Типологии австралийских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по австрало-аборигенным языкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Австралийской макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых систем австралийской филы (происходящей из праавстралийского языка, распределённых по 15 аборигенным семьям (и неклассифицированные):

  1. Обзор типологии Праавстралийского языка
  2. Обзоры типология отдельных языков австралийских аборигенов
  3. Обзоры типология Йивайдянских языков (Yiwaidjan)
  4. Обзоры типология Мангеррийских языков (Mangerrian)
  5. Обзоры типология Гунвиньгуанских языков (Gunwinyguan)
  6. Обзоры типология Бурарранских языков (Burarran)
  7. Обзоры типология Маранских языков (Maran)
  8. Обзоры типология Западно-барклийских языков (West Barkly)
  9. Обзоры типология Гаравских языков (Garawan)
  10. Обзоры типология Ларагьянских языков (Laragiyan)
  11. Обзоры типология Дальских языков (Daly)
  12. Обзоры типология Дяминдюнгских языков (Djamindjungan)
  13. Обзоры типология Дераганских языков (Djeragan)
  14. Обзоры типология Бунабанских языков (Bunaban)
  15. Обзоры типология Нюлнюланских языков (Nyulnyulan)
  16. Обзоры типология Вороранских языков (Wororan)
  17. Обзоры типология языков Пама-нюнга (Pama-Nyungan)

Обзор типологии Праавстралийского языка

Number: 4363
Language: Proto-Australian
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: Dixon, R. M. W. 1979. "The Nature and Development of Australian Languages," ARA 8, 431-43. LOA
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l (ʎ) r ɹ̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l (ʎ) Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)

Обзоры типология отдельных языков австралийских аборигенов

Number: 4364
Language: Enindhilyagwa Alternate Name: Anindilyakwa
Location: N Australia (Groote Eylandt)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: Turner, D. H. 1974. Tradition and Transformation. Camberra: AIAS. LOA
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k kʷ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ ŋʷ l̯ ʎ r ṛ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4dimf 4demf 4ie 2 5dmf 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4365
Language: Ndjébbana
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4366
Language: Yanyuwa Alternate Name: Anyula
Location: N Australia (NE Northern)
Population: 150
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: Kirton, Jean F. 1964. "Anyula Person Pronouns," in PLAA, 139-48. MacDonald, Elfreda. 1964. "Notes on the Noun Classes of Anyula," in PLAA, 151-6. Kirton, Jean F. 1967. "Anyula Phonology," in PL A10, 15-28. Kirton, Jean F. 1971a. "Yanyula Noun Modifiers," in PL A27, 1-14. Kirton, Jean F. 1971b. "Complexities of Yanyula Nouns," in PL A27, 15-70. Kirton, Jean F. 1976. "Yanyula Nominative and Ergative-Allative Cases," in PL A47, 1-9. Kirton, Jean F. 1978. "Yanyuwa Verbs," in PL A51, 1-52.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ̂ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ (ɡ̂ is dorso-palatal) Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ̂ ɡ (ɡ̂ is dorso-palatal) Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ʋ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3: this, that (specific) + that (non-specific) = ref?
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: AN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4367
Language: Gagudju Alternate Name: Kakadu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4mf 2 5dmf 5mf 3 6dmf 6mf
Number: 4368
Language: Kungarakany
Location: Australia (Northern)
Population: 1
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4369
Language: Mangarayi
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 4370
Language: Mingin
Location: N Australia (NW Queensland)
Population: probably extinct
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4371
Language: Nakkara
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 70
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4372
Language: Nunggubuyu
Location: N Australia (NE Northern Territory)
Population: 400
Classification: Australian Dictionary: Hughes, E. J. 1971. Nunggubuyu-English Dictionary, 2 vols. OLM 14.
Other Sources: Hughes, Earl J. and Alan Healey. 1971. "The Nunggubuyu Verb," in POLAA, 47-58. Hughes, Earl J. and Velma J. Leeding. 1971a. "A Tentative Description of Nunggubuyu Clauses," in POLAA, 58-71. Hughes, Earl J. and Velma J. Leeding. 1971b. "The Phonemes of Nunggubuyu," in POLAA, 72-81.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m (n̯) n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m (n̯) n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (æ) Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a only ?
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on ā; if no ā, initial)
Noun Classes: 5 [masc hum (+other nouns) belong to class I; fem hum (+other nouns) to class II. For classes III-V (and the rest of I&II) there is little semantic correlation.
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5 3mf 6 4de=4e
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4373
Language: Tiwi
Location: N Australia (Melville Island)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Australian Grammar: GD: Osborne, C. R. 1974. The Tiwi Language. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p t̪ t (ṭ) k ʔ ɣ m n̪ n (ṇ) ŋ l (ḷ) ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̪ t (ṭ) k ʔ Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n̪ n (ṇ) ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: cʷ p k m ŋ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɒ
Syllable: (C)V[ɹˈ](C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f ["Sex . . . is not the sole basis of gender in Tiwi. . . Physical size and shape are the factors controlling the assignment of gender to inanimate things. The semantic features correlated with masculine gender being 'small,' 'straight', 'thin,' and those correlated with feminine gender being 'large,' 'round,' 'ample.' Osborne 1974, 51. Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: "Tiwi is today one of the very few Australian languages which are still in full use as the normal medium of communication for an entire tribe." Osborne 1974: 3.
Number: 4374
Language: Waray
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4375
Language: Limilngan
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4376
Language: Umbugarla
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4377
Language: Gunbudj
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Consonant system:
Number: 4378
Language: Murrinh-Patha
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV

Обзоры типология Йивайдянских языков

Number: 4379
Language: Margu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Yiwaidjan
Consonant system:
Number: 4380
Language: Amurag
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Yiwaidjan
Consonant system:
Number: 4381
Language: Iwaidja Alternate Name: Yiwaja
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 150
Classification: Australian: Yiwaidjan Grammar: Capell, A. 1962. Some Linguistic Types in Australia. OLM 7.
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k ɣ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ʎ r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4382
Language: Maung
Location: N Australia (Goulburn Is)
Population: 200
Classification: Australian: Yiwaidjan Grammar: GD: Capell, A. and H. E. Hinch. 1970. Maung Grammar. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: Hinch, H. E. 1964. "The Maung Personal Pronoun," in PLAA, 129-38. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k (ʔ) ɣ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k (ʔ) Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6: (1) names of male beings (2) names of female beings (3) plural of 1 & 2 (4) objects associated with the ground (except plants) (5) trees & their parts (6) plants & vegetable foods Demonstratives: 3+ref Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3* 6* *vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)

Обзоры типология Мангеррийских языков

Number: 4383
Language: Mangerr
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Mangerrian
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Гунвиньгуанских языков

