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Consonant system:
Number: 3307
Language: Sursurunga
Location: PNG (S New Ireland)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Other Sources: Hutchisson, Don and Sharon Hutchisson. 1975. "A Preliminary Phonology of Sursurunga," PFAL, 163-202.
Consonant system: p mbʷ t nd k ŋɡ s h mʷ n ŋ l r Stops: p mbʷ t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: mʷ n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Number: 3308
Language: Tangga
Location: PNG (Tanga Islands)
Population: 4,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai Grammar: GD: Bell, F. L. S. 1977. Tanga-English, English-Tanga Dictionary. OLM 21.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) f s m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) [no VC] Stress: initial Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3309
Language: Lihir
Location: PNG (Lihir Island)
Population: 4,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Consonant system:
Number: 3310
Language: Konomala
Location: PNG (S New Ireland)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Consonant system:
Number: 3311
Language: Kandas
Location: PNG (S New Ireland)
Population: 950
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Consonant system:
Number: 3312
Language: Siar
Location: PNG (S New Ireland)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3313
Language: Tolai
Location: PNG (NE New Britain)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
TextBooks: Franklin, Karl J. 1962. Tolai Language Course. Ukarumpa, PNG: SIL.
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ β f ð s m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: β f ð s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ŋ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3314
Language: Duke of York Alternate Name: Ramoaaina
Location: Solomon Is
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Patpatar-Tolai
Other Sources: ML E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3315
Language: Lavongai Alternate Name: Tungak
Location: PNG (New Hanover Is)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3316
Language: Tigak
Location: PNG (N New Ireland)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland Grammar: GD: Beaumont, C. H. 1979. The Tigak Language of New Ireland. PL B58.
Other Sources: Beaumont, Clive H. 1969. "Tigak Phonology," Te Reo 12, 84-90. Beaumont, Clive H. 1970. "Tigak Personal Pronouns," Kivung 3, 180-7.
Consonant system: p b t k ɡ β s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t k ɡ Fricatives: β s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai au oi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien) Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3317
Language: Kara
Location: PNG (N New Ireland)
Population: 4,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3318
Language: Tiang
Location: PNG (Dyaul Is)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Consonant system:
Number: 3319
Language: Nalik
Location: PNG (NC New Ireland)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3320
Language: Notsi
Location: PNG (C New Ireland)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3321
Language: Tabar
Location: PNG (Tabar Islands)
Population: 2,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Northern New Ireland
Consonant system:
Number: 3322
Language: Mussau
Location: PNG (Mussau Island)
Population: 6,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: St. Matthias
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3323
Language: Tenis
Location: PNG (Tench Is)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: St. Matthias
Consonant system:
Number: 3324
Language: Lamusong
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Madak
Consonant system:
Number: 3325
Language: Madak
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Ireland-Tolai: Madak
Consonant system:
Number: 3326
Language: Wuvulu Alternate Name: Aua
Location: PNG (Wuvulu Island)
Population: 850
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Western
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3327
Language: Seimat
Location: PNG (Ninigo Islands)
Population: 450
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Western
Other Sources: Smythe, W. E. 1970. "Melanesian, Micronesian, and Indonesian Features in Languages of the Admiralty Islands," in PL C13, 1209-34. E
Consonant system: p t k s x h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3328
Language: Kaniet
Location: PNG (Kaniet Is)
Population: extinct (1950)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 3329
Language: Hermit
Location: PNG (Hermit Is)
Population: 20
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Consonant system:
Number: 3330
Language: Sisi Alternate Name: Bipi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3331
Language: Sori Alternate Name: Harengan
Location: PNG (Sori Is)
Population: 570
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3332
Language: Ponam
Location: PNG (Ponam Island)
Population: 420
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3333
Language: Andra
Location: PNG (Andra Island)
Population: 810
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Consonant system:
Number: 3334
Language: Leipon
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3335
Language: Loniu
Location: PNG (E Manus)
Population: 460
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: Northwest Islands
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3336
Language: Lindrou Alternate Name: Nyindrou
Location: PNG (W Manus)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: West
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3337
Language: Levei
Location: PNG (NW Manus Is)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3338
Language: Mondropolon
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: West
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3339
Language: Likum
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: West
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3340
Language: Gele Alternate Name: Kele
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: East
Other Sources: Smythe, W. E. 1970. "Melanesian, Micronesian, and Indonesian Features in Languages of the Admiralty Islands," in PL C13, 1209-34. WALS
Consonant system: b d ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ l ɾ r Stops: b d ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO N-POSS
Number: 3341
Language: Nali
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3342
Language: Mokerang
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3343
Language: Papitalai Dialect: Koro
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: East
Other Sources: E
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3344
Language: Titan
Location: PNG (Manus Is)
Population: 2,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Manus: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3345
Language: Baluan Alternate Name: Lou
Location: PNG (Baluan Island)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Southeast Islands
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3346
Language: Lenkau
Location: PNG (E Manus Is)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Southeast Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3347
Language: Penchal
Location: PNG (E Manus Is)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Southeast Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3348
Language: Nauna
Location: PNG (E Manus Is)
Population: 130
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Southeast Islands
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3349
Language: Pak Alternate Name: Tong
Location: PNG (Pak Is)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Admiralty Islands: Eastern: Southeast Islands
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3350
Language: Nehan Alternate Name: Nissan
Location: PNG (Nehan Island)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: Nehan Grammar: GD: Todd, Evelyn M. 1978. "A Sketch of Nissan (Nehan) Grammar," PL C61, 1181-1239.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3351
Language: Halia
Location: PNG (NE Buka Is)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Buka
TextBooks: TD: Allen, Jerry and Janice Allen. 1965. Halia Language Course. Port Moresby: Dept of Information & Extension Services.
Other Sources: Allen, Jerry. 1971. "Tense/Aspect and Conjunctions in Halia Narratives," OL 10, 63-77. Allen, Janice. 1972. "Relationships between Sentence and Discourse in Halia," PL A34, 1-15.
Consonant system: p b t k ɡ ts s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ei ɛi au ou Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS D+NUM+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3352
Language: Solos
Location: PNG (C Buka Is)
Population: 3,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Buka
Consonant system:
Number: 3353
Language: Petats
Location: PNG (Petats Island)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Buka
Other Sources: Allen, Jerry and Matthew Beaso. 1975. "Petats Phonemes and Orthography," PFAL, 45-70.
Consonant system: p b t k ɡ č s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i a u Diphthongs: ei ai au ou
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Comments: used as a lingua franca by upwards of 10,000 people in the area around Buka Is.
Number: 3354
Language: Saposa Alternate Name: Taiof
Location: PNG (Saposa Island)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Saposa-Tinputs
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3355
Language: Hahon
Location: PNG (N Bougainville Is)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Saposa-Tinputs
Consonant system:
Number: 3356
Language: Tinputs
Location: PNG (N Bougainville Is)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Saposa-Tinputs
Other Sources: Hostetler, Roman and Carolyn Hostetler. 1975. "A Tentative Description of Tinputz Phonology," PFAL, 5-43. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β s h m n l Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3357
Language: Teop
Location: PNG (NE Bougainville Is)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: North: Saposa-Tinputs
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3358
Language: Papapana
Location: PNG (NC Bougainville)
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: North-Nehan: Papapana
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO SOV
Number: 3359
Language: Mono
Location: PNG (Mono Island)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: East
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA GN/NG POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 3360
Language: Uruava
Location: PNG (SE Bougainville Is)
Population: 5
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: East
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 3361
Language: Torau
Location: PNG (NC Bougainville)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: North & East: East
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 3362
Language: Banoni
Location: PNG (WC Bougainville)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: East
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3363
Language: Piva
Location: PNG (NW Bougainville)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Bougainville: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3364
Language: Vaghua
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Choiseul: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 3365
Language: Varisi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Choiseul: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 3366
Language: Ririo
Location: Solomon Is (Choiseul Island)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Choiseul: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 3367
Language: Babatana Alternate Name: Sisiqa
Location: Solomon Is (W Choiseul Island)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Choiseul: Central-Eastern
Other Sources: Whaley, Owen G. 1962. "Babatana Segmental Phonemes," Te Reo 5, 60-2. AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ñɡ̌ v s z ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 [4die] 4ie 2 [5d] 5 3 [6d] 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3368
Language: Marovo
Location: Solomon Is (SE New Georgia)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3369
Language: Vangunu
Location: Solomon Is (Vangunu Is)
Population: 290
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3370
Language: Ghanongga
Location: Solomon Is (Ganongga Is)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3371
Language: Lungga
Location: Solomon Is
Population: 950
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3372
Language: Simbo
Location: Solomon Is (Simbo Is)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West Dictionary: Lanyon-Orgill, Peter. 1969. The Language of Eddystone Island (Western Solomon Islands). Perthshire, Scotland: Crichton Press.
