Типологии праязыков индоевропейской семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по праязыкам индо-хеттских языковых групп
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Индоевропейской семьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено 11 языковых ветвей, происходящих от праиндоевропейского языка:

  1. Обзор типа языка-основы Индо-хеттской семьи (Proto-Indo-European)
  2. Обзоры типологий анатолийских языков (Anatolian)
  3. Обзоры типологий армянских языков (Armenian)
  4. Обзоры типологий арийских языков (Indo-Iranian)
  5. Обзоры типологий албанских диалектов (Albanian)
  6. Обзоры типологий греческих языков (Greek)
  7. Обзоры типологий тохарских языков (Tocharian)
  8. Обзоры типологий итало-романских языков (Italic)
  9. Обзоры типологий кельтских языков (Celtic)
  10. Обзоры типологий германских языков (Germanic)
  11. Обзоры типологий балтских языков (Baltic)
  12. Обзоры типологий славянских языков (Slavic)

Жаль, в базе нет типосводки по редким палеобалканским языкам - венетскому, иллирийскому, фракийскому, фригийскому.

Также смотрите сведения по индоевропейскому языковедению (индоевропеистике).


Обзор типа языка-основы Индо-хеттской семьи (Proto-Indo-European)

Смотрите и сам Праиндоевропейский этимологический словарь. Он составлен С. Л. Николаевым на основе словаря А. Вальде и Ю. Покорного; анатолийский (хеттский) и тохарский материал добавлены из других источников С. Л. Николаевым и С. А. Старостиным. Подчиненные файлы включают балтийскую и германскую базы данных (также составлены С. Л. Николаевым), а также сканированные, распознанные и переведенные в формат базы данных электронные версии этимологического словаря русского языка М. Фасмера (в настоящее время она замещает сравнительную базу по славянским языкам) и собственно "нетронутого" словаря Ю. Покорного. NB: индоевропейские реконструкции в базе С. Л. Николаева в целом согласуются с более "традиционной" моделью индоевропейской фонологии, не злоупотребляющей ларингальными фонемами (за исключением тех случаев, когда реконструкция ларингала подтверждается напрямую анатолийскими данными). Во многих случаях, однако, "многослойные" этимологии Вальде-Покорного были разбиты на большое количество отдельных, независимых входов, тем самым устраняя неоправданный перевес "первичных" глагольных корней.

Number: 1652
Language: Proto-Indo-European
Location: Ukraine
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European Grammar: Meillet, A. 1937. Introduction à l'étude des langues indo-européennes. Paris. Hudson-Williams, T. 1935. A Short Introduction to the Study of çomparative Grammar (Indo-European). Cardiff: Univ of Wales Press.
Other Sources: CTIL 9, 122.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ (b) b̤ d̪ d̪̣ ɡ ɡ̤ ɡʷ ɡ̤ʷ s h m n̪ l r Stops: p (b) b̤ t̪ d̪ d̪̤ k ɡ ɡ̤ kʷ ɡʷ ɡ̤ʷ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ɡ̤ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ei oi ai eu ou au
Syllable: mˈ nˈ lˈ rˈ
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: PREP/POST

Обзоры типологий анатолийских языков (Anatolian)

Number: 1647
Language: Hittite
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct (c. 1300 B.C.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian Grammar: Sturtevant, Edgar H. 1951. A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts s x h ɣ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common(=m+f) neuter
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1648
Language: Palaic
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1649
Language: Lydian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1650
Language: Luwian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian Dictionary: Laroche, Emmanuel. 1959. Dictionnaire de la langue louvite. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Number: 1651
Language: Lycian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV

Обзоры типологий армянских языков (Armenian)

Number: 1653
Language: Classical Armenian Alternate Name: Grabar
Location: Armenia
Population: extinct (c. 1300 B.C.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian Dictionary: Meillet, A. 1936. Esquisse d'une grammaire comparée de l'arménien classique. Vienna: Mekhitharistes. Grammar: Jensen, Hans. 1959. Altarmenische Grammatik. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Tumanjan, E. G. 1971. Drevnearmjanskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Damme, Dirk van. 1974. A Short Classical Armenian Grammar. Fribourg: Univ Press. Mann, Stuart E. 1968. An Armenian Historical Grammar in Latin Characters. London: Luzac.