Number: 4384
Language: Jawony
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan
Consonant system:
Number: 4385
Language: Rembarrnga
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 400
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4386
Language: Ngandi
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan
Other Sources: Heath, Jeffrey. 1978. Linguistic Diffusion in Arnhem Land. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Number: 4387
Language: Ngalakan
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 30
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan
Consonant system:
Number: 4388
Language: Warlang Alternate Name: Gunbalang
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 125
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Gunwinygic
Other Sources: Harris, Joy Kinslow. 1969. "Preliminary Grammar of Gunbalang," in PL A17, 1-49.
Consonant system:
Gender: m f n1 n2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NA DN NUM-N POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4389
Language: Gunwinygu
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 200
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Gunwinygic Grammar: Oates, Lynette Frances. 1964. A Tentative Description of the Gunwinggu Language. OLM 10.
Consonant system: b d̪ ḍ ɟ ɡ ʔ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̪ ḍ ɟ ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (penult/root initial)
Noun Classes: 4: masc, fem, neut1, neut2 [neut1 = earth & abstract things,neut2 = vegetables, trees, plants, flowers & food] Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 Verbal prefixes have dual and trial forms, as well as an inclusives/exclusive distinction for 4d & 4.
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN/NG DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS D+N+A
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp (only neuter nouns)
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4390
Language: Ngalkbon Alternate Name: Ngalkbun, Dalabon
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Gunwinygic Grammar: Capell, A. 1962. Some Linguistic Types in Australia. OLM 7.
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k ʔ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɹ̣ ṛ Stops: p t ṭ c k ʔ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: ai au oi ei ui
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4391
Language: Wagiman
Location: Australia (N Northern)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Yangmanic Grammar: Tryon, D. T. 1971. "The Wageman Language," in POLAA, 1-11.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t c k ʔ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/(SVO) NA NG N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num
Number: 4392
Language: Wardaman
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Yangmanic
Consonant system:
Number: 4393
Language: Dagoman
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Yangmanic
Consonant system:
Number: 4394
Language: Yangman
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian: Gunwinyguan: Yangmanic
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Бурарранских языков

Number: 4395
Language: Guragone
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Burarran
Consonant system:
Number: 4396
Language: Burarra
Location: N Australia (N Northern)
Population: 450
Classification: Australian: Burarran
Other Sources: Glasgow, Kathleen. 1964a. "Four Principal Contrasts in Burera Personal Pronouns," in PLAA, 109-17. Glasgow, Kathleen. 1964b. "Frame of Reference for Two Burera Tenses," in PLAA, 118. Glasgow, David and Harland Kerr. 1964. "Burera Verb Prefixes," in PLAA, 119-28. Glasgow, David and Kathleen Glasgow. 1967. "The Phonemes of Burera," in PL A10, 1-14.
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ Modified Consonants: c̄ p c k n ñ j Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C), Nˈ
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ti 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA

Обзоры типология Марански языков

Number: 4397
Language: Alawa
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian: Maran Grammar: Sharpe, Margaret C. 1972. Alawa Phonology and Grammar. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p mb t nd ṭ n.ḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ Stops: p mb t nd ṭ n.ḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ Modified Consonants: c̄ c n ŋ l only Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ
Syllable: (C)V(L)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN/ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4398
Language: Warndarang
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 8
Classification: Australian: Maran
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4399
Language: Mara
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian: Maran
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Западно-барклийских языков

Number: 4400
Language: Djingili
Location: NC Australia (C Northern)
Population: 40
Classification: Australian: West Barkly Grammar: GD: Chadwick, Neil. 1975. A Descriptive Study of the Djingili Language. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k̂ k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k̂ k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ā ū Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai au ia ua ui
Syllable: (C)V(L)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p
Noun Classes: 4: masc, fem, neut, vegetable (& round objects) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1mf 4dimf 4demf 4imf 4emf 2mf 5dmf 5mf *3mfnv *6dmfnv *6mfnv v=vegetable
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4401
Language: Ngarndji
Location: NC Australia (NC Northern Territory)
Population: 5
Classification: Australian: West Barkly Dictionary: Chadwick, N. 1971. "Ngarndji Wordlist and Phonological Key," in POLAA, 35-45.
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ̂ ɡ m n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ r Stops: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ̂ ɡ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a only Stress: penult
Syntax: SOV NA
Number: 4402
Language: Wambaya Dialect: Gudanji
Location: NC Australia (NC Northern Territory)
Classification: Australian: West Barkly Grammar: Aguas, E. F. 1968. "Gudandji," in PL A14, 1-20.
Consonant system: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ṛ Stops: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: ai ui
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV) NA GN DN/ND POSS-N/N-POSS

Обзоры типология Гаравских языков

Number: 4403
Language: Garawa
Location: N Australia (NE Northern)
Population: 300
Classification: Australian: Garawan
Other Sources: Furby, Christine E. 1972. "The Pronominal System of Garawa," OL 11, 1-31. Furby, Christine E. 1974. "Garawa Phonology," in PL A37, 1-11. LOA WALS
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k̂ k m n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k̂ k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ̂ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2: this, that (specific) + that (non-specific) = ref?
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS AN GN DN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4404
Language: Waanyi
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Garawan
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Ларагьянских языков

Number: 4405
Language: Laragiya
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Laragiyan
Consonant system:
Number: 4406
Language: Wulna
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Laragiyan
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Дальских языков

Number: 4407
Language: Ngenkikurrunggur
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 150
Classification: Australian: Daly: Moil
Other Sources: DFL
Consonant system: p (b) t (d) c k (ɡ) (β) (s) (x) m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r ɹ Stops: p (b) t (d) c k (ɡ) Fricatives: (β) (s) (x) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 8: natural objects, kinship terms & some body parts / most body parts / animals hunted for meat / plants and vegetables / trees & wooden implements / male animals / female animals / dogs
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4408
Language: Marithiyel
Location: NC Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 85
Classification: Australian: Daly: Brinken-Wagaydy: Brinken
Other Sources: DFL AL 8:2 WPF
Consonant system: p t̯ t (ṭ) c k m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ l (ḷ) r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t (ṭ) c k Nasals: m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ɵ) Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 5: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / weapons & wooden objects / trees
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS Num+N+A (Num may precede N when N is qualified by A)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4409
Language: Marimanindji
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 20
Classification: Australian: Daly: Brinken-Wagaydy: Brinken
Other Sources: DFL
Consonant system: p (t̯) t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɹ ṛ Stops: p (t̯) t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɹ ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 5: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / birds & animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / weapons & wooden implements / trees
Pronouns: 1 4di(e) 4te 4ie 2 (5d) 5t 5 3mf (6d) 6t 6
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4410
Language: Maringarr
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 35
Classification: Australian: Daly: Brinken-Wagaydy: Brinken
Other Sources: DFL
Consonant system: p (t̯) t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p (t̯) t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / birds & animals hunted for meat / edible vegetables & plants / weapons & wooden objects
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+A
Number: 4411
Language: Wadjiginy Alternate Name: Pungupungu Dialect: Ami
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 60
Classification: Australian: Daly: Brinken-Wagaydy: Wagaydy
Other Sources: DFL
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / trees & wooden objects
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4412
Language: Maranungku
Location: N Australia (NW Northern Territory)
Population: 80
Classification: Australian: Daly: Brinken-Wagaydy: Wagaydy Grammar: GD: Tryon, D. T. 1970a. An Introduction to Maranungku (Northern Australia). PL B15.
Other Sources: Tryon, D. T. 1970b. "The Daly Language Family : A Structural Survey," in Linguistic Trends in Australia, ed. by D. C. Laycock, Canberra, AIAS, 51-7. DFL
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t c k m n only Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / trees & wooden objects Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN(inalien)/NG(alien) ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4413
Language: Madngele Alternate Name: Matngala
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 20
Classification: Australian: Daly: Malakmalak
Other Sources: DFL
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / trees & wooden objects
Pronouns: 1 4di(e) 4ie 2 (5d) 5 3mf (6d) 6
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4414
Language: Dyeraidy Alternate Name: Tyeraity
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 5
Classification: Australian: Daly: Malakmalak
Other Sources: DFL WPF
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ Back Vowels: u ɑ
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants & vegetables / trees & wooden objects
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/(NG when possessor (G) is followed by a poss pronoun) N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4415
Language: Malakmalak
Location: N Australia (NW Northern)
Population: 20
Classification: Australian: Daly: Malakmalak Grammar: Birk, D. B. W. 1976. The Malakmalak Language, Daly River (Western Arnhem Land). PL B45.
Other Sources: Tryon, D. T. 1970b. "The Daly Language Family : A Structural Survery," in Linguistic Trends in Australia, ed. by D. C. Laycock, Canberra, AIAS, 51-6. Birk, David B. W. 1975. "The Phonology of Malakmalak," in PL A39, 59-78. DFL WPF
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4: body parts, kinship terms & natural phenomena / animals hunted for meat / plants / trees Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mfvn 6d 6 v=plants & vegetables, n=trees and natural objects
Syntax: SOV NA GN(inalien)/NG(alien) ND N-NUM POSS-N(inalien)/N-POSS(alien) N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST

Обзоры типология Дяминдюнгских языков

Number: 4416
Language: Djamindjung
Location: N Australia (NW Northern Territory)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Djamindjungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4417
Language: Nungali
Location: N Australia (NW Northern Territory)
Classification: Australian: Djamindjungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4418
Language: Ngaliwuru
Location: N Australia (NW Northern Territory)
Classification: Australian: Djamindjungan
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Дераганских языков

Number: 4419
Language: Gadjerawang
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Djeragan
Consonant system:
Number: 4420
Language: Miriwung
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Djeragan
Consonant system:
Number: 4421
Language: Kitja
Location: NW Australia (NE Western)
Population: 300
Classification: Australian: Djeragan
Other Sources: Taylor, Peter and Jay Taylor. 1971. "A Tentative Statement of Kitja Phonology," in POLAA, 100-9. WPF
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA

Обзоры типология Бунабанских языков

Number: 4422
Language: Bunaba
Location: NW Australia (NE Western Australia)
Population: 60
Classification: Australian: Bunaban
Consonant system:
Number: 4423
Language: Guniyan
Location: NW Australia (NE Western Australia)
Population: 50
Classification: Australian: Bunaban
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Нюлнюланских языков

Number: 4424
Language: Nyulnyul Alternate Name: Bardi
Location: NW Australia (N Western)
Population: 360
Classification: Australian: Nyulnyulan
TextBooks: Metcalfe, C. D. 1971. "A Tentative Phonetic Statement of the Bardi Aboriginal Language," in POLAA, 82-92.
Other Sources: Metcalfe, C. D. 1975. Bardi Verb Morphology (Northwestern Australia). PL B30. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ i a u only Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: inital Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6 Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4425
Language: Yawuru
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Nyulnyulan
Consonant system:
Number: 4426
Language: Warwa
Location: NW Australia (N Western)
Classification: Australian: Nyulnyulan
Consonant system:
Number: 4427
Language: Nyigina
Location: NW Australia (N Western)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Nyulnyulan
Consonant system:

Обзоры типология Вороранских языков

Number: 4428
Language: Wunambal
Location: NW Australia (N Western Australia)
Population: possibly extinct
Classification: Australian: Wororan
Consonant system:
Number: 4429
Language: Ungarinjin Alternate Name: Ngarinyin
Location: NW Australia (NE Western)
Population: 700
Classification: Australian: Wororan Dictionary: Coate, H. H. J. and A. P. Elkin. 1974. Ngarinjin-English Dictionary, 2 vols. OLM 16. Grammar: Coate, H. H. J. and Lynette Oates. 1970. A Grammar of Ngarinjin. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d t p
Gender: m f n1 n2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3mfn1n2 6dmfn1n2 6mfn1n2 trial=3 or a small number
Syntax: OSV/VOS AN GN ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4430
Language: Worora
Location: NW Australia (N Western Australia)
Population: 200
Classification: Australian: Wororan
Other Sources: Lucich, Peter. 1969. Children's Stories from the Worora. Canberra: AIAS. WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 4C 2 5d 5 5C 3 6d 6 6C C=collective
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST

Обзоры типология языков Пама-нюнга

Number: 4431
Language: Muk Thang
Location: SE Australia (E Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4432
Language: Dhuduroa
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4433
Language: Kala Lagaw Ya Alternate Name: Mabuiag
Location: NE Australia (W Torres Strait Islands)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Other Sources: Bani, Ephraim and Terry J. Klokeid. 1976. "Ergative Switching in Kala Lagau Langgus," in LCY, 269-83. PLNGLS AL 8:2 WPF
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ (t) (d) k ɡ s z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̯ d̯ (t) (d) k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4434
Language: Muruwari
Location: SE Australia (N New South Wales)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Other Sources: Trefry, Judy. 1971. "Possible Clause Types in Muruwari," in POLAA, 93-9.
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4435
Language: Warumungu
Location: NC Australia (C Northern Territory)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4436
Language: Flinders Island
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4437
Language: Barrow Point
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4438
Language: Bandjalang
Location: E Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan Grammar: GD: Holmer, Nils M. 1971. Notes on the Bandjalang Dialect. Canberra: AIAS. GD: Crowley, Terry. 1978. The Middle Clarence Dialects of Bandjalang. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial (second, if second V is long)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n tree Demonstratives: 3 [Each has three distinct forms: (1) visible, (2) invisible, formerly present, (3) invisible, not formerly present]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative: erg
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4439
Language: Bandjalang Dialect: Gidabal
Location: E Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: 1,000 (20)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan Grammar: GD: Geytenbeek, Brian and Helen Geytenbeek. 1971. Gidabal Grammar and Dictionary. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: Geytenbeek, Helen. 1964. "Personal Pronouns of Gidabul," in PLAA, 91-100. Geytenbeek, Brian B. 1964. "Morphology of the Regular Verbs of Gidabul," in PLAA 101-8.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p t̪ c k Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ʋ̄
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on initial syllable & v̄'s)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m, f, n, arboreal (m and f are restricted to human beings; arboreal = trees; neuter = all inanimates other than trees and all animates other than humans) Demonstratives: 3 [Each demonstrative has three variants: (1) in sight, (2) not in sight, but present, (3) not in sight, presumed removed] + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4440
Language: Pallangahmiddang
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan
Consonant system:
Number: 4441
Language: Djinang
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 300
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Other Sources: Waters, Bruce E. 1980a. "Djinang Phonology," PL A60, 1-71. Waters, Bruce E. 1980b. "Djinang Verb Morphology," PL A60, 141-78.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ (ʔ) m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɹ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ (ʔ) Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4442
Language: Dhangu Dialect: Galbu
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 200
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Other Sources: Wood, R. 1978. "Some Yuulngu Phonological Patterns," in PL A51, 53-117. E
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ ḍ c k ʔ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ ḍ c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Tones: initial
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4443
Language: Dhuwal Alternate Name: Djapu Dialect: Gupapuyngu
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 250
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Other Sources: Buchanan, Dianne. 1978. "Djambarrpuynu Clauses," in PL A51, 143-77. AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/OVS DN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4444
Language: Djinba
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 150
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Consonant system:
Number: 4445
Language: Ritharngu
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Population: 300
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu Grammar: GD: Heath, Jeffrey. 1980. Basic Materials in Ritharngu: Grammar, Texts and Dictionary. PL B62.
Other Sources: Heath, Jeffrey. 1978. Linguistic Diffusion in Arnhem Land. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far distant]
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA GN DN/ND POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4446
Language: Dhay'yi
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Consonant system:
Number: 4447
Language: Yan-nhangu Alternate Name: Jarnango
Location: N Australia (N Northern Territory)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuulngu
Consonant system:
Syntax: ND
Number: 4448
Language: Lardil
Location: N Australia (NW Queensland, Mornington Island)
Population: 270
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Tangic
Other Sources: AL 8:2 LOA
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Clicks: nʘ, n/, n!, nǂ Lardil also possessed a special speech style, used by initiated men, which added 4 nasalized clicks (nʘ, n/, n!, nǂ ), two ejectives (pʔ, k?), and an ingressive lateral fricative (ɬ) to the standard consonant repertoire. The vowel /e/ was not used in this style. Apparently this special speech style has recently fallen into disuse. Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4die* 4ie* 2 5d* 5* 3 6d* 6* *In Lardil . . . one type of non-singular pronoun is used when the people referred to are in the same generation level or are two levels apart, and another type of pronoun is used if they are one or three generations apart." LOA 276
Number: 4449
Language: Gayardilt Alternate Name: Yukukta
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Tangic
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4450
Language: Proto-Paman
Location: NE Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Pama-Maric:-
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1964. "Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A Research Report," OL 3, 248-65.
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4451
Language: Gudang
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4452
Language: Atampaya Alternate Name: Uradhi
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976b. "Phonological Developments in a Northern Paman Language: Uradhi," in LCY, 41-9. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t c k Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: on 1st postconsonantal vowel
Number: 4453
Language: Wudhadhi
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4454
Language: Tjungundji
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4455
Language: Mpalityanh
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t̯ t c k Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p t̯ t c k (The Luthing dialect lacks prenasalized stops, but includes /ʔ/.) Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4456
Language: Yupngayth
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4457
Language: Linngithigh
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 6 (1960)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t k ʔ tr β ð ɣ m n̯ n (ñ) ŋ l r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t k ʔ Affricates: tr Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 Ergative: erg
Number: 4458
Language: Ngkoth
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k (ʔ) tr (β) (ð) ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t̯ t c k (ʔ) Affricates: tr Fricatives: (β) (ð) ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ø) (æ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4459
Language: Yinwum
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k tr β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t̯ t c k Affricates: tr Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Modified Consonants: Nc p t̯ t c k tr Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4460
Language: Aritinngithigh Alternate Name: Aritinngithig
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40.
Consonant system: p t̯ t k tr β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t̯ t k Affricates: tr Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ʉ a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4461
Language: Awngthim Alternate Name: Anguthimri
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40. LOA WALS
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ ʔ dr β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ ʔ Affricates: dr Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: Nc b d̯ d ɟ ɡ dr Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e (ø) æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i e æ a u only Nasal Vowels: ṽ i e æ a only
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4462
Language: Mbiywom
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Northern
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976a. "Phonological Developments in Particular Northern Paman Languages," in LCY, 7-40.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4463
Language: Wik-Me'anha Alternate Name: Wik-Me'nh
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k ʔ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̪ t c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ i e a u
Number: 4464
Language: Wik-Ngathana
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 4465
Language: Wik-Mungkan Alternate Name: Wik-Munkan
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 750
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle Grammar: Oates, William, et al. 1964. Gugu-Yalanji and Wik-Munkan Language Studies. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: Sayers, Barbara. 1964. "The Phonemes of Coen Wik-Munkan," in Gugu-Yalanji and Wik-Munkan Language Studies, 51-6. Sayers, Barbara J. and Harland B. Kerr. 1964. "Wik-Munkan Locative, Temporal and Demonstrative Pronouns," in PLAA, 1-12. Godfrey, M. and H. B. Kerr. 1964. "Personal Pronouns in Wik-Munkan," in PLAA, 13-34. Godfrey, Marie. 1970. "Wik-Munkan Verb Morphology," in PL C13, 741-56. Sayers, Barbara J. 1976a. "The Relevance of Stress and Pitch in the Grammatical Hierarchy of Wik-Mungkan," in LCY, 284-98. Sayers, Barbara J. 1976b. "Interpenetration of Stress and Pitch in Wik-Munkan Grammar and Phonology, in PL A42, 31-79. Sayers, Barbara J. 1976c. The Sentence in Wik-Munkan: A Description of Propositional Relationships. PL B44. Kilham, Christine A. 1977. Thematic Organization of Wik-Munkan Discourse. PL B52. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k ʔ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: The Coen dialect lacks t̯, n̯, & ɹ̣. Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 4de=4e
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4466
Language: Wik-Iiyanh
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Consonant system:
Number: 4467
Language: Kugu-Muminh Alternate Name: Wik-Muminh