Consonant system: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ v s n̪ž ɣ (h) m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s ñž ɣ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA NG NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 3373
Language: Nduke
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3374
Language: Roviana
Location: Solomon Is (Rendova Is)
Population: 4,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn. 1978. "Roviana Syntax," PL C61, 1035-42. AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ v s z ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N [POSS-N]/N-POSS NUM+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3375
Language: Ughele
Location: Solomon Is (N Rendova Is)
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3376
Language: Kusaghe
Location: Solomon Is (N New Georgia Is)
Population: 950
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3377
Language: Hoava
Location: Solomon Is (C New Georgia)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Georgia: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3378
Language: Kia
Location: Solomon Is (N Santa Isabel)
Population: 950
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: West
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f v s ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3379
Language: Laghu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: West
Consonant system:
Number: 3380
Language: Kokota
Location: Solomon Is (Santa Isabel Island)
Population: 190
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 3381
Language: Zazao Alternate Name: Kilokaka
Location: C Solomon Is (Santa Isabel Is)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: Central
Other Sources: MIL
Consonant system: Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA NG NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3382
Language: Blablanga
Location: Solomon Is (Santa Isabel Island)
Population: 170
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3383
Language: Maringe
Location: Solomon Is (C Santa Isabel Island)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: East
Consonant system:
Number: 3384
Language: Gao
Location: Solomon Is (S Santa Isabel Island)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Isabel: East
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ ñɡ̌ f v s z ɣ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3385
Language: Nembao Alternate Name: Amba
Location: Santa Cruz Islands (Utupua Is)
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Utupua
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL E
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č f v θ ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v θ ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ m Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Demonstratives: 2 Articles: (art)
Pronouns: 1 4de 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3386
Language: Asumboa
Location: Santa Cruz Islands (Utupua Is)
Population: 35
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Utupua
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3387
Language: Tanimbili
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Utupua
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3388
Language: Buma Alternate Name: Teanu
Location: Solomon Islands
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Vanikoro
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3389
Language: Vano
Location: Santa Cruz Islands (Vanikoro Is)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Vanikoro
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL E
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č f v s z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p k ŋɡ m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: (art)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3390
Language: Tanima
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Santa Cruz: Vanikoro
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3391
Language: Aneityum Alternate Name: Anejom
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (Aneityum Is)
Population: 320
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides Dictionary: Inglis, John. 1882. A Dictionary of the Aneityumese Language. London: Williams & Norgate. Grammar: Hewitt, Helen-Jo Jakusz. 1966. "Aneityum of the Southern New Hebrides," Te Reo 9, 1-43.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) č f v θ s̪ ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ̣ Stops: p t̪ k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: f v θ s̪ ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai ei oi au ou
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3392
Language: Sie Alternate Name: Erromanga
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (W Eromanga Is)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Erromanga
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL WALS
Consonant system: p b t d k β f s ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Fricatives: β f s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k β m Nc: ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ai au oi
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN/ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3393
Language: Ura
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (N Eromanga Is)
Population: 10
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Erromanga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3394
Language: Kwamera
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (SE Tanna Is)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Tanna
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ̌ f v s h m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k f m n Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei oi
Noun
Number: s d t p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3395
Language: Whitesands Alternate Name: Weasisi
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (E Tanna Is)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Tanna Grammar: Gray, W. 1891. "Grammar of the Weasisi-Tanna Language," in SSL, 108-62.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ f v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei oi
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: (art)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND/DN N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3396
Language: North Tanna
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (N Tanna Is)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Tanna
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3397
Language: Lenakel
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (W Tanna Is)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Tanna Dictionary: Lynch, John. 1977a. Lenakel Dictionary. PL C55. Grammar: Lynch, John. 1978. A Grammar of Lenakel. PL B55.
Other Sources: Lynch, John. 1973. "Verbal Aspects of Possession in Melanesian Languages," OL 12, 69-102. Lynch, John. 1977. "On the History of the Tanna Numerals and Number-Markers," Te Reo 20, 3-28.
Consonant system: p t k β f s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: β f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: a few nouns use a plural prefix Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N N+A+NUM+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3398
Language: Southwest Tanna
Location: S New Hebrides Islands (SW Tanna Is)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Southern New Hebrides: Tanna
Consonant system:
Number: 3399
Language: Yalayu
Location: N New Caledonia
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Far North
Consonant system:
Number: 3400
Language: Kumak Alternate Name: Nenema
Location: N New Caledonia
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Far North Grammar: GD: Haudricourt, André G. 1963. La langue des Nenemas et des Nigoumak. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd c ñɟ k kh ŋɡ v š ɣ h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ l r Stops: p ph mb t th nd c ñɟ k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: v š ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p ph mb m m̥ h cj h Glides: j j̥ w w̥ Front Vowels: (y) I e (ø) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ all v̄̃ a o ... Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Demonstratives: 4 + [3 + far away]
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3401
Language: Caac
Location: N New Caledonia
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Far North
Other Sources: Hollyman, K. J. 1962. "Première esquisse de la phonologie du caaqac," Te Reo 5, 41-51. WPF
Consonant system: p ph mb t̪ t̪h n̪d̪ c ch ñɟ k kh ŋɡ ̱v ɣ h m m̥̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l̪ r Stops: p ph mb t̪ t̪h n̪d̪ c ch ñɟ k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: v ɣ h Nasals: m m̥̥ n̪ n̪̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p ph mb m m̥ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ v̄̃ all but y ø Nasal Vowels: v̄̃ u a
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3402
Language: Yuaga Alternate Name: Nua
Location: N New Caledonia
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Far North
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. AL 6:9
Consonant system: p ph mb t̪ t̪h n̪d̪ ṭ ṭh ṇḍ c ch ñɟ k kh ŋɡ θ h m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ṇ ṇ̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ḷ Stops: p ph mb t̪ t̪h n̪d̪ ṭ ṭh ṇḍ c ch ñɟ k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: θ h Nasals: m m̥ n̪ n̪̥ ṇ ṇ̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: ḷ Modified Consonants: cʷ p ph mb m m̥ Glides: w w̥ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: VSO N-POSS
Number: 3403
Language: Pwapwa
Location: NC New Caledonia
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3404
Language: Pwaamei
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3405
Language: Hmwaveke Dialect: Wamoang. 'Aeke
Location: NC New Caledonia
Population: 300 ((+)c. 1050)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p ph b t th d ḍ k kh ɡ ts dz f v θ ð s x xh m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ l l̥ Stops: p ph b t th d ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v θ ð s x xh Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Glides: w w̥
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3406
Language: Jawe
Location: New Caledonia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3407
Language: Nemi
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3408
Language: Fwai Alternate Name: Poai
Location: NC New Caledonia
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. Rivierre, Françoise. 1975. "Phonologie du némi (Nouvelle Calédonie) et notes sur les consonnes postnasalisées," BSLP 70, 345-56. AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd c ñɟ k kh ŋɡ ʔ f v s h h̃ m m̥̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ (l) (l̥) Stops: p ph mb t th nd c ñɟ k kh ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: f v s h h̃ Nasals: m m̥̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: (l) (l̥) Modified Consonants: cʷ p (ph) mb pm m m̥ hcN(postnas) p t c k Glides: j j̥ w w̥ w̃ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 3409
Language: Pije
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: North
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3410
Language: Cemuhi Alternate Name: Camuki
Location: NC New Caledonia
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Central
Other Sources: Haudricourt , A. G. 1968. "La langue de Gomen et la langue de Touho en Nouvelle Calédonie," BSLP 63, 218-35. Haudricourt, André G. 1971 "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. AL 6:9 WALS WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ h̃ m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives:Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb m (ch̃(aspirate postnas) p t c k "The aspirate postnasalized series are still pronounced by a few old persons, but in general all these phonemes have become merged into h followed by a nasal vowel." Haudricourt 1971, p.370) Glides: w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi mid low
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS
Number: 3411
Language: Paici Alternate Name: Pati
Location: C New Caledonia
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Northern: Central
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971 "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. Rivierre, Jean-Claude. 1974. "Tons et segments du discours en langue paicḭ (Nouvelle Calédonie)," BSLP 69, 325-40. WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ h̃ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives:Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb m Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ ɐ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid low Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG N-POSS
Number: 3412
Language: Arho
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: WP
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3413
Language: Arha
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3414
Language: Ajie Alternate Name: Anjie
Location: SC New Caledonia
Population: 4,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South Grammar: GD: Leenhardt, Maurice. 1935. Vocabulaire et grammaire de la langue houaıɽlow. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. Kasarhérou, Jacqueline. 1961. "Prosodèmes de la langue mélanésienne de Houaı̈low," BSLP 56, 181-201. La Fontinelle, Jacqueline de. 1971. "Phonologie de l'adjië (Nouvelle Calédonie), " in La dénomination des couleurs chez les Mbay de Moı̈ssala, by Jean-Pierre Caprile, Paris, SELAF, 132-5.