Other Sources: Mann, Stuart E. 1963. Armerian and Indo-European. London: Luzac.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ ts tsh č čh dz ɡ̌ (f) s š x h v z ž (ɣ) m n̪ l lɯ ɾ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: aj aw ea ew iw oj ja eaj iaj
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1654
Language: Armenian Dialect: East
Location: Armenia
Population: 6 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian Grammar: Tumanjan, E. G. 1966. "Armjanskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 562-98.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h tʔ kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ čh čʔ dz ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l ɾ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h tʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (d) p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1655
Language: Armenian Dialect: West
Location: E Turkey
Population: 6 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST

Обзоры типологий арийских языков (Indo-Iranian)

Number: 1658
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Classical
Location: N India
Population: c. 400 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Dictionary: Monier-Williams, Monier. 1976. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Apte, Vaman Shivram. 1974. The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Grammar: Gonda, Jan. 1966. A Concise Elementary Grammar of the Sanskrit Language. University, Alabama: Univ of Alabama Press. Renou, Louis. 1968. Grammaire sanskrite. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.
TextBooks: Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. 1966. First Book of Sanskrit. Bombay: Karnatak. Allen, W. S. 1953. Phonetics in Ancient India. London: Oxford Univ Press. Emeneau, M. B. and B. A. van Nooten. 1968. Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises. Berkeley: Univ of Califonia Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ d̤̣ ɟ ɟ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ s̪ ṣ š h v ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ c ch ɟ ɟ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6dmfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1659
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Vedic
Location: N India
Population: c. 1,000 BC
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Grammar: Macdonell, A. A. 1910. Vedic Grammar. Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ṣ š h v m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h l r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: mˈ lˈ rˈ
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6dmfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1660
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Pali
Location: India (Bihar)
Population: c. 400 B. C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Grammar: Higashimoto, Keiki, 1967. An Elementary Grammar of the Pali Language. Tokyo: Research Institute of the Pali Literature, Komazawa Univ.
TextBooks: Warder, A. K. 1974. Introduction to Pali. London: Pali Text Society.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ v ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ ḷ̤ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ ḷ̤ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1661
Language: Romany Dialect: Iranian
Location: NW Iran
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Windfuhr, Gernot L. 1970. "European Gypsy in Iran: A First Report," AL 12, 271-92.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f s š x h v z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1662
Language: Romany Dialect: Czechoslovakian
Location: Czechoslovakia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Miltner, Vladimı́r. 1965. "The Morphologic Strutcure of a New Indo-Aryan Language of Czechoslovakia," IL 26, 106-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th c ch k kh b d ɟ ɡ ts č čh dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p ph b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō Stress: penult Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 1663
Language: Romany Dialect: Baltic
Location: Estonia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany Grammar: Venttsel', T. V. 1966. "Tsyganskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 630-51.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č (d̪z) ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) (d̪z) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but ph ts dz č ɡ̌ f z š ž Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ǝ o ɑ Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO AN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1664
Language: Romany Dialect: Wales
Location: Wales
Population: 1 million (extinct)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Lockwood, W. B. 1975. Languages of the British Isles Past and Present. London: Andre Duetsch.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ r Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all?
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1665
Language: Maldivian
Location: Maldive Islands
Population: 130,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Sinhalese-Maldivian
Other Sources: De Silva, M. W. Sugathapala. 1969. "The Phonological Efficiency of the Maldivian Writing system," AL 11, 199-208.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b mb d nd ḍ nḍ ɡ ŋɡ f s š h v z m n (ñ) l ḷ r Stops: p b mb t d nd ṭ d nḍ k ɡ ŋɡ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɐ̄ ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ei eu ui ou oi
Number: 1666
Language: Sinhalese
Location: Sri Lanka
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Singhalese-Maldivian Dictionary: Malalasekera, G. P. 1967. English-Sinhalese Dictionary. Colombo, Ceylon: M. D. Gunasena.
TextBooks: Garusinghe, Dayaratne. 1962. Sinhalese: The Spoken Idiom. Munich: Max Hueber.