Location: NE Austrlai (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4468
Language: Pakanha
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Consonant system:
Number: 4469
Language: Ayabadhu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Middle
Consonant system:
Number: 4470
Language: Thaayorre Alternate Name: Taior
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 100
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Western
TextBooks: Hall, Allen. 1976a. "Methods of Negation in Kuuk Thaayorre," in LCY, 299-307.
Other Sources: Hall, Allen. 1976b. "Morphological Categories of Nouns in Kuuk Thaayorre," in LCY, 308-14. E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4471
Language: Yir Yoront
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Western
Other Sources: Alpher, Barry. 1976. "Phonological Peculiarities of Yir-Yoront Song Words," in LCY, 78-83.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k ʔ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4472
Language: Kaantyu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: North-Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4473
Language: Umpila
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: nearly extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: North-Eastern
Other Sources: Harris, Barbara P. and Geoffrey N. O'Grady. 1976. "An Analysis of the Progressive Morpheme in Umpila Verbs: A Revision of a Former Attempt," in LCY, 165-212.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k ʔ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t̯ t c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5
Number: 4474
Language: Umpila Dialect: Kuuku-Ya'u
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 175
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: North-Eastern
Other Sources: Thompson, David A. 1976. "A Phonology of Kuuku-Ya'u," in LCY, 213-31.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k ʔ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t̯ t c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ō
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on final v̄, otherwise initial)
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4475
Language: Umbindhamu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Lamalamic
Consonant system:
Number: 4476
Language: Umbuygamu
Location: Australia (Cape York Peninsula)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Lamalamic Grammar: Sommer, Bruce A. 1976. "Umbuygamu: The Classification of a Cape York Peninsula Language," in PL A47, 13-31.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ ɸ θ x m n̯ n ñ ŋ l̯ l r ɹ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ θ x Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syntax: SOV Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4477
Language: Mbariman-Gudhinma
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Lamalamic
Consonant system:
Number: 4478
Language: Lama-Lama
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: nearly extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Lamalamic
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ β ð z ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: β ð z ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Number: 4479
Language: Gugu Warra
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Lamalamic
Consonant system:
Number: 4480
Language: Koko Pera
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Coastal
Consonant system:
Number: 4481
Language: Gog Nar
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Coastal
Other Sources: Breen, J. G. 1976. "An Introduction to Gog-Nar," in LCY, 243-59.
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k β ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t c k Fricatives: β ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4482
Language: Thaypan Alternate Name: Kuku-Thaypan
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Other Sources: Rigsby, Bruce. 1976a. "Kuku-Thaypan Descriptive and Historical Phonology," in LCY, 68-77. Rigsby, Bruce. 1976b. "Possession in Kuku-Thaypan," in LCY, 260-8.
Consonant system: p mb t̯ n̯d̯ t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ β ð ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p mb t̯ n̯d̯ t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ Fricatives: β ð ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Stress: on first vowel following a consonant
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4483
Language: Aghu-Tharnggala
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4484
Language: Gogo Mini
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4485
Language: Dagalag
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4486
Language: Kawarrangg
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4487
Language: Oykangand
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 60
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Central
Other Sources: Sommer, B. A. and E. G. Sommer. 1967. "Kunjen Pronouns and Kinship," in PL A10, 53-9. Sommer, B. A. 1969. Kunjen Phonology: Synchronic and Diachronic. PL B11. Sommer, Bruce A. 1970. "An Australian Language without CV syllables," IJAL 36, 57-8. Sommer, Bruce A. 1972. Kunjen Syntax: A Generative View. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p ph t̯ t̯h t th c ch k kh f (ð) ɣ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r̥ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p ph t̯ t̯h t th c ch k kh Fricatives: f (ð) ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r̥ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o
Syllable: VC(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4488
Language: Kurtjar
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Norman
Consonant system:
Number: 4489
Language: Kuthant
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Norman
Consonant system:
Number: 4490
Language: Walangama
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Norman
Consonant system:
Number: 4491
Language: Gugadj Alternate Name: Kukatj
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 4
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Flinders
Other Sources: Breen, J. G. 1976. "Gugadj and Gog-Nax: A Contrastive Sketch," in LCY, 151-62.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e (ø) Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4492
Language: Agwamin
Location: Australia (Cape York)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Southern
Other Sources: Sutton, Peter. 1976. "The Diversity of Initial Dropping Languages in Southern Cape York," in LCY, 102-23.
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t c k Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4493
Language: Mbabaram
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 3 (1964)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Southern
TextBooks: Dixon, R. M. W. 1966. "Mbabaram: A Dying Australian Language," BSOAS 29, 97-121.
Other Sources: Dixon, R. M. W. 1970. "Languages of the Cairns Rain Forest Region," in PL C13, 651-87.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: cʷ ɡ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɤ ɔ
Syntax: SOV DN Ergative: erg
Number: 4494
Language: Mbara
Location: Australia
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Southern
Other Sources: Sutton, Peter. 1976. "The Diversity of Initial Dropping Languages in Southern Cape York," in LCY, 102-23.
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k (ð) (z) m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t c k Fricatives: (ð) (z) Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4495
Language: Mayi-Kutuna
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Mayabic
Consonant system:
Number: 4496
Language: Mayi-Kulan
Location: NE Australia (NW Queensland)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Paman: Mayabic
Consonant system:
Number: 4497
Language: Guugu Yimidhirr
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 600
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yalanjic Grammar: de Zwaan, Jan Daniel. 1969. A Preliminary Analysis of Gogo-Yimidjir. Canberra: AIAS. GD: Haviland, John. 1979a. "Guugu Yimidhirr," in HAL 1, 26-180.
Other Sources: Haviland, John B. 1979b. "How to Talk to Your Brother-in-law in Guugu Yimidhirr," in LTS, 160-239.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ (According to de Zwaan (1969), men's speech shows a preference for voiced stop allophones, while women's speech prefers voiceless stop allophones.) m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ (According to de Zwaan (1969), men's speech shows a preference for voiced stop allophones, while women's speech prefers voiceless stop allophones.) Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial (& on v̄)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d(ie) 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 "Free pronouns . . . refer, with few exceptions, to animate beings usually to humans." Haviland 1979a, 65.
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4498
Language: Gugu Yalandyi Alternate Name: Kuku-Yalanji
Location: NE Australia (N Queensland)
Population: 500
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yalanjic Grammar: GD: Oates, William, et al. 1964. Gugu-Yalanji and Wik-Munkan Language Studies. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: Oates, Lynette. 1964. "Distribution of Phonemes and Syllables in Gugu-Yalanji," AL 6:1, 23-6. Hershberger, Ruth. 1964a. "Notes on Gugu-Yalanji Verbs," in PLAA, 35-54. Hershberger, Ruth. 1964b. "Personal Pronouns in Gugu-Yalanji," in PLAA, 55-68. Hershberger, Ruth. 1964c. "-Ku 'then' and -Da 'now' in Gugu-Yalanji," in PLAA, 69-72. Hershberger, Henry. 1964a. "Case Marking Affixes in Gugu-Yalanji," in PLAA, 73-82. Hershberger, Henry. 1964b. "Gugu-Yalanji Noun Phrases," in PLAA, 83-90. Oates, William and Lynette Oates. 1964. "Gugu-Yalanji Linguistic and Anthropological Data," in Gugu-Yalanji and Wik-Munkan Language Studies, 1-17. Hershberger, Ruth. 1970. "Sentence Types in Gugu-Yalanji," in PL C13, 811-24. Hershberger, Henry and Eunice V. Pike. 1970. "Stress as Related to the Grammar of Gugu-Yalanji," in PL C13, 791-810.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: human nouns have reduplicated plurals
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 5 is sometimes used as an honorific 2 by men in a brother-in-law relationship to each other.
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4499
Language: Dyaabugay Alternate Name: Djabugay
Location: NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yidinyic
Other Sources: Hale, Kenneth. 1976. "Tyaˑpukay (Djaabugay)," in LCY, 236-42. WALS
Consonant system: p t c k m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ Stops: p t c k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4500
Language: Yidiny
Location: NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yidinyic Grammar: Dixon, R. M. W. 1977. A Grammar of Yidiny. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: on 1st v̄; if no v̄, initial Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 *3
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS D+N+Num+A Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4501
Language: Dyirbal
Location: NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Population: 40