Consonant system: p mb t nd c ñ̃ɟ k ŋɡ β s ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ Stops: p mb t nd c ñ̃ɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k ŋɡ β m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3415
Language: Orowe Alternate Name: Boewe
Location: SC New Caledonia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3416
Language: Neku
Location: SC New Caledonia
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3417
Language: Nere
Location: New Caledonia
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3418
Language: Tiri
Location: SC New Caledonia
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South Dictionary: Grace, George W. 1976. Grand Couli Dictionary (New Caledonia). PL C12.
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. E WPF
Consonant system: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ ṭ n.ḍ k ŋɡ f v θ ð ṣ ɣ h m n̪ ṇ ŋ ɾ ṛ Stops: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ ṭ nḍ k ŋɡ Fricatives: f v θ ð ṣ ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb (k) (ŋɡ) f h m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ v̄̃ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o Modified Vowels: ̄̃
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS NG N-POSS
Number: 3419
Language: Xaracuu Alternate Name: Anesu
Location: S New Caledonia
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. E
Consonant system: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ f s ç x m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: f s ç x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k ŋɡ f x m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS
Number: 3420
Language: Xaragure Alternate Name: 'Aragure
Location: S New Caledonia
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: South Dictionary: Grace, G. W. 1976. Grand Couli Dictionary (New Caledonia). PL C12.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f v š ç x m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v š ç x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k ŋɡ x m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ v̄̃ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o Modified Vowels: ̄̃
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS N-POSS
Number: 3421
Language: Dubea
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: Far South
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3422
Language: Numee Alternate Name: Kuñe, Kapone
Location: S New Caledonia (Ile of Pines)
Population: 1,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: New Caledonia: Southern: Far South
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. WPF
Consonant system: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ ṭ. n.ḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ β ɣ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ ṛ Stops: p mb t̪ n̪d̪ ṭ ṇḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: β ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Vibrants: ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y I Y e ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o (ɔ) Nasal Vowels: i e ɛ œ a u ɔ
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3423
Language: Iaai
Location: Loyalty Is (Uvea Is)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Loyalty Islands Grammar: Tryon, D. T. 1968. Iai Grammar. PL B8.
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. AL 6:9 MIL WALS E
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ f θ ð s x h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l ɬ ɹ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ f θ ð s x h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɹ Modified Consonants: cʷ b m m̥ Glides: j w w̥ Front Vowels: i y e (ø) œ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS/SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N [WALS says the language is SVO; E gives VOS.]
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 3424
Language: Dehu Alternate Name: Drehu
Location: Loyalty Is (Lifu Is)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Loyalty Islands Dictionary: Tryon, D. T. 1967a. Dehu-English Dictionary. PL C6. Tryon, D. T. 1967b. English-Dehu Dictionary. PL C7 Grammar: Tryon, D. T. 1968. Dehu Grammar. PL B7.
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. Tryon, D. T. 1970. "Loanwords in Dehu Pre-1920," in PL C13, 429-40. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: p (b) t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č (ɡ̌) f (v) θ ð s z x h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l ɬ Stops: p (b) t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f (v) θ ð s z x h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w w̥ Front Vowels: i e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3hH 6dhH 6hH politeness: many honorifics
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 3425
Language: Nengone
Location: Loyalty Is (Mare Is)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Loyalty Islands Dictionary: Tryon, D. T., and M.-J. Dubois. 1969, 1971. Nengone Dictionary, 2 vols. PL C9, C23. Grammar: Tryon, D. T. 1967. Nengone Grammar. PL B6.
Other Sources: Haudricourt, André G. 1971. "New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands," CTIL 8, 359-96. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: ph b th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ (f) θ s z š (x) ɣ h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋ̥ l r Stops: ph b th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) θ s z š (x) ɣ h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̥ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 Politeness: all pronouns have respectful forms formed by the addition of a suffix to the regular form.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS NUM+N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3426
Language: Proto-Eastern Oceanic
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote
Other Sources: Cashmore, Christine. 1969. "Some Proto-Eastern Oceanic Reconstructions with Reflexes in Southeast Solomon Islands Languages," OL 8, 1-25.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s z m ñ ŋ l r ʁ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ʁ Modified Consonants: Nc p t k cʷ ŋ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Pawley 1973 estimates the breakup of Proto-Oceanic as no later than about 3,000 BC.
Number: 3427
Language: Nauruan
Location: Nauru Island
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian
Other Sources: Nathan, Geoffrey S. 1973. "Nauruan in the Austronesian Language Family," OL 12, 479-501.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ m n ŋ r r̥ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ m mʷ n ŋ cʷ p b k ɡ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: u ʌ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ū ō ɑ̄
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 3428
Language: Gilbertese Alternate Name: Kiribati
Location: Gilbert Is
Population: 50,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper
Other Sources: Bender, Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8, 426-65.
Consonant system: b t k m n ŋ r Stops: b t k Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m mʷ n ŋ cʷ b k m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: VOS
Number: 3429
Language: Marshallese
Location: Marshall Is
Population: 20,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper Dictionary: Abo, Takaji, et al. 1976. Marshallese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
TextBooks: Bender, Byron W. 1969. Spoken Marshallese. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Bender Byron W. 1968. "Marshallese Phonology," OL 7, 16-35. Bender Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8 426-65.
Consonant system: bɯ t̪ɯ kɯ hɯ mɯ n̪ɯ ŋɯ l̪ɯ rɯ Stops: bɯ t̪ɯ kɯ Fricatives:Nasals: mɯ n̪ɯ ŋɯ Laterals: l̪ɯ Vibrants: rɯ Modified Consonants: c̄ cɯ b t k h m n ŋ l r cʷ k n ŋ l r cj b t m n l r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 6: [3 + this close to both of us, that not visible, that distant but visible]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS N+D+NUM & NUM+N+A Comments: *In Marshalles all consonants belong to one fo three classes: (1) velarized, (2) labialized (3) palatalized. The phonemic system given in the chart is based on the set of velarized phonemes. *Bender 1968 proposes a four-vowel system ǀɨ ǝ ɐ aǀ (or perhaps even a three-vowel system ǀɨ ǝ aǀ) where the front vowels and back vowels are considered to be allophones of the mid series conditioned by surrounding consonants.
Number: 3430
Language: Kusaiean Alternate Name: Kosraean
Location: E Caroline Is (Kusaie Is)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper Dictionary: Lee, Kee-dong. 1976. Kusaiean-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Lee, Kee-dong. 1975. Kusaiean Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Consonant system: p t̪ k f s̪ ṣ̌ m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ̣ Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: f s̪ ṣ̌ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: cɯ all cʷ t k s ṣ n ŋ l r Glides: j ɥ w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ǣ ɨ̄ ǝ̄ ɐ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ ɒ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6 Politeness: THere is a plain/polite distinction for 2 3 4 5 6 as well as special humble forms for 1&4
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+NUM+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3431
Language: Mokilese
Location: E Caroline Is (Mokil Atoll)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Ponapeic Dictionary: Harrison, Sheldon P. and Albert Salich. 1977. Mokilese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Grammar: Harrison, Sheldon P. 1976 Mokilese Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii
Consonant system: p t c k s m n ŋ l r Stops: p t c k Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ o ɛ̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 4Rie 2 5d 5 5R 3 6d 6 6R R=remote
Syntax: SVO NA NG(inalien)/GN(alien) ND N-NUM N-POSS(inalien)/POSS-N(alien) N+A+NUM+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3432
Language: Ponapean Alternate Name: Pohnpeian
Location: E Caroline Is (Ponape Is)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Ponapeic Grammar: GD: Gulick, Luther H. 1880. "A Vocabulary of the Ponape Dialect," JAOS 10, 1-109.