Other Sources: Coates, William A. and M. W. S. de Silva. 1960. "The Segemental Phonemes of Sinhalese," Univ of Ceylon Review 18, 163-75. Gair, James W. 1966. "Colloquial Sinhalese Inflectional Categories and Parts of Speech," IL 27, 31-45. Gair, James W. 1970. Colloquial Sinhalese Clause Structures. The Hague: Mouton. Karunatilake, W. S. and S. Suseendirarajah. 1973. "Phonology of Sinhalese and Sri Lanka Tamil," IL 34, 180-90.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k b mb d̪ nd̪ ḍ nḍ ɡ ŋɡ č ɡ̌ s (š) h v m n ñ l r Stops: p b mb t̪ d̪ nd̪ ṭ ḍ nḍ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s (š) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3hmfi *6hai 3: hum, masc anim, fem anim, inan; 6: hum, an, inan politeness: numerous second person pronouns implying various degrees of respect and differential status.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N (1)/N-NUM (2,3,...) POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1667
Language: Bashkarik
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1940. "Notes on Bashkarik," Acta Orientalia 18, 206-57.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ s ṣ š x h z ž ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l ʎ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai
Tones: ris fall Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN DN POSS-N
Number: 1668
Language: Maiya
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 1669
Language: Tirahi
Location: E Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1934. "Notes on Tirahi, " Acta Orientalia 12, 161-89.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1670
Language: Torwali
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1930. "Notes on Torwali," Acta orientalia 8, 294-310.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ s š x h z ž ɣ m n l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1671
Language: Wotapuri
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Grammar: DG: Buddruss, Georg. 1960. Die Sprache von Wotˈapur und Katˈarqala. Bonn: Orientalischen Seminars, Univ Bonn.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh dz ɡ̌ (f) s (ṣ) š x h z ɣ m n ṇ l ɬ̣ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z (ṣ) š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ɬ̣ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: aī au āē aū āī āu āū eā ēu īu ui ūī ūē uō ūo nasal diphthongs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1672
Language: Kalasha
Location: N Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Chitral
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1673
Language: Khowar
Location: N Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Chitral
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1674
Language: Dameli
Location: N Pakistan (S Chitral)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: GD: Morgenstierne, G. 1942. "Notes on Dameli," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 12, 115-98.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh (q) b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh s ṣ š x (χ) (h) z (ẓ) ž (ɣ) m n ṇ (ŋ) l r ɹ́ ɹ́ is a palatal fricative. Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ (q) Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: s z ṣ (ẓ) š ž x (ɣ) (χ) (h) Nasals: m n ṇ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ́ (palatal fricative) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: u ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Tones: lo-ris hi-fall
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 1=4
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1675
Language: Gawar-bati
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1950. Notes on Gawar-bati. Oslo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č ɡ̌ s ṣ š (x) h z ž (ɣ) m n ṇ l ɬ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž (x) (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ ṭ ḍ l ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl restricted to animate beings and relatives) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1676
Language: Shumashti
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar
Consonant system:
Number: 1677
Language: Nangalami
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar
Consonant system:
Number: 1678
Language: Pashai Dialect: Southwest
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Other Sources: AL 7:8.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh q b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ (t̪s) ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ ẓ ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ (ŋ) l̪ r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ q Affricates: (t̪s) ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ ṣ ẓ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ (ŋ) Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) (æ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai āi oi ui ūi au āu ōu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1679
Language: Pashai Dialect: Southeast
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ ɣ m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ š x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ǣ ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: GN N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1680
Language: Pashai Dialect: Northwest
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ ṭh k kh q b d̪ ḍ (d̪̤) č čh ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ (ẓ) ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ (d̪̤) ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ (ẓ) š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: (m f) (gender is present in only some NW dialects.) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1681
Language: Pashai Dialect: Northeast
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k b d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s ṭs (ṭsh) č čh ɡ̌ s̪ ṣ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ k ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s ṭs (ṭsh) č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ ṣ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: diphthongs
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1682
Language: Dumaki
Location: N Pakistan (Hunza)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina Grammar: DG: Lorimer, D. L. R. 1939. The Dumaki Language. Nijmegen: Dekker & van de Vegt.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k q b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh č̣ č̣h č čh ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š (x) z ẓ̌ (ɣ) m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts tsh č̣ č̣h ɡ̣̌ č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š (x) (ɣ) Nasals: m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: æi æI au ɔi
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1683
Language: Phalura
Location: N Pakistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1941. Notes on Phalura. Oslo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh dz ḍz ɡ̌ s ṣ š x h z ž (ɣ) m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai Stress: on first long syllable from end of word
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 6: 3 + that very distant, that above, that below
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1684
Language: Shina Alternate Name: Brokskat, Savi
Location: N Pakistan (Jammu)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ṭs ṭsh č čh ḍz ɡ̌ f s ṣ š h v z ẓ ž m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ ẓ š ž h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Tones: lev lo-ris
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1685
Language: Kashmiri
Location: N India (Kashmir)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina
Other Sources: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1941. "The Phonology of Kashmiri," Acta Orientalia 19, 79-99. Kelkar, Ashok R. and Pran Nath Trisal. 1964. "Kashmiri Word Phonology: A First Sketch," AL 6:1, 13-22. Handoo, Jawaharlal. 1973. Kashmiri Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. AL 7:8 CTIL 5, 293. WPF
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s t̪sh č čh ɡ̌ s š h v z m n l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but č čh ɡ̌ š j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all (ɔ̄ marɡinal) Nasal Vowels: ẽ ǝ̃ ã ũ õ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ɨ̃̄ ǝ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1686
Language: Marathi
Location: W India (Maharashtra)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Dictionary: Deshpande, Madhav K. 1968. Marathi-English Dictionary. Poona: Suvichar Prakashan Mandal. Grammar: Apte, Mahadeo Laxman. 1962. A Sketch of Marathi Transformational Grammar. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Diss.