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Dyirbalic Grammar: Dixon, R. M. W. 1972. The Dyirbal Language of North Queensland. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Noun Classes: 4: masc, fem, neut1, neut2 Demonstratives: 3 [there are three different forms for downhill & uphill; two forms each (that + yonder) for downriver & upriver; plus one general term for yonder]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N Very free word order: "In almost all cases the words could be arranged in any order." Dixon 1972, 59. Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4502
Language: Warrgamay
Location: NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Dyirbalic
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4503
Language: Nyawaygi
Location: NE Australia (NE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Nyawaygic
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: b (d) ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b (d) ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4504
Language: Wulguru
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Nyawaygic
Consonant system:
Number: 4505
Language: Guwa
Location: EC Australia (WC Queensland)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric
Consonant system:
Number: 4506
Language: Yanda
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric
Consonant system:
Number: 4507
Language: Yirandhali
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric
Consonant system:
Number: 4508
Language: Gunggari
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Kapu
Consonant system:
Number: 4509
Language: Birria
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Kapu
Consonant system:
Number: 4510
Language: Gugu Badhun
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4511
Language: Gudjala
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4512
Language: Yilba
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4513
Language: Biri
Location: NE Australia (E Queensland)
Population: 10
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4514
Language: Giya
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4515
Language: Yiningay
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Number: 4516
Language: Wadjalang
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4517
Language: Gayiri
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4518
Language: Gangulu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4519
Language: Bidyara
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4520
Language: Yiman
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4521
Language: Margany
Location: EC Australia (SW Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4522
Language: Guwamu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Maric: Mari
Consonant system:
Number: 4523
Language: Darambal Alternate Name: Dharumbal
Location: E Australia (SE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Kingkel
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4524
Language: Bayali
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Kingkel
Consonant system:
Number: 4525
Language: Gureng Gureng
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Than
Consonant system:
Number: 4526
Language: Gabi
Location: E Australia (SE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Than
Consonant system:
Number: 4527
Language: Wuliwuli
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Miyan
Consonant system:
Number: 4528
Language: Waga
Location: E Australia (SE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Miyan
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4529
Language: Barunggam
Location: E Australia (SE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Miyan
Consonant system:
Number: 4530
Language: Muringam
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Waka-Kabic: Miyan
Consonant system:
Number: 4531
Language: Turrubal
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Durubalic
Consonant system:
Number: 4532
Language: Gowar
Location: E Australia (SE Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Durubalic
Consonant system:
Number: 4533
Language: Gumbaynggir
Location: E Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: 1
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Gumbaynggiric Grammar: GD: Eades, Diana. 1979. "Gumbaynggir," in HAL 1, 244-361.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/(SVO) AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4534
Language: Yaygir
Location: E Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: extinct (1973)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Gumbaynggiric Grammar: GD: Crowley, Terry. 1979. "Yaygir," in HAL 1, 363-84.
Consonant system: b d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r r̥ ɹ̣ Stops: b d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r r̥ ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial, if no v̄; if v̄, on first v̄ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SVO GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4535
Language: Yugambal
Location: E Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: 1
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Kuri Grammar: Sharpe, M. 1969. A Description of the Yugumbir Dialect of Bandjalang. Brisbane: Univ of Brisbane Press.
Consonant system:
Number: 4536
Language: Nganyaywana
Location: SE Australia (NE New South Wales)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Kuri
Consonant system:
Number: 4537
Language: Dyangadi
Location: SE Australia (NE New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Kuri Grammar: GD: Holmer, Nils M. 1966-67. An Attempt Towards a Comparative Grammar of Two Australian Languages, 2 vols. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ c ɟ k ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4538
Language: Gadang
Location: SE Australia (E New South Wales)
Population: almost extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Kuri Grammar: GD: Holmer, Nils M. 1966-67. An Attempt Towards a Comparative Grammar of Two Australian Languages, 2 vols. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ c ɟ k ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ ṛ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 5d=6d Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4539
Language: Awabakal
Location: SE Australia (E New South Wales)
Population: extinct?
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Kuri
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Number: 4540
Language: Gudungura
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4541
Language: Ngarigu
Location: SE Australia (SE New South Wales)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin Grammar: GD: Hercus, Luise A. 1969. The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: initial
Number: 4542
Language: Thawa
Location: SE Australia (SE New South Wales)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin Grammar: Eades, Diana Kelloway. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga Languages of the New South Wales South Coast. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: on 1st v̄; if no v̄, on 1st vowel
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4543
Language: Dyirringany
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin
Consonant system:
Number: 4544
Language: Dhurga
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin
Consonant system:
Number: 4545
Language: Dharawal
Location: SE Australia (SE New South Wales)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yuin Grammar: Eades, Diana Kelloway. 1976. The Dharawal and Dhurga Languages of the New South Wales South Coast. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: on 1st v̄; if no v̄, on 1st vowel
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4546
Language: Darkinyung
Location: SE Australia (E New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yora
Consonant system:
Number: 4547
Language: Dharuk
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yuin-Kuric: Yora
Consonant system:
Number: 4548
Language: Gamilaraay
Location: SE Australia (NC New South Wales)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wiradhuric
Other Sources: LOA AL 8:2
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 4549
Language: Gamilaraay Dialect: Yuwaalaraay
Location: SE Australia (NC New South Wales)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wiradhuric Grammar: GD: Williams, Corinne J. 1980. A Grammar of Yuwaalaraay. PL B74.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ñ ŋ l r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ā ū Diphthongs: ai ɛi
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: by and large predictable from the phonemic shapes of words
Noun
Number: s (d) p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d(ie) 4(ie) 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN/(NG) DN/(ND) NUM-N N/POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: POST Comments: d̯ and n̯ are lamino-dental, "produced with the tongue tip behind the lower teeth, and the blade touching the upper teeth and alveolar ridge." p. 19 ɟ and ñ are palatal, produced with the blade touching the soft palate. "The most frequently occrring word order for transitive sentences is [SOV]. This order was recorded in 65% of 150 sentences." p. 93 OVS, SVO and VSO are also found.
Number: 4550
Language: Ngiyambaa Dialect: Waljwan
Location: SE Australia (C New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wiradhuric
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4551
Language: Wiradhuri
Location: SE Australia (S New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wiradhuric
Consonant system:
Number: 4552
Language: Baagandji Alternate Name: Paakantyi
Location: SE Australia (W New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Baagandji
Other Sources: Wurm, S. A. and L. Hercus. 1976. "Tense-marking in Gunu Pronouns," in PL A47, 33-55. WALS
Consonant system: Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4553
Language: Yotayota
Location: SE Australia (S New South Wales)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yotayotic
Consonant system:
Number: 4554
Language: Yabula-Yabula
Location: SE Australia (SW New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Yotayotic
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4555
Language: Wemba Wemba
Location: SE Australia (N Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin Grammar: Hercus, Luise A. 1969. The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u (o) Diphthongs: ai Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p [usually not used] Demonstratives: 4: [3 + that far away]
Pronouns: 1 4die 4te 4ie 2 5t 5 *3 *6t *6
Syntax: VOS AN GN/NG DN N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4556
Language: Wemba Wemba Dialect: Wergaia
Location: SE Australia (N Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin Grammar: GD: Hercus, Luise A. 1969. The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: Hercus, Luise A. 1974. "Texts in Victorian Languages," in PL A37, 13-43. WALS WPF
Consonant system: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: b d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: ai au ui ua ie Stress: initial
Noun
Number: (s, d, p) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS AN/(NA) NG DN NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4557
Language: Wemba Wemba Dialect: Madhi-Madhi
Location: SE Australia (N Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin Grammar: GD: Hercus, Luise A. 1969. The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ŋ (l̯) l ḷ r Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ŋ Laterals: (l̯) l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: ai au ui Stress: mostly initial Demonstratives: 4: [3 + far away]