Other Sources: Bender, Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8, 426-65.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k s m n ŋ l r Stops: p t ṭ k Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ai au
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN ) ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3433
Language: Trukese
Location: C Caroline Is (Truk Islands)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic Dictionary: Goodenough, Ward H. and Hiroshi Sugita 19??. Trukese-English Dictionary. Memoir 141 of the American Philosophical Society. Elbert, S. H. 1947. Trukese-English and English-Trukese Dictionary. Pearl Harbor: United States Government. Grammar: GD: Elbert, S. H. 1947. Trukese-English and English-Trukese Dictionary. Pearl Harbor: United States Government.
Other Sources: Dyen, Isidore. 1949. "On the History of the Trukese Vowels," Lg 25, 420-36. Benton, Richard A. 1968. "Numeral and Attributive Classifiers in Trukese," OL 7, 104-46. Bender, Byron W. 1971. "Micronesian Languages," CTIL 8, 426-65.
Consonant system: p t k č f s m n ŋ r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but j w cʷ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: (ɨ) ǝ a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+NUM+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3434
Language: Carolinian Dialect: Puluwat
Location: Caroline Is (Puluwat Is)
Population: 4,000 (1,500)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic Dictionary: Elbert, Samuel H. 1972. Puluwat Dictionary. PL C24. Grammar: Elbert, Samuel H. 1974. Puluwat Grammar. PL B29.
Other Sources: Elbert, Samuel H. 1970. "Loan Words in Puluwat," in PL C13, 235-54.
Consonant system: p t̪ k č f s̪ h m n̪ ŋ l r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but j w cɯ p m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 5: very near speaker, quite near speaker, very near addressee, far + that invisible (?=4ef) Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG (DN)/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3435
Language: Ulithian
Location: W Caroline Is (Ulithi Atoll)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic Grammar: Sohn, Ho-min and B. W. Bender. 1973 A Ulithian Grammar. PL C27.
Consonant system: p t c k βʷ f ð š χ m n ŋ l (lɯ) r Stops: p t c k Fricatives: βʷ f ð š χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l (lɯ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but χ n cʷ β m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ø æ Central Vowels: (a) Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō (↔ē) ǣ ū ō ɔ̄ ɒ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 4: [3 + that unseen] Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG (DN)/ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N N+A+D+NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3436
Language: Ulithian Dialect: Sonsorol
Location: W Caroline Is (Sonsorol Atoll)
Population: 2,500 (300)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic Grammar: GD: Capell, A. 1969. Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of Sonsorol-Tobi. OLM 12.
Consonant system: p b t̪ c k ɡ f v ð s x ɣ m n̪ ŋ ʎɯ r Stops: p b t̪ c k ɡ Fricatives: f v ð s x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: ʎɯ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: v̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ʋ ɤ ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: mostly penult Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO (AN)/NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3437
Language: Ulithian Dialect: Woleaian
Location: W Caroline Is (Woleai Atoll)
Population: 2,500 (575)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic Grammar: Sohn, Ho-min. 1975. Woleaian Reference Grammar. Honolulu: Univ of Press of Hawaii.
Consonant system: p t k č ɸʷ f s ṣ̌ x m n ŋ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸʷ f s ṣ̌ x Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ ɸ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i e ʉ ɵ a u o ɔ v̥ i ɛ ʉ u o
Syllable: (C)V Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN(alien)/NG(inalien) ND NUM-N/(N-NUM[with dem] POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien) N+A+D+NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3438
Language: Mapia
Population: extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Micronesian: Micronesian Proper: Trukic
Consonant system:
Number: 3439
Language: Bughotu
Location: Solomon Is (S Santa Isabel Island)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal Dictionary: Ivens, W. G. 1940. A Dictionary of the Language of Bugotu. London: Royal Asiatic Society. Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1933. A Grammar of the Language of Bugotu, Ysabel Island, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 7, 141-77.
Other Sources: AL6:9 MIL ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f v θ s ɣ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ s ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai au ei Stress: antepenult Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3mf 6dmf 6tmf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3440
Language: Gela Alternate Name: Nggela
Location: Solomon Islands (Florida Island)
Population: 5,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal Dictionary: Fox, C. E. 1955. A Dictionary of the Nggela Language. Auckland. Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1937. "A Grammar of the Language of Florida, British Solomon Islands," BSOAS 8, 1075-1110.
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn M. 1980. "Qae (Solomon Islands) and Its Linguistic Context," in ANS, 227-40. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v s z ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all? Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG ND N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3441
Language: Lengo
Location: Solomon Is (N Guadalcanal)
Population: 4,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn M. 1980. "Qae (Solomon Islands) And Its Linguistic Context," in ANS, 227-40.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v ð s ɣ m n ŋ l ṛ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v ð s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants:Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3442
Language: Ghari Alternate Name: Vaturanga Dialect: Ndi
Location: Solomon Is (NW Guadalcanal)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1934. "A Grammar of the Language of Vaturanga, Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands," BSOAS 7, 349-75.
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn M. 1980 "Qae (Solomon Islands) and Its Linguistic Context," in ANS, 227-40. ML AL 6:9
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ts ndz v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ts ndz Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3443
Language: Ghari Alternate Name: Qae Dialect: Nggae
Location: Solomon Is (Nggela Is)
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn M. 1980 "Qae (Solomon Islands) and Its Linguistic Context," in ANS, 227-40.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ v s ɣ m n ŋ l ṛ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants:Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: VOS
Number: 3444
Language: Talise
Location: Solomon Is (Guadalcanal)
Population: 550
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ŋɡ č v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 3445
Language: Malango
Location: Solomon Is (Guadalcanal)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal
Consonant system:
Number: 3446
Language: Birao
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Gela-Guadalcanal
Consonant system:
Number: 3447
Language: Longgu
Location: Solomon Is (E Guadalcanal)
Population: 750
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita Dictionary: Ivens, W. G. 1937. "A Vocabulary of the Language of Longgu, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 9, 165-93. Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1934. "A Grammar of the Language of Longgu, Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands," BSOAS 7, 601-21.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WALS
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v θ s m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v θ s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ mb v m Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 5
Syntax: VOS NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3448
Language: Lau
Location: Solomon Is (N Malaita)
Population: 5,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Northern Dictionary: Fox, Charles E. 1974. Lau Dictionary. PL C25. Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1929. "A Grammar of the Lau Language, North East Coast of Big Mala, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 5, 323-43.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 E
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ ŋ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei ou Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3449
Language: To'abaita Alternate Name: Malu
Location: Solomon Is (N Malaita)
Population: 4,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Northern
Other Sources: MIL E
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ f ð s m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f ð s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ ŋ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei ou Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3450
Language: Kwara'ae Alternate Name: Fiu
Location: Solomon Is (NC Malaita)
Population: 12,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Northern Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1931. "A Grammar of the Language fo Kwara 'Ae, North Mala, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 6, 679-700. Deck, Norman C. 1934. Grammar of the Language Spoken by the Kwara'ae People of Mala, British Solomon Islands. New Plymouth, New Zealand
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ ŋ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die (4tie)* 4ie 2 5d (5t)* 5 3 6d (6t)* 6 *Deck 1934 reports that trial forms now have a plural meaning, so there are two sets of plural pronouns.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3451
Language: Langalanga Alternate Name: Wala
Location: Solomon Is (Malaita)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3452
Language: Kwaio
Location: Solomon Is (C Malaita)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Northern Dictionary: Keesing, R. M. 1975. Kwaio Dictionary. PL C35.