Other Sources: James, A. Lloyd and S. G. Kanhere. 1928. "The Pronunciation of Marathi," BSOAS 4, 791-801. Kelkar, Ashok Ramchandra. 1958. The Phonology and Morphology of Marathi. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Diss.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh č čh dz d̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s ṣ š h v m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ l̪ ḷ ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s ṣ š h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ǝ̄ ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn politeness: + 2 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1687
Language: Marathi Dialect: Kasargod
Location: S India ( N Kerala)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South
Other Sources: Ghatage, A. M. 1970. "Marathi of Kasargod," IL 31, 138-44. E
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s (š) (h) v m n ṇ l ṛ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s (š) (h) Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ṛ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1688
Language: Marathi Dialect: Kunabi
Location: India ( W Maharashtra)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Grammar: Ghatage, A. M. 1966. Kunabi of Mahad. Bombay: State Board of Literature and Culture.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s č čh d̪z d̪̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ š h v v̤ m m̤ n n̤ ŋ l̪ l̪̤ r r̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s d̪z d̪̤z č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v v̤ s š h Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ Vibrants: r r̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ɛ̄ ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3fF *6fF F=m+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1689
Language: Konkani
Location: W India (Mysore)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Grammar: Ghatage, A. M. 1963. Konkani of South Kanara. Bombay: State Board for Literature and Culture. Ghatage, A. M. 1968. Konkani of Kankon. Bombay: State Board for Literature and Culture.
Other Sources: Katre, Lalita S. 1970. "Konkani Kinship Terms," IL 31, 149-61.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s č čh d̪z d̪̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s̪ š h v v̤ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ l̪ l̪̤ ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s d̪z d̪̤z č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v v̤ s̪ š h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1690
Language: Sindhi
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 7 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest Grammar: Jegorova, R. P. 1966. Jazyk sindxi. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Bordie, John G. 1958. A Descriptive Sindhi Phonology. Austin: Univ of Texas Diss. Rohra, S. K. 1971. "Sindhi, Kacchi, and Emigrant Sindhi," IL 32, 123-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ ɓ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɗ̣ ʄ ɡ ɡ̤ ɠ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ ɓ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ ɗ̣ ʄ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ɠ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1691
Language: Sindhi Dialect: Katchi
Location: W India (Gujarat)
Population: 7 million (400,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest
Other Sources: Rohra, S. K. 1971. "Sindhi, Kacchi, and Emigrant Sindhi," IL 32, 123-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b ɓ d ḍ ɗ̣ ɟ ʄ ɡ ɠ s h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ ɗ̣ c ch ɟ ʄ k kh ɡ ɠ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Number: 1692
Language: Lahnda
Location: NE Pakistan
Population: 15 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest
Other Sources: Bahri, Hardev. 1963. Lahndi Phonetics. Allahabad: Bharati Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x v z ɣ ɦ m n ṇ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ ĩ̄ ẽ̄ ũ̄ ȭ ɑ̃̄ Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syntax: SOV NUM-N
Number: 1693
Language: Parya
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1694
Language: Baluj Alternate Name: Jatt
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1695
Language: Punjabi Alternate Name: Panjabi
Location: NW India (Panjab)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Gill, Harjeet Singh and Henry A. Gleason, Jr. 1963. A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. HSL 3.
TextBooks: Gill, H. S. and H. A. Gleason, Jr. 1963. A Start in Panjabi. HSL 11.