Syntax: VOS AN GN(anim)/NG(inanim) DN NUM-N N-POSS D+N+A Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4558
Language: Nari Nari
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin
Consonant system:
Number: 4559
Language: Wathawurung
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 4560
Language: Kolakngat
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin
Consonant system:
Number: 4561
Language: Wuywurrung Alternate Name: Daguwuru
Location: SE Australia (C Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Kulin Grammar: GD: Hercus, Luise A. 1969. The Languages of Victoria: A Late Survey. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ṛ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4562
Language: Bungandidj
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Bungandidj
Consonant system:
Number: 4563
Language: Kuurn Kopan Noot
Location: SE Australia (SW Victoria)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kulinic: Bungandidj
Consonant system:
Number: 4564
Language: Ngarinyeri Alternate Name: Tanganekald Dialect: Narrinyeri
Location: S Australia (SE South)
Population: Narrinyeri D. extinct (1964)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic Grammar: GD: Yallop, Colin. 1975. "The Narinjari Language 1864-1964," OLM 17, 1-109.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m (n̯) n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɾ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m (n̯) n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ɨ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: aj aw
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s (d) p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(alien)/N-POSS(inalien) Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4565
Language: Ngayawung
Location: S Australia (SE South)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
Consonant system:
Number: 4566
Language: Yuyu
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
Consonant system:
Number: 4567
Language: Keramin
Location: SE Australia (SW New South Wales)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
Consonant system:
Number: 4568
Language: Yitha-Yitha
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic
Consonant system:
Number: 4569
Language: Lhanima
Location: C Australia (W Queensland)
Population: extinct?
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Palku
Consonant system:
Number: 4570
Language: Pitta-Pitta
Location: C Australia (W Queensland)
Population: The Pitta-Pitta dialect is virtually extinct, but other dialects have speakers remaining.
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Palku Grammar: GD: Blake, Barry J. 1979. "Pitta-Pitta," in HAL 1, 182-242.
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6 Any animal, including humans, of the female sex must be referred to by the feminine pronoun. Every other entity must be referred to by the 'masculine' pronoun." Blake 1979,193.
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4571
Language: Arabana
Location: SC Australia (C South Australia)
Population: few
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Arabana
TextBooks: Hercus, L. A. 1972. "The Pre-Stopped Nasal and Lateral Consonants," AL 14, 293-305.
Other Sources: AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4572
Language: Midhaga
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna
Consonant system:
Number: 4573
Language: Garuwali
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna
Consonant system:
Number: 4574
Language: Yarluyandi
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna
Consonant system:
Number: 4575
Language: Ngamini
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna
Consonant system:
Number: 4576
Language: Yandruwandha
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna
Consonant system:
Number: 4577
Language: Diyari
Location: EC Australia (NE South)
Population: 15
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Karna Grammar: Austin, Peter. 1981. A Grammar of Diyari, South Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Trefry, D. 1970. "The Phonological Word in Dieri," in Linguistic Trends in Australia, ed. by D. C. Laycock, Canberra, AIAS, 65-73.
Consonant system: p t̯ t d ṭ ḍ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t d ṭ ḍ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: f F (= non-feminine) Demonstratives: 4 (3 + distant) + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3fF 6d 6 F=non-fem
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Youngest fluent speaker is around 50; children no longer learn it. "It will become extinct within a generation." p. 13
Number: 4578
Language: Wangkumara Dialect: Galali
Location: EC Australia (SW Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Ngura Grammar: GD: McDonald, M. and S. A. Wurm. 1979. Basic Materials in Wankumara (Galali): Grammar, Sentences and Vocabulary. PL B65.
Consonant system: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p b t̯ d̯ t d ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: dual, non-dual Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mP* 6d 6 *apparently two forms: masc, plain
Syntax: SVO/(SOV) AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4579
Language: Badjiri
Location: EC Australia (S Queensland)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Ngura
Consonant system:
Number: 4580
Language: Bidjara
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Ngura
Consonant system:
Number: 4581
Language: Malyangaba
Location: S Australia (E South)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Yarli
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Number: 4582
Language: Yardliwarra
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Karnic: Yarli
Consonant system:
Number: 4583
Language: Wagaya
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wagaya-Warluwaric
Consonant system:
Number: 4584
Language: Yindjilandji
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wagaya-Warluwaric
Consonant system:
Number: 4585
Language: Warluwara
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Wagaya-Warluwaric
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4586
Language: Kalkatungu
Location: EC Australia (W Queensland)
Population: 12
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kalkatungic Grammar: GD: Blake, Barry J. 1969. The Kalkatungu Language. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3: close (in front), close (beside, behind, above, below), far
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3hai 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4587
Language: Yalarnnga Alternate Name: Jalanga
Location: EC Australia (W Queensland)
Population: 1
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: Kalkatungic
Other Sources: Blake, Barry J. 1971. "Jalanga: An Outline Morphology," in POLAA, 12-27.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ñ ŋ l̯ l r Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3: near (in front), near (oblique, i.e. beside, above, below, behind), far
Pronouns: 1 4d(i) 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 4di=4d+4
Syntax: SOV NA DN/ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: The corpus is small and other phonemes may occur in the language. e.g. nˈ lˈ.
Number: 4588
Language: Kaititj
Location: C Australia (SC Northern Territory)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: Arandic
Other Sources: LOA
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: cN (prestopped nasals) = m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Glides: j w ɯ̯ Central Vowels: ǝ a
Number: 4589
Language: Alyawarra
Location: C Australia (SC Northern Territory)
Population: 500
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: Arandic Grammar: GD: Yallop, Colin. 1977. Alyawarra: An Aboriginal Language of Central Australia. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p t̯h t ṭ c k ɣ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯h t ṭ c k Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: cN (nasally released consonants) p t̯h t ṭ c k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ i (u) Diphthongs: aj (aw)
Syllable: (C)(W)V(C), Nˈ Stress: on 1st vowel following first C in word (= initial/second)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die* 4ie* 2 5d* 5* 3 6d* 6* *Every Alyawarra belongs to one of four sections: an individual's section is determined by, but is not the same as, his mother's section. . . Most dual and plural personal pronouns exist in three forms. Form I is used if the persons referred to by the pronouns are both (all) of one section; form II is used if the persons referred to are not of one section but are both (all) within the same section-pair. . .; form III is used where neither I nor II is appropriate, that is, where at least two of the persons referred to are of different section-pairs." Yallop 1977, 4-5.
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4590
Language: Aranda Alternate Name: Arrarnta Dialect: Southern
Location: C Australia (S Northern Territory)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: Arandic
Other Sources: AL 8:2 LOA WALS WPF
Consonant system: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ ɣ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: b d̯ d ḍ ɟ ɡ Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: cN (nasally released consonants) ? Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4di1i2e 4i1i2e 2 5di1i2e 5i1i2e 3 6d 6 "The i#1 is used when the referents belong to the same marriage class, the i#2 is used when the referents are part of separate marriage classes on the same side of the moiety, and the e is used when there is at least one person from the other half of the moeity." WPF
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4591
Language: Lower Aranda
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: Arandic
Consonant system:
Number: 4592
Language: Walmajarri Alternate Name: Wolmeri
Location: NW Australia (N Western)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngumbin
Other Sources: Hudson, Joyce and Eirlys Richards. 1969. "The Phonology of Walmatjari," OL 8, 171-89. WPF
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 4593
Language: Djaru
Location: NC Australia (W Northern)
Population: 200
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngumbin
Consonant system:
Number: 4594
Language: Gurindji
Location: NC Australia (NC Northern Territory)
Population: 250
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngumbin
Consonant system:
Number: 4595
Language: Mudburra
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngumbin
Consonant system:
Number: 4596
Language: Ngarinman
Location: NC Australia (NW Northern)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngumbin
Consonant system:
Number: 4597
Language: Garadyari
Location: NW Australia (N Western Australia)
Population: 35
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Marngu Grammar: Capell, A. 1962. Some Linguistic Types in Australia. OLM 7.
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4598
Language: Mangarla
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Marngu
Consonant system:
Number: 4599
Language: Nyangumarta
Location: NW Australia (N Western Australia)
Population: 700
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Marngu Grammar: O'Grady, Geoffrey N. 1964. Nyangumata Grammar. OLM 9.
Other Sources: O'Grady, G. N. 1960. "New Concepts in Nyangumadˈa: Some Data on Linguistic Acculturation," AL 2:1, 1-6. O'Grady, Geoffrey N. and Kathleen A. Mooney. 1973. "Nyangumarda Kinship Terminology," AL 15, 1-23. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4600