Consonant system: mb th nd ŋɡ ʔ f s x m n ŋ l Stops: mb th nd ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ ŋɡ x ŋ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie* 4ie 2 5d 5t* 5 3 6d 6t* 6 *"The trial and plural [forms] are often used interchangeably in terms of semantic reference, though [trial] can be used to imply a limited number of persons and [plural] an unlimited or large number." Keesing 1975, P XXIV.
Syntax: SVO NA ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3453
Language: Dori'o
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3454
Language: 'Are'are
Location: Solomon Is (SC Malaita)
Population: 8,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern Dictionary: Geerts, P. 1970. 'Are'āre Dictionary. PL C14.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3455
Language: Marau2
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 3456
Language: Marau2
Location: Solomon Is (E Guadalcanal)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern Dictionary: Ivens, W. G. 1932. "A Vocabulary of the Language of Longgu, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 6, 963-1002. Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1929. "A Study of the Language of Marau Sound, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 5, 345-58.
Other Sources: AL 6:9
Consonant system: p t k ʔ v s h m n l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei ou
Syllable: (C)V Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3457
Language: Oroha
Location: Solomon Is (S Maramasike Is)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1928. "A Study of the Oroha Language, Mala, Solomon Islands," BSOAS 4, 587-610.
Consonant system: p t k f s h m n r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei ou Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 5
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3458
Language: Sa'a Dialect: Ulawa
Location: Solomon Is (Ulawa Is)
Population: 3,900 (2,100)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: Malaita: Southern
Other Sources: AL 6:9 ML E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3459
Language: Arosi
Location: Solomon Is (W San Cristobal)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: San Cristobal Dictionary: Fox, Charles E. 1978. Arosi Dictionary. PL C57. Grammar: Capell, A. 1971. Arosi Grammar. PL B20.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ p b k ɡ m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: initial ? Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS NUM+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3460
Language: Fagani
Location: Solomon Is (San Cristobal)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: San Cristobal
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p b t k ʔ f s ɣ m n ŋ r Stops: p b t k ʔ Fricatives: f s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ae ai au ao Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3461
Language: Bauro
Location: Solomon Is (E San Cristobal)
Population: 3,400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: San Cristobal
Consonant system:
Number: 3462
Language: Kahua
Location: Solomon Is (E San Cristobal)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Southeast Solomons: Malaita-San Cristobal: San Cristobal
Consonant system:
Number: 3463
Language: Sakao
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NE Santo Island)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East Santo Grammar: Guy, J. B. M. 1974. A Grammar of the Northern Dialect of Sakao. PL B33.
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978. "Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions," C61, 781-850.
Consonant system: p t̪ k β ð s ɣ h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: β ð s ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h r j Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: aɔ œe Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: [a few kinship terms are inflected for plural] Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie* 4ie 2 5d 5t* 5 3 6d 6t* 6 + INDEF *"The trial .... has taken on the meaning of a limited plural (from three to usually about ten)." Guy 1974, p. 8.
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3464
Language: Lorediakarkar
Location: N New Hebrides Is (E Santo Island)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3465
Language: Shark Bay
Location: N New Hebrides Is (E Santo Island)
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East Santo
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978. "Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions," C61, 781-850.
Consonant system: p t k ts f θ s ž h m n ŋ r ɾ̣ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: f θ s ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Number: 3466
Language: Butmas
Location: N New Hebrides Is (E Santo Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3467
Language: Polonombauk
Location: N New Hebrides Is (E Santo Is)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3468
Language: Labo
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Malekula)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ k ɡ v s ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ k ɡ Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Nc ? Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA GN/NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3469
Language: Letemboi
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Malekula)
Population: 180
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Small Nambas
Consonant system:
Number: 3470
Language: Repanbitip
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula)
Population: 60
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Small Nambas
Consonant system:
Number: 3471
Language: Dixon Reef
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (W Malekula)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Small Nambas
Consonant system:
Number: 3472
Language: Nasarian
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (W Malekula)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Small Nambas
Consonant system:
Number: 3473
Language: Katbol
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (E Malekula)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3474
Language: Lingarak
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (E Malekula)
Population: 120
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3475
Language: Vinmavis
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (W Malekula)
Population: 140
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3476
Language: Litzlitz
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (E Malekula)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3477
Language: Larevat
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (W Malekula)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3478
Language: Maragus
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Malekula)
Population: 10
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central
Consonant system:
Number: 3479
Language: Big Nambas
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (NW Malekula Island)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Interior: Malekula Central Grammar: Fox, G. J. 1979. Big Nambas Grammar. PL B60.
Consonant system: p t nd k ɸ s x m n l r Stops: p t nd k Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t ɸ n l r c̯ p ɸ m (apico-labials c̯= "the apex of the tongue comes into contact with the upper lip." Fox 1979) Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a u only Diphthongs: ai au ei
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) [ no CCVCC] Stress: phonemic Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3480
Language: Hiw
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Torres Islands)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3481
Language: Toga Alternate Name: Lo
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Torres Islands)
Population: 150
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p t nd k č β θ ð ɣ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t nd k Affricates: č Fricatives: β θ ð ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3482
Language: Lehali
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Ureparapara Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978. "Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions," PL C61, 761-850. ML
Consonant system: p t n̪d̪ k β s ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: p t n̪d̪ k Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3483
Language: Lehalurup
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Ureparapara Is)
Population: 60
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Number: 3484
Language: Motlav Alternate Name: Mwotlap
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Mota Lava Is)
Population: 850
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: Kasarhérou, Jacqueline. 1962 "Les changements vocaliques de trois préfixes en motlav", Te Reo 5, 32-4. WALS
Consonant system: pʷ mb t nd k ŋɡ v s ɣ h m n ŋ l Stops: pʷ mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ p mb k ŋɡ m ŋ Glides: w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3485
Language: Mota
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Mota Is)
Population: 270
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Dictionary: Codrington, Robert H. and John A. Palmer. ????. A Dictionary of the Language of Mota, Sugarloaf Island, Banks Islands. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: p t k β s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ae ao au Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS(inalien)/POSS-N (alien)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3486
Language: Vatrata Dialect: Leon
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Vanua Lava)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p t k ʔ v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3487
Language: Alo-Teqel
Location: N New Nebrides Is (SE Vanua Lava IS)
Population: extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p t k ʔ v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3488
Language: Mosina Alternate Name: Mosin, Vuras
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Vanua Lava )
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p t k v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3489
Language: Nume
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Gaua Is )
Population: 120
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: mb t nd k v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ mb m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3490
Language: Koro
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Gaua Is )
Population: 70
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3491
Language: Wetamut
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SE Gaua Is )
Population: 70
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3492
Language: Lakona Alternate Name: Gog
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NW Gaua Is )
Population: 80
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: p t d k ʔ č v θ ð s ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: p t d k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v θ ð s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3493
Language: Merlav
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Mere Gaua Is )
Population: 850
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: ML WPF
Consonant system: mb t nd k v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3494
Language: Marino
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Maewo Is )
Population: 90
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1941. "A Grammar of the Language of Lotora, Maewo, New Hebrides, Melanesia," BSOAS 10, 679-98.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k v s ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ mb m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3495
Language: Central Maewo
Location: N New Hebrides Is (C Maewo Is )
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Number: 3496
Language: Baetora
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SC Maewo Is )
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3497
Language: Northeast Aoban Alternate Name: Oba
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NE Aoba Is )
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Dictionary: Ivens, W. G. 1940 . "A Grammar of the Language of Lobaha Lepers' Island, New Hebrides, Melanesia," BSOAS 10, 345-63.
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978. "Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions," PL C61, 781-850. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: mb t nd k ʔ β s ɣ h m n ŋ l r Stops: mb t nd k ʔ Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ mb m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ae ai ao au ei eo eu Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3498
Language: Nduindui
Location: N New Hebrides Is (W Aoba Is )
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3499
Language: Raga
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Pentecost Island )
Population: 2,300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Grammar: Ivens, W. G. 1938. "A Grammar of the Language of Lamalanga, North Raga, New Hebrides, " BSOAS 9, 733-63.