Other Sources: Gill Harjeet Singh. 1960. "Panjabi Tonemics," AL 2:6, 11-8. Arun, Vidya Bhaskar. 1961. A Comparative Phonology of Hindi and Panjabi. Ludhiana, India: Panjabi Sahitya Akademi.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š v (z̪) ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ (z̪) š ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l v s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: Iǝ Io Iɔ Ia ʋa ǝi ǝe ǝu
Tones: hi-ris mid lo-fall Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 [*6] 6 only in oblique cases; in nominative case 3=6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1696
Language: Marwari Alternate Name: Shekhawati
Location: Pakistan
Population: 220,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1697
Language: Banjari Alternate Name: Lamani, Lambadi
Location: NW India
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: PCSD IV, 4-5. WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1698
Language: Malvi Alternate Name: Rajasthani
Location: NW India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 22 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Bhattacharya, Shefali. 1974. "Malvi Kinship Terms," IL 35, 119-28. E
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s v m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1699
Language: Gujarati
Location: WC India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 23 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Dictionary: Mazmudar, M. A., ed. 1969. Gala's Advanced Dictionary (English-Gujarati ). Gomtipur, India: Gala. Grammar: Cardona, George. 1965. A Gujarati Reference Grammar. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
TextBooks: Lambert, H. M. 1971. Gujarati Language Course. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Pandit, P. B. 1957. "Nasalization, Aspiration and Murmur in Gujarati," IL 17, 165-72. Paudit, Prabodh Bechardas. 1965. Phonemic and Morphemic Frequencies of the Gujarati Language. Poona: Deccan College. Dave, Radhekant. 1967. "A Formant Analysis of the Clear, Nasalized, and Murmured Vowels in Gujarati," IL 28, 1-30. CJIL 5, 117.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s š v ɦ m n̪ ṇ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s š ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: v̤ all ṽ̤ all but e o Diphthongs: aI aʋ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 3 forms of 2: (1) fam, (2) pol, (3) formal.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1700
Language: Bhili Alternate Name: Wagdi Dialect: Bahelia
Location: WC India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 2.7 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Srivastava, G. P. 1968. "Bahelia Phonology," IL 29, 67-79. E WPF
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ h v m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ŋ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ŋ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1701
Language: Gade Lohar
Location: India (Rajasthan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Sharma, Jagdish Chander. 1973. "Nominal and Verbal Inflection in the Dialect of the Gade Lohars," IL 34, 200-10.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ṇ̤ l̪ l̪̤ ḷ ḷ̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s̪ ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ṇ̤ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ ḷ ḷ̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: S P
Noun Classes: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 1702
Language: Khandeshi
Location: N India (Maharashtra)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1703
Language: Hindi Dialect: Bundeli
Location: N India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Jaiswal M. P. 1962. A Linguistic Study of Bundeli. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ v ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ɵ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6 politeness: various honorifics for 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1704
Language: Hindi
Location: NC India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: McGregor, R. S. 1977. Outline of Hindi Grammar. Delhi: Oxford Univ Press.
TextBooks: Bender, Ernest. 1967. Hindi Grammar and Reader. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
Other Sources: Mehrotra, Ramesh Chandra. 1964. "Hindi Phonemes," IL 25, 234-46. Arun, Vidya Bhaskar. 1961. A Comparative Phonology of Hindi and Panjabi. Ludhiana, India: Panjabi Sahitya Akademi.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh (q) b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ (f) s (ṣ) š (x) v (z) (ɣ) ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ l l̤ ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ (q) Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: (f) v s (z) (ṣ) š (x) (ɣ) ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ai au ãi ãu Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) pol, (2) fam, (3) intim.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1705
Language: Hindi Dialect: Bangru
Location: N India (Haryana)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Singh, Jag Deva. 1970. A Descriptive Grammar of Bangru. Kurukshetra, India: Kurukshetra Univ.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s ɦ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ṇ ŋ ɾ̣ ḷ h j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɨ ʉ ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1706
Language: Urdu
Location: Pakistan
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Dictionary: Ferozsons Urdu-English Dictionary. n.d. Karachi: Ferozsons. DT: Bender, Ernest. 1967. Urdu Grammar and Reader. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
TextBooks: Bailey, T. Grahame. 1967. Teach Yourself Urdu. London: English Universities Press. Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman, et al. 1967. A Course in Urdu, 3 vols. Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill Univ.
Other Sources: Bright, William and Saeed A. Khan. 1958. The Urdu Writing System. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x h v z (ž) ɣ m n̪ l ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̤̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ai au ãi ãu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 3 forms of 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1707
Language: Dogri
Location: India Jammu)
Population: 2.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1708
Language: Western Pahari
Location: N India (Jammu)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Varma, Siddheshwar. 1936. "The Rudhari Dialect," IL 6, 128-96.
Consonant system: Modified Consonants: c̄
Tones: hi falling
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 4: this very near/this/that visible/that invisible Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5mf *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1709
Language: Garhwali
Location: N India ( N Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Chandrasekhar, A. 1970. "The Phonemes of Garhwali," IL 31, 80-5. E
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɟ ɟ̣ ɡ ɡ̤ s h m n l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ c ch ɟ ɟ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1710
Language: Kumauni Alternate Name: Johari
Location: N India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Apte, Mahadeo L. and D. P. Pattanayak. 1967. An Outline of Kumauni Grammar. Durham: Duke Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ h m n̪ ṇ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ǝ̃ ã ʋ̃ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Syntax: SOV AN
Number: 1711
Language: Nepali
Location: Nepal
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
TextBooks: Clark, T. W. 1963. Introduction to Nepali. Cambridge, Eng.: W. Heffer & Sons.