Language: Ngarla
Location: W Australia (NW Western Australia)
Population: 6
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p (t̯)* t ṭ c k (*Lamino-dentals merged with lamino-palatals in the 20th century.) m (n̯)* n ṇ ñ ŋ (l̯)* l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p (t̯)* t ṭ c k (*Lamino-dentals merged with lamino-palatals in the 20th century.) Nasals: m (n̯)* n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: (l̯)* l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4601
Language: Nyamal
Location: W Australia (NW Western Australia)
Population: 20
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p (t̯)* t ṭ c k (Lamino-dentals in some idiolects only.) m (n̯)* n ṇ ñ ŋ (l̯)* l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p (t̯)* t ṭ c k (Lamino-dentals in some idiolects only.) Nasals: m (n̯)* n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: (l̯)* l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4602
Language: Nyiyabali Alternate Name: Balyku
Location: W Australia (NW Western Australia)
Population: 50
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: (v̄)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4603
Language: Tjurruru
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Consonant system:
Number: 4604
Language: Kariyarra
Location: W Australia (NW Western Australia)
Population: 40
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: Brandenstein, C. G von. 1970. Narratives from the North-West of Western Australia, 3 vols. Canberra: AIAS. AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4605
Language: Martuyhunira
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4606
Language: Nhuwala
Location: W Australia (W Western)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Consonant system:
Number: 4607
Language: Yindjibarndi
Location: W Australia (NW Western Australia)
Population: 200
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Other Sources: AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k ð m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Fricatives: ð Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4608
Language: Binigura
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngayarda
Consonant system:
Number: 4609
Language: Wariyangga
Location: W Australia (W Western)
Population: extinct
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Mantharda
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Number: 4610
Language: Djwarli
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Mantharda
Consonant system:
Number: 4611
Language: Thargari
Location: W Australia (W Western Australia)
Population: 12
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Mantharda
Other Sources: Klokeid, Terry J. 1969. Thargari Phonology and Morphology. PL B12. AL 8:2
Consonant system: ph b t̯h d ṭh ḍ ch ɟ kh ɡ d̯ð ð m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: ph b t̯h d ṭh ḍ ch ɟ kh ɡ Affricates: d̯ð Fricatives: ð Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ū ɑ̄
Syllable: CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4612
Language: Dhalandji
Location: W Australia (W Western Australia)
Population: 60
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kanyara
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4613
Language: Bayungu
Location: W Australia (W Western Australia)
Population: 20
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kanyara
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 ? ? Ergative: erg
Number: 4614
Language: Yinggarda Alternate Name: Yingkarta
Location: W Australia (W Western Australia)
Population: 10
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kardu
Other Sources: AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO Ergative: erg
Number: 4615
Language: Maya
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kardu
Consonant system:
Number: 4616
Language: Malgana
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kardu
Consonant system:
Number: 4617
Language: Nhanda
Location: W Australia (W Western Australia)
Population: 2
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Kardu
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k ʔ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k ʔ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV N-POSS Ergative: erg
Number: 4618
Language: Wadjari Dialect: Badimaya
Location: W Australia (WC Western)
Population: 100
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wadjari
Other Sources: AL 8:2 WALS
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4619
Language: Wirdimay
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wadjari
Consonant system:
Number: 4620
Language: Karlamay
Location: Australia
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wadjari
Consonant system:
Number: 4621
Language: Karlamay
Location: SW Australia (SW Western Australia)
Population: 2 (1969)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wadjari
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Number: 4622
Language: Wirangu
Location: S Australia (S South)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati
Consonant system:
Number: 4623
Language: Warnman Alternate Name: Wanman
Location: WC Australia (NC Western Australia)
Population: 100
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6 Ergative: erg
Number: 4624
Language: Western Desert Language Dialect: Pitjantjatjara
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000 (2,000)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati Grammar: Glass, Amee and Dorothy Hackett. 1970. Pitjantjatjara Grammar. Canberra: AIAS.
Other Sources: Glass, Amee and Dorothy Hackett. 1969. Pitjantjatjara Texts. Canberra: AIAS. Glass, Amee and Dorothy Hackett. 1979. Ngaanyatjarra Texts. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ k m n̯ n ṇ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+D+A+Num Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4625
Language: Western Desert Language Alternate Name: Ngaanyatjarra Dialect: Warburton Ranges
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati Dictionary: Douglas, W. H. 1977. Illustrated Topical Dictionary of the Western Desert Language. Canberra: AIAS. Grammar: Douglas, W. H. 1964. An Introduction to the Western Desert Language. OLM 4.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ k m n̯ n ṇ ŋ l̯ l ḷ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4626
Language: Western Desert Language Dialect: Pintupi
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000 (800)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati
Other Sources: Hansen, K. C. and L. E. Hansen. 1969. "Pintupi Phonology," OL 8, 153-70. LOA
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɹ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Number: 4627
Language: Western Desert Language Dialect: Gugada
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000 (almost extinct)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati Grammar: Platt, John T. 1972. An Outline Grammar of the Gugada Dialect. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ k m n̯ n ṇ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4628
Language: Western Desert Language Dialect: Yulbaridja
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4629
Language: Western Desert Language Dialect: Mantjiltjara
Location: W Australia (E Western)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Wati
Other Sources: Marsh, James. 1969. "Mantjiltjara Phonology," OL 8, 131-52.
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Number: 4630
Language: Warlmanpa Alternate Name: Walmanba
Location: C Australia (W Northern Territory)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngarga
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4631
Language: Warlpiri
Location: C Australia (W Northern Territory)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngarga Dictionary: Reece, Laurie. 1975. Dictionary of the Wailbri (Walpiri) Language of Central Australia. OLM 19. Grammar: Capell, A. 1962. Some Linguistic Types in Australia. OLM 7. Reece, Laurie. 1970. Grammar of the Wailbri Language of Central Australia. OLM 13.
TextBooks: Hale, Kenneth. 1973. "Person Marking in Walbiri," in A Festschrift for Morris Halle, ed. by Stephen R. Anderson and Paul Kiparsky, New York, Holt, Rinehart Winston, 308-44.
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ r ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t ṭ c k Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4 [3 + that very far] + ref
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4632
Language: Ngardi
Location: C Australia (W Northern Territory)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngarga
Other Sources: Jagst, Lothar. 1975. "Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Phonology," in PL A39, 21-57. WPF
Consonant system: p mb t nd ṭ ṇḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ ɾ ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p mb t nd ṭ ṇḍ c ñɟ k ŋɡ Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: initial
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4633
Language: Nyungar
Location: SW Australia (SW Western)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Nyungar Grammar: GD: Douglas, Wilfred H. 1976. The Aboriginal Languages of the South-West of Australia. Canberra: AIAS.
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ k m n̯ n ṇ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣̣ Modified Consonants: cʷ p t k Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(N)(C) Stress: initial Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4634
Language: Nyungar Dialect: Wadjuk
Location: SW Australia (SW Western)
Classification: Australia: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Nyungar
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4d* 4 2 5d* 5 3 6d* g *4d has four forms: (1) siblings, (2) parent & child, uncle & nephew, (3) husband & wife, (4) brothers-in-law; 5d has two forms: (1) siblings, or parent & child, (2) husband & wife; 6d has three forms: (1) siblings, (2) parent & child, (3) husband & wife. Ergative: erg
Number: 4635
Language: Ngadjunmaya Alternate Name: Mirning
Location: SW Australia (S Western Australia)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Ngadjunmaya
Other Sources: AL 8:2
Consonant system: p t̯ t ṭ c k m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ r ɹ̣ Stops: p t̯ t ṭ c k Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4636
Language: Adynyamathanha
Location: S Australia (E South Australia)
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Yura
Other Sources: Schebeck, B. 1973. "The Adnjamathanha Personal Pronoun and the 'Wailpi Kinship System'," in PL A36, 1-45. Schebeck, B. 1974. Texts on the Social System of the Atynyamat̯an̯a People with Grammatical Notes. PL D21.
Consonant system: p t̯ (d̯) t ṭ c k (ʔ) v m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ l̯ l ḷ ʎ ɾ r ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Stops: p t̯ (d̯) t ṭ c k (ʔ) Fricatives: v Nasals: m n̯ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̯ l ḷ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r ɾ̣ ɹ̣̣ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4637
Language: Banggarla
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Yura
Consonant system:
Number: 4638
Language: Kaurna
Location: Australia
Classification: Australian: Pama-Nyungan: South-West: Yura
Consonant system:

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