Other Sources: Walsh, D. S. 1962. "The Phonemes of Raga," Te Reo 5, 57-60. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: mb t nd k ŋɡ f v s ɣ h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f v s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ mb f m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ao au ei Stress: penult Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3500
Language: Apma
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (C Pentecost Island )
Population: 3,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3501
Language: Sowa
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SC Pentecost Island)
Population: 20
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3502
Language: Seke
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (S Pentecost Island)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3503
Language: Sa
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (S Pentecost Island)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3504
Language: North Ambrym
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Ambrym Island)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: MIL ML
Consonant system: p mb t nd k č f v s ɣ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ mb v m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3505
Language: Lonwolwol
Location: N New Hebrides Is (W Ambrym Island)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Dictionary: Paton, W. F. 1973. Ambrym (Lonwolwol) Dictionary. PL C21. Grammar: Paton, W. F. 1971a. Ambrym (Lonwolwol) Grammar. PL B19.
Other Sources: Paton, W. F. 1971b. Tales of Ambrym. PL D10.
Consonant system: b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ f v s h m n ŋ l ɾ r Stops: b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: cj b t d f s cʷ b Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ (ɵ) a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ɔ ɑ ... Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d t p ['trial' may mean just 3 or a small group (3-8)] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3506
Language: Dakaka
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SW Ambrym Island)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3507
Language: Port Vato
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SW Ambrym Island)
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Consonant system:
Number: 3508
Language: Southeast Ambrym
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Ambrym Island)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides Dictionary: Parker, G. J. 1970a. Southeast Ambrym Dictionary. PL C17.
Other Sources: Parker, Gary J. 1968. "Southeast Ambrym Phonology," OL 7, 81-91. Parker, Gary J. 1970. "Morphophonemics of the Inalienable Nouns in Southeast Ambrym," OL 9, 1-10.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ β s x h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: β s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4die 4pie* 4ie 2 5d 5p* 5ie 3 6d 6p* 6 *p=paucal (3-4)
Syntax: NA GN/NG ND N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3509
Language: Paama Alternate Name: Paamese
Location: C New Hebrides Is (Paama Island)
Population: 2,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: East New Hebrides
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd k ŋɡ v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3510
Language: Valpei
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NW Santo Island)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3511
Language: Nokuku
Location: N New Hebredes Is (NW Santo Island)
Population: 160
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p t k č v s m n l r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3512
Language: Vunapu
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Santo Island)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3513
Language: Piamatsina
Location: N New Hebrides Is (N Santo Island)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3514
Language: Tolomako
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NC Santo)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978 "Proto-North New hebridean reconstuctions," PL C61, 781-850 AL 6:9 MIL ML
Consonant system: p t k ts β s ɣ m n l r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3515
Language: Tolomako
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NC Santo Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Other Sources: Guy, Jacques Bernard Michel. 1978. "Proto-North New Hebridean Reconstructions," PL C61, 781-850. AL 6:9 MIL ML WPF
Consonant system: p t k ts β s ɣ m n l r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3516
Language: Tasmate
Location: N New Hebrides Is (W Santo)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3517
Language: Wusi
Location: N New Hebrides Is (W Santo Island)
Population: 170
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3518
Language: Akei
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Santo)
Population: 600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 3519
Language: Malmariv
Location: N New Hebrides Is (C Santo)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3520
Language: Navut
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Santo Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3521
Language: Lametin
Location: N New Hebrides Is (C Santo Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3522
Language: Morouas
Location: N New Hebrides Is (C Santo Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3523
Language: Roria
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Santo)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3524
Language: Fortsenal
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Santo Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3525
Language: Amblong
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Santo)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3526
Language: Wailapa
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Santo Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3527
Language: Tangoa
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SE Santo)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo Grammar: Annand, J. 1891. "A Grammar of the Tangoan-Santo Language," in SSL, 1-14.
Other Sources: Camden, William G. 1979. "Parallels in Structure of Lexicon and Syntax between New Hebrides Bislama and the South Santo Language as spoken at Tangoa," PL A57, 51-117. MIL
Consonant system: p t k ts v s x m n ŋ l ɾ̣ ṛ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ ṛ Modified Consonants: c̯ (apico-labial) = p v m (Camden reports that the apical-labials occur only in men's speech; Annand describes p̯ as a sound between t and p, pronounced with the tongue between the teeth touching the upper lip.) Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ Stress: penult Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien) N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3528
Language: Araki
Location: N New Hebrides Is (S Santo)
Population: 70
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3529
Language: Narango
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SE Santo)
Population: 160
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3530
Language: Tambotalo
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SE Santo)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3531
Language: Aore
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Aore Is)
Population: 1
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3532
Language: Malo
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Malo Island)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo Grammar: Landels, J. D. 1891. "Outline Grammar of Maloese," in SSL, 15-33.
Consonant system: (p) mb t nd k ŋɡ ts č v s x ɣ m n l r Stops: (p) mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: v s x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei oi
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3533
Language: Tutuba
Location: N New Hebrides Is (Tutuba Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3534
Language: Mafea
Location: N New Hebrides Is (E Santo Is)
Population: 50
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: West Santo
Consonant system:
Number: 3535
Language: Malua Bay
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (NW Malekula)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3536
Language: Vovo
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Malekula)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3537
Language: Mpotovoro
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Malekula)
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3538
Language: Mae
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Malekula)
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3539
Language: Vao
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (N Malekula Island)
Population: 850
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3540
Language: Atchin
Location: N New Hebrides Is (NE Malekula Island)
Population: 950
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal Grammar: GD: Capell, A. and J. Layard. 1980. Materials in Atchin, Malekula: Grammar, Vocabulary and Texts. PL D20.
Other Sources: Capell, A. 1935. "Grammatical Categories in the New Hebrides," BSOAS 8, 189-202. AL 6:9
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ c k ɡ ʔ ts β s š x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ B (bilabial trill) r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s š x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: B (bilabial trill) r Modified Consonants: Nc p t k b d ɡ s cʷ m p b β mp mb Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: tendency for penult Demonstratives: 8 (semantic nature unclear) Articles: indef personal, predicative, ligative
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3541
Language: Uripiv
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (NE Malekula Island)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ k ɡ č v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA NG/(GN [for proper names]) ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3542
Language: Unua
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (E Malekula Island)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3543
Language: Rerep
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal Grammar: Morton, Alex. 1891. "Grammar of the Language Spoken at Pangkumu, Malekula," in SSL, 34-72.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č f v s x m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p b m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au Demonstratives: 3 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3544
Language: Aulua
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula Island)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ k ɡ č f v s ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ m Nc p b t d k ɡ r ? Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3545
Language: Burmbar
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula Island)
Population: 350
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3546
Language: Port Sandwich
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula Island)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3547
Language: Maskelynes Alternate Name: Kuliviu
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SE Malekula)
Population: 620
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ k ɡ č v s ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ṭ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b k ɡ ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4de 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3548
Language: Axamb
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (S Malekula Island)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3549
Language: Malfaxal
Location: N New Hebrides Is (SW Malekula)
Population: 400
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 3550
Language: Southwest Bay Alternate Name: Sinesip
Location: NC New Hebrides Is (SW Malekula)
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Malekula Coastal
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s š h m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Nc p b bʷ d k ɡ r ? Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ei au Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4de 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3551
Language: Lewo
Location: C New Hebrides Is (N Epi Is)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Epi
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Nc ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3552
Language: Bierebo
Location: C New Hebrides Is (N Epi Is)
Population: 270
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Epi
Consonant system:
Number: 3553
Language: Baki
Location: C New Hebrides Is (W Epi Is)
Population: 200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Epi Grammar: Fraser, R. M. 1891. "A Grammar of the Baki Language," in SSL, 73-97.
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: (p) b t d ṭ k č v s m n ṇ ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Nc ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ou ei Stress: penult Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS(inalien)/POSS-N(alien)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3554
Language: Maii
Location: C New Hebrides Is (W Epi Is)
Population: 100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Epi
Consonant system:
Number: 3555
Language: Bieria
Location: C New Hebrides Is (W Epi Is)
Population: 70
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Epi Grammar: Fraser, R. M. 1891. "Grammar of the Bierian Language," in SSL, 98-107.