Other Sources: Southworth, Franklin C. 1967. Nepali Transformational Structure: A Sketch. Poona: Deccan College. Bandhu, C. M., et al. 1971. Nepali Segmental Phonology. Kirtipur, Nepal: SIL. Hari, Maria. 1973. "Tentative Systematic Organization of Nepali Sentences," in CSDP I, 203-58. Bandhu, Churamani. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Nepali," in CSDP II, 1-79.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh dz d̤z s h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw ǝ̃j ǝ̃w
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 has 3 forms.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1712
Language: Awadhi
Location: NC India ( NW Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 55 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Saksena, Baburam. 1971. Evolution of Awadhi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h ɦ m m̤ n n̤ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1713
Language: Bhojpuri Dialect: Tharu
Location: S Nepal
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Hugoniot, Richard D. and Austin Hale. 1973. "Contra-Expectancy Particles in Tharu Bhojpuri," in CSDP I, 377-87. PCSD, 6-7.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1714
Language: Bhojpuri Alternate Name: Bihari
Location: NE India (Bihar)
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Tiwary, K. M. 1968. "The Echo-word Construction in Bhojpuri," AL 10:4, 32-8. Trammel, Robert L. 1971. "The Phonology of the Northern Standard Dialect of Bhojpuri," AL 13, 126-41. Singh, Kripa Shankar. 1972. "A Sketch of the Hierarchical Structure of Bhojpuri," IL 33, 42-58.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r r̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r r̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N
Number: 1715
Language: Maithili
Location: SE Nepal
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Jha, Subhadra. 1944. "Maithili Phonetics," IL 8,435-59. Davis, Alice I. 1973. "Maithili Sentences," in CSDP I, 259-319. Williams, Jennifer. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Maithili, " in PCSD II, 345-452.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̤ n n̤ ŋ l l̤ ɾ ɾ̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ ŋ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: ǝi ǝu Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 & 5 have 3 forms: (1) honorific, (2) mid-honorific, (3) non-honorific. 3 & 6 have 2 forms: (1) honorific, (2) non-honorific.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1716
Language: Magahi
Location: India (S Bihar)
Population: 11 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1717
Language: Oriya
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern Grammar: Karpushkin, B. M. 1964. Jazyk orija. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1966. A Controlled Historical Reconstruction of Oniya, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. The Hague: Mouton. Majumdar, Paresh Chandra. 1970. A Historical Phonology of Oriya. Calcutta: Sanskrit College.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ v s ɦ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ ẽ ã ũ (õ) ɔ̃ Diphthongs: ǝi ou
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1718
Language: Oriya Dialect: Halbi
Location: E India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (300,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Woods, Fran. 1973. "Sentence Patterns in Halbi," in PCSD I, 35-123.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n l r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1719
Language: Oriya Dialect: Kupia
Location: E India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (6,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Christmas, R. B. and J. E. Christmas. 1973a. "Sentence Patterns in Kupia," in PCSD I, 125-95. Christmas, R. B. and J. E. Christmas. 1973b. "Clause Patterns in Kupia," in PCSD II, 257-343.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ d ɡ ts dz s m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1720
Language: Oriya Dialect: Kotia
Location: India (Andra Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (12,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Gustafsson, Uwe. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Kotia Oriya," in PCSD II, 191-256.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts dz s (h) m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1721
Language: Bengali Dialect: Calcutta
Location: NE India (West Bengal)
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern Dictionary: Mitra, Subal C. 1967. Century Dictionary (Bengali to English). Calcutta: K. C. Mazumder. Dabbs, Jack A. 1965. A Short Bengali-English, English-Bengali Dictionary. College Station: Texas A & M Univ.
TextBooks: Hudson, D. F. 1965. Teach Yourself Bengali. London: English Universities Press. Dimock, Edward, Somdev Bhattacharji and Suhas Chatterjee. 1976. Introduction to Bengali, part I. New Delhi: Manohar.
Other Sources: Ferguson, Charles A. and Munier Chowdhury. 1960. "The Phonemes of Bengali," Lg 36, 22-59.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ (s̪) š h m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: (s̪) š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h ŋ ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 & 5 have 3 forms: (1) honorific, (2) neutral, (3) inferior. 3 & 6 have 2 forms: (1) honorific, (2) plain.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1722
Language: Bengali Dialect: Dacca
Location: Bangladesh
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Sen, Nilmadhav. 1972. "Some Dialects of Bangla Desh," IL 33, 143-52.
Consonant system: p t th ṭ ṭh k kh ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ḍ ɗ̣ ɡ ɠ f s̪ s š (x) h z zʔ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t th d ɗ ṭ ṭh ḍ ɗ̣ k kh ɡ ɠ ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ s z zʔ š (x) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1723
Language: Assamese
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1966. A Controlled Historical Reconstruction of Oriya, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. The Hague: Mouton. WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b b̤ d d̤ ɡ ɡ̤ s x h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k m n ŋ l s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1724
Language: Ashkun
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Other Sources: Strand, Richard F. 1973. "Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic Languages," JAOS 93, 297-305.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts ṭs č dz ɡ̌ s ṣ š v z ẓ ž m n ṇ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz ṭs č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z ṣ ẓ š ž Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Number: 1725
Language: Kalasha-ala
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Consonant system:
Number: 1726
Language: Kati
Location: NE Afghanistan (Kunarha)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
TextBooks: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1951. "Some Kati Myths and Hymns," Acta Orintalia 21, 161-89.
Other Sources: Strand, Richard F. 1973. "Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic Languages," JAOS 93, 297-305.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k (q) (ʔ) b d ḍ ɡ (G) ts ṭs č dz ḍz ɡ̌ m n ṇ ŋ l r ɾ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ (q) (G) (ʔ) Affricates: ts dz ṭs ḍz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Stress: phonemic Articles: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1727
Language: Tregami
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Consonant system:
Number: 1728
Language: Wasi-weri Alternate Name: Prasuni
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1729
Language: Scythian
Location: S Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian
Consonant system:
Number: 1730
Language: Ossetic Dialect: Eastern
Location: Georgia
Population: 593,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian Dictionary: Abaev, V. I. 1950. Russko-osetinskij slovar'. Moscow. Osetinsko-russkij slovar'. 1970. Ordzhonikidze: Ir. Grammar: Abaev, V. I. 1964. A Grammatical Sketch of Ossetic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Isaev, M. I. 1966. "Osetinskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 237-56.
Other Sources: Benveniste, E. 1959. Études sur la langue ossète. Paris. AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s χ v z ʁ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial if syllable contains a strong vowel (i e a o u); otherwise second
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: (def)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1731
Language: Ossetic Dialect: Western
Location: Georgia
Population: 400,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian Grammar: Isaev, M. I. 1966. Digorskij dialekt osetinskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1949. "A Phonetic Study of Western Ossetic (Digoron), " BSOAS 13, 36-79.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ q b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z f s̪ χ v z̪ ʁ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ q Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1732
Language: Avestan
Location: Iran
Population: 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian Grammar: Jackson, A. V. Williams. 1892. An Avesta Grammar. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h ṭ k kh b d̪ d̪̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š h h̃ v z ž m n n ̣ ñ ŋ r Stops: p b t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ̌ š ž h h̃ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ao ǝu āi āu ōi aē
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1733
Language: Avestan Dialect: Sasanid
Location: Iran
Population: 400 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian Grammar: Sokolov, S.N. 1967. The Avestan Language. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s ṣ̌ š x h v (ð) z ž (ɣ) m n (ñ) ŋ r ɹ̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ (ð) s z ṣ̌ š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Vibrants: r ɹ̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū ɒ̄ Diphthongs: aē ao ōi ǝ̄u āi āu
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/GN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1734
Language: Khwarezmian
Location: S Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Khwarezmian
Consonant system:
Number: 1735
Language: Sogdian
Location: SW Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Sogdian
Consonant system:
Number: 1736
Language: Yaghnobi
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Sogdian Grammar: Bogoljubov, M. N. 1966. "Jagnobskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 342-61.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ū ō Diphthongs: aj
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult or final in noun
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1737
Language: Bactrian
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Bactrian
Consonant system:
Number: 1738
Language: Saka
Location: China (Sinkiang)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian
Consonant system:
Number: 1739
Language: Pashto
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 13 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian Grammar: Penzl, Herbert. 1955. Grammar of Pashto. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies. Shafeev, D. A. 1964. A Short Grammatical Outline of Pashto. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
TextBooks: Chavarria-Aguilar, O. L. 1962. Pashto Basic Course. Ann Arbor: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, Univ. of Michigan. Enevoldsen, Jens. 1968. An Introduction to Pashto. Copenhagen: Dansk Pathan Mission.