Consonant system: Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3556
Language: Namakura Dialect: Makura
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Makura Is)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Central New Hebrides
Other Sources: AL 6:9 MIL
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ae au Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3557
Language: Namakura Dialect: Tongoa
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Tongoa Is)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Central New Hebrides
Other Sources: AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: p bʷ t k v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p bʷ t k Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ b m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Number: 3558
Language: North Efate Dialect: Nguna
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Nguna Island)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Central New Hebrides Grammar: Sehutz, Albert J. 1969. Nguna Grammar. OLSP 5.
Other Sources: MIL
Consonant system: p ɓʷ t̪ k v s m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p ɓʷ t̪ k Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG /(GN [only with names of people]) ND N-NUM N-POSS/(POSS-N [with words for 'wife' and 'husband'])
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3559
Language: South Efate
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Efate Island)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central & Northern New Hebrides: Central New Hebrides Dictionary: MacDonald, D. 1894. The Asiatic Origin of the Oceanic Languages. Melbourne: Melville, Mullen & Slade.
Other Sources: ML
Consonant system: b t k f s m n ŋ l r Stops: b t k Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k m Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3560
Language: Rotuman
Location: Fiji (Rotuma Is)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Rotuman-Fijian Grammar: GD: Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1940. Rotuman Grammar and Dictionary. Sydney: Methodist Church of Australasia.
Other Sources: Biggs, Bruce. 1965. "Direct and Indirect Inheritance in Rotuman," Lingua 14, 383-445. Milner, George B. 1971. "Fijian and Rotuman," CTIL 8, 397-425. AL 6:9 ML
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č f v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: [a few kin terms have a separate plural] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+NUM+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3561
Language: Nadroga
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Rotuman-Fijian: Fijian
Consonant system:
Number: 3562
Language: Fijian
Location: Fiji Islands
Population: 200,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Rotuman-Fijian: Fijian Dictionary: Capell, A. 1941. A New Fijian Dictionary. Sydney: Australasian Medical Publishing Co. Grammar: Moore, William. 1881. Handbook of the Fijian Language. Ovalau, Fiji: G. L. Griffiths. Milner, George B. 1956. Fijian Grammar. Suva, Fiji: Government Press.
TextBooks: Schütz, Albert J. and Rusiate T. Komaitai. 1971. Spoken Fijian. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: Scott, N. C. 1948. "A Study in the Phonetics of Fijian," BSOAS 12, 737-52. Lynch, John. 1973. "Verbal Aspects of Possession in Melanesian Languages," OL 12, 69-102. AL 6:9 WPF
Consonant system: (p) mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ β ð s m n ŋ l ɾ nɾ Stops: (p) mb t̪ n̪d̪ k ŋɡ Fricatives: β ð s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ nɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS(inalien)/POSS-N(alien)
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Fijian comprises a number of distinct dialects, some of which are perhaps not mutually intelligible. "The terms 'Fijian language' and 'the Fijian dialects' are misleading. The 'Fijian dialects' clearly include several different languages. Although continuing contact between neighbouring speech communities had probably limited diversification, the structural diversity of the Fijian languages and dialects is at least equal to that of the Polynesian group as a whole.'' Andrew Pawlay, p. 269 of "The Relationships of Polynesian Outlier langauges," Journal of the Polynesian Society 76, 259-96.
Number: 3563
Language: Proto-Polynesian
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian
Other Sources: Elbert, Samuel H. 1965. "Phonological Expansions in Outlier Polynesia," Lingua 14, 431-42. Cashmore, Christine. 1969. "Some Proto-Eastern Oceanic Reconstructions with Reflexes in Southeast Solomon Islands Languages," OL 8, 1-25. CTIL 8, 482.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f v s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V
Number: 3564
Language: Niuean
Location: Niue Is
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Tongic Dictionary: McEwen, J. M. 1970. Niue Dictionary. Wellington: Dept of Maori and Island Affairs. Grammar: GD: Tregear, Edward and S. Percy Smith. 1907. A Vocabulary and Grammar of the Niuē Dialect of the Polynesian Langauge. Wellington: Government Printer.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k f v (s) h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k Fricatives: f v (s) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [when the noun phrase is definite]) N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3565
Language: Tongan
Location: Tonga Islands
Population: 83,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Tongic Dictionary: Chruchward, C. Maxwell. 1959 Tongan Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Grammar: Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1953. Tongan Grammar. London: Oxford Univ Press. Morton, Ermel Joseph. 1962. A Descriptive Grammar of Tongan (Polynesian). Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
TextBooks: Shumway, Eric P. 1971. Intensive Course in Tongan. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f v s h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO/(VOS [with definite direct object]) NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3566
Language: Samoan
Location: Samoan Is
Population: 160,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier Dictionary: Milner, George B. 1966. Samoan Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Grammar: GD: Pratt, George. 1962. Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language. Malua, Samoa: Malua Printing Press. Churchward, Spencer. 1951. A Samoan Grammar. Melbourne: Methodist Church of Australasia.
TextBooks: Baird, Rey L. 1967. Samoan: An Intensive Language Training Course. Provo: Brigham Young Univ. Marsack C. C. 1973. Teach Yourself Samoan. London: English University Press.
Other Sources: Pawley, Andrew. 1960. "Samoan Phonology in Outline," Te Reo 3, 47-50. Pawley, Andrew. 1961. "A Scheme for Describing Samoan Grammar," Te Reo 3, 38-43. Pawley, Andrew. 1962. "The Person-Markers in Samoan," Te Reo 5, 52-6. Pawley, Andrew. 1966. "Samoan Phrase Structure: The Morphology-Syntax of a Western Polynesian Language," AL 8:5, 1-63.
Consonant system: p (t*) k ʔ (*ǀtǀ and ǀnǀ occur only in formal speech; in colloquial speech they are replaced by ǀkǀ and ǀŋǀ, respectively.) f v s (h) m (n*) ŋ (*ǀtǀ and ǀnǀ occur only in formal speech; in colloquial speech they are replaced by ǀkǀ and ǀŋǀ, respectively.) l Stops: p (t*) k ʔ (*ǀtǀ and ǀnǀ occur only in formal speech; in colloquial speech they are replaced by ǀkǀ and ǀŋǀ, respectively.) Fricatives: f v s (h) Nasals: m (n*) ŋ (*ǀtǀ and ǀnǀ occur only in formal speech; in colloquial speech they are replaced by ǀkǀ and ǀŋǀ, respectively.) Laterals: l Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND/DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3567
Language: Niuafo'ou
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier
Consonant system:
Number: 3568
Language: Tuvalu Alternate Name: Ellicean
Location: Ellice Islands
Population: 8,100
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier
Other Sources: Milner, G. B. 1958. "Aspiration in Two Polynesian Languages" BSOAS, 21, 368-75. AL 6:7 WPF
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh f v s m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 3569
Language: East Uvea Alternate Name: East Futuna
Location: Futuna Islands
Population: 2,600
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier Grammar: Gunn, William. 1891. "Grammar of the Language of Futuna" in SSL, 163-207.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k f v s š h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: f v s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3570
Language: Pukapuka
Location: N Cook Islands (Pukapuka)
Population: 700
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: Articles: def
Syntax: VSO/VOS NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3571
Language: Rennellese Alternate Name: Rennell
Location: Rennell Island
Population: 1,800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 3572
Language: Pileni
Location: Reef Is (Pileni Is)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier
Other Sources: Elbert, Samuel H. 1965. "Phonological Expansions in Outlier Polynesia," Lingua 14, 431-42. AL 6:7 E
Consonant system: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ f v (s) h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l Stops: p ph mb t th nd k kh ŋɡ Fricatives: f v (s) h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3573
Language: Tikopia Alternate Name: Anuta
Location: Solomon Is (Anuta Island)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Southern Grammar: GD: Feinberg, Richard. 1977. The Anutan Language Reconsidered: Lexicon and Grammar of a Polynesian Outlier, 2 vols. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.
Other Sources: AL 6:7 E
Consonant system: p t k (f) v (s) m n ŋ (l) r Stops: p t k Fricatives: (f) v (s) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o u Long Vowels: v̄ all Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/VSO NA N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3574
Language: West Uvea
Location: Loyalty Islands (Uvea)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Southern
Other Sources: AL 6:7 E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f v s h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: VSO
Number: 3575
Language: Emae
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Emae Is)
Population: 300
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Southern Grammar: Capell, A. 1962. The Polynesian Language of Mae (Emwae), New Hebrides. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
Consonant system: p mb t nd k f v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p mb t nd k Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: antepenult
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 3576
Language: Mele
Location: SC New Hebrides Is (Efate Island)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Southern
Other Sources: AL 6:7 E
Consonant system: p t k f v s m n ŋ r Stops: p t k Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3577
Language: West Futuna Alternate Name: Futuna-Aniwa
Location: S New Hebrides (West Futuna)
Population: 800
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Southern Grammar: Capell, A. 1960. Anthropology and Linguistics of Futuna-Aniwa, New Hebrides. OLM 5.
Other Sources: AL 6:7 Dougherty, Janet W. D. 1977. "Reduplication in West Futuna," Journal of the Polynesian Society 86, 207-21.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ ɸ v s š h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Fricatives: ɸ v s š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai au ei oe
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 2 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3578
Language: Sikaiana
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Northern
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 3579
Language: Luangiua Alternate Name: Ontong Java
Location: Luangiua Atoll
Population: 1,900
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Northern Grammar: Hogbin, H. Ian. 1930. "Notes on a Grammar of the Language of Ongtong Java," BSOAS 5, 823-53. Lanyon-Orgill, Peter A. 1944. A Study of the Leuangiua Language. London: Luzac.
Other Sources: Salmond, Anne. 1974. A Generative Syntax of Luangiua. The Hague: Mouton. AL 6:7
Consonant system: p k ʔ v s h m ŋ l Stops: p k ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m ŋ Laterals: l Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3580
Language: Takuu
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 3581
Language: Kapingamarangi
Location: Caroline Is (Kapingamarangi Is)
Population: 500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Micronesian Dictionary: Lieber, Michael D. and Kalio H. Dikepa. 1974. Kapingamarangi Lexicon. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. Grammar: GD: Elbert, Samuel H. 1948. Grammar and Comparative Study of the Language of Kapingamarangi: Texts and Word Lists. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh h m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ɹ ɹ̥ Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Vibrants: ɹ ɹ̥ Glides: w w̥ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: penult or on long vowel Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/VSO NA NG ND POSS-N N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3582
Language: Nukuoro
Location: Nukuoro Is
Population: 260
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Samoic Outlier: Micronesian Grammar: Carroll, Vern. 1965. An Outline of the Structure of the Language of Nukuoro. Wellington: The Polynesian Society.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t̪ k v s x m n̪ ŋ ľ̪ Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: v s x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: ľ̪ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V
Syntax: SVO/VSO NA
Number: 3583
Language: Rapanui Alternate Name: Chile (Easter Island)
Location: Easter Island
Population: 2,500
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian Grammar: GD: Fuentes, Jordi. 1960. Diccionario y gramática de la lengua de la Isla de Pascua. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Andres Bell.
Other Sources: Langdon, Robert and Darrell Tryon. 1983. The Language of Easter Island: Its Development and Eastern Polynesian Relationships. Laie, Hawaii: Institute for Polynesian Studies. AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k ʔ v h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: v h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3584
Language: Tahitian
Location: Society Is (Tahiti)
Population: 66,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic Dictionary: Lemaitre, Yves. 1973. Lexique du tahitien contemporain. Paris: Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer. Grammar: GD: Janssen, Tepano. 1969. Grammaire et dictionnaire de la langue tahitienne. Paris: Musée de l'Homme. Lovy, R. D, and L.-J Bouge 1953. Grammaire de la langue tahitienne. Paris: Musée de l'Homme. Coppenrath, Hubert and Paul Prevost. 1975. Grammaire approfondie de la langue tahitienne. Papeete, Tahiti: Librairie Pureora.
TextBooks: Tryon, D. T. 1970. Conversational Tahitian. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Consonant system: p t ʔ f v h m n ɾ Stops: p t ʔ Fricatives: f v h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ae oi
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult or on first long vowel or diphthong Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG/GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3585
Language: Tongareva
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic
Consonant system:
Number: 3586
Language: Rarotongan
Location: S Cook Is (Rarotonga)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic Dictionary: Savage, Stephen. 1962. A Dictionary of the Maori Language of Rarotonga. Wellington: Dept of Island Territories.
Other Sources: Busem, J. E. 1960. "Rarotongan Personal Pronouns : Form and Distribution," BSOAS 23, 123-37. Buse, J. E. 1963a. "Rarotongan Sentence Structures," BSOAS 26, 632-45. Buse, J. E. 1963b. "The Structure of Rarotongan Nominal Negative and Conjunctival Pieces," BSOAS 26, 393-419. Buse J. E. 1965. "Problems of Morphology and Classification Illustrated from Rarotongan," Lingua15, 32-47. AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k ʔ β m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG/GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3587
Language: Pa'umotu Alternate Name: Tuamotuan
Location: Tuamotuan Archipelago
Population: 9,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic Dictionary: Stimson, J. Frank and Donald S. Marshall. 1964. A Dictionary of Some Tuamotuan Dialects of the Polynesian Language. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Other Sources: Kuki, Hiroshi. 1970a. Tuamotuan Phonology. PL B17. Kuki, Hiroshi. 1970. "The Place of the Glottal Stop in Tuamotuan," Te Reo 13, 46-62. Devita, Phil. 1971. "A Partial Investigation of the Spatial Forms of Some Tuamotuan Dalects," AL 13, 401-20. AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) ɸ v h m n̪ ŋ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k (ʔ) Fricatives: ɸ v h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Syntax: VSO NA
Number: 3588
Language: Maori
Location: N New Zealand (North Island)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic Dictionary: Biggs, Bruce G. 1966. English-Maori Dictionary. Wellington: A. H. & A. W. Reed. Williams, Herbert W. 1971. A Dictionary of the Maori Language. Wellington: Government Printer. Grammar: Biggs, Bruce G. 1961. "The Structure of New Zealand Maori," AL 3:3, 1-54. Hohepa, Patrick W. 1967. A Profile Generative Grammar of Maori. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Krupa, Victor. 1968. The Maori Language. Moscow: Nauka.
TextBooks: Smyth, Patrick. 1957. Te Reo Maori. Christchurch: Whitcombe and Tombs. Harawira, K. T. 1961. Teach Yourself Maori. Wellington: A. H. and A. W. Reed. Biggs, Bruce G. 1973. Let's Learn Maori. Wellington: A. H. and A. W. Reed. Jones, A. Morris. 1953. "Phonetics of the Maori Langauge" JPS 62, 237-41.
Other Sources: Krupa, Victor. 1966. Morpheme and Word in Maori. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k ɸ h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: ɸ h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ei ae ai ao au ou ea ia ua oa
Syllable: (C)V Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def, indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA GN/NG DN/(ND [in D-N-D]) NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3589
Language: Moriori
Population: extinct
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Tahitic
Consonant system:
Number: 3590
Language: Mangareva
Location: Gambier Islands
Population: 650
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Marquesic
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k v h m n ŋ r Stops: p t k Fricatives: v h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 3591
Language: Marquesan
Location: Marquesas Is (Hiva'oa Island)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Marquesic Grammar: GD: Dordillon, René Ildefonse. 1931, 1932. Grammaire et dictionanaire de la langue des Iles Marquises, 2 vols. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p t k ʔ f v h m n ŋ r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: f v h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND/DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 3592
Language: Hawaiian
Location: Hawaiian Is
Population: 250
Classification: Austric: Austronesian: Malayo-Polynesian: Central-Eastern: Eastern: Oceanic: Remote: Central Pacific: Polynesian: Nuclear: Eastern Polynesian: Marquesic Dictionary: Pukui, Mary K. and Samuel H. Elbert. 1971. Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Grammar: Alexander, W. D. 1968. A Short Synopsis of the Most Essential Points in Hawaiian Grammar. Rutland Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle.
TextBooks: Elbert, Samuel H. and Samuel A. Keala. 1970 Conversational Hawaiian. Honoloulu: Univ of Hawaii Press. Kahananui. Dorothy M. and Albert P. Anthony. 1974. Let's Speak Hawaiian. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii. AL 6:7
Other Sources: AL 6:7
Consonant system: p k ʔ h v m n l Stops: p k ʔ Fricatives: v h Nasals: m n Laterals: l
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai ae au ao ei eu iu ou
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: indef def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 2 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN(ND [D-N-D]) NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP

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