Other Sources: Morgenstierne, G. and A. Lloyd-James. 1928. "Notes on the Pronunciation of Pashto (Dialect of the Hazara District)," BSOAS 5, 53-62.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ (ts) č (dz) ɡ̌ f s ṣ š x h z ẓ ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z ṣ ẓ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: (ī) ē (ū) ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: aj ǝj au ou āj āu oj Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1740
Language: Pashto Dialect: Eastern
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 13 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h z ž ɣ m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ x ɣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Number: 1741
Language: Wakhi
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 15,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: Paxalina, T. N. 1975. Vaxanskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. DG: IIFL, vol 2. Paxalina, T. N. 1966. "Vaxanskij jzayk," in JNS 1, 398-418. Lorimer, L. R. 1958. The Wakhi Language. London.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ ts č̣ č dz ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f θ s ṣ̌ š x χ v ð z ẓ̌ ž ɣ ʁ m n l (ḷ) r (ṛ) Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č̣ ɡ̣̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r (ṛ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1742
Language: Munji
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 2. DG: Grjunberg, A. L. 1972. Jazyk vostochnogo gindukusha: mundzhanskij jazyk. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (q) b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č̣ č d̪z ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ ç š x h v z̪ ẓ̌ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ (q) Affricates: t̪s d̪z č̣ ɡ̣̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ ẓ̌ ç š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1743
Language: Yidgha
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ ts č̣ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š x v z ẓ̌ ž ɣ m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts č̣ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ x Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ū Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1744
Language: Sanglechi
Location: Afghaniston
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir
Consonant system:
Number: 1745
Language: Ishkashmi
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 2. Paxalina, T. N. 1959. Ishkashimaskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Paxalina, T. N. 1966. "Ishkashimaskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 419-35.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s č̣ č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ š χ v z̪ ẓ̌ ž ʁ m n̪ l̪ (ḷ) r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: t̪s d̪z č̣ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š ž χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ (ḷ) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ou oi ai
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1746
Language: Shughni
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Zarubin, I. I. 1960. Shuganskie teksty: slovar'. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Grammar: Sokolova, V. S. 1966. "Shugnano-rushanskaja jazykovaja gruppa," in JNS 1, 362-97.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ʋ̄ ō
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1747
Language: Shughni Dialect: Sarikoli
Location: SW China (Sinkiang)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Paxalina, T. N. 1971. Sarykol'sko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x χ v z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Stress: final
Number: 1748
Language: Shughni Dialect: Bartang
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: Karamxudoev, N. 1973. Bartangskij jazyk. Dushanbe: Donish.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ā ū ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1749
Language: Yazgulami
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Edel'man, D. I. 1971. Jazguliamsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Nauka. Grammar: Edel'man, D. I. 1966a. Jazguliamsko jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Edel'man, D. I. 1966b. "Jazguliamsko-jazyk," in JNS 1, 436-54.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t c k q b d ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ (h) v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ q x χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: (ā)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1750
Language: Parachi
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southeast Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 1.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh q b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h z̪ ž ɣ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ l̪ l̪̤ r r̤ ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e (ɛ) Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: o ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: aI aʋ āʋ āo āI āe Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG/GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1751
Language: Ormuri
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southeast Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 1.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ š x h z̪ ž ɣ ʕ m n̪ ṇ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ š ž x ɣ ʕ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1752
Language: Median
Location: NW Iran
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1753
Language: Parthian
Location: Iran (Khorasan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1754
Language: Yazdi Alternate Name: Gabri (pejorative)
Location: Iran
Population: 8,000 (1940)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran Grammar: DG: Ivanow, W. 1940. The Gabri Dialect. Rome: G. Bardi.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f (θ) s š x h v (ð) z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) (ð) s z š x ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: All bilingual in Farsi.
Number: 1755
Language: Nayini
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1756
Language: Natanzi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1757
Language: Soi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1758
Language: Khunsari
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1759
Language: Gazi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1760
Language: Sivandi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1761
Language: Vafsi
Location: C Iran (Central)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1762
Language: Semnani
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Semnani
Consonant system:
Number: 1763
Language: Sangisari
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Semnani
Consonant system:
Number: 1764
Language: Gilaki
Location: Iran
Population: 3.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Caspian
Other Sources: CTIL 6, 111. OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ū
Number: 1765
Language: Mazanderani
Location: N Iran
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Caspian
Other Sources: CTIL 6, 111. OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 1766
Language: Talysh
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Talysh Grammar: Miller, B. V. 1953. Talyshskij jazyk. Moscow. Pirejko, L. A. 1966. "Talyshskij jazyk," in JNS 1 302-22.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š χ h v z ž ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1767
Language: Harzani
Location: Iran (W Azerbaijan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Talysh
Consonant system:
Number: 1768
Language: Zaza Alternate Name: Kirmanjki
Location: Turkey (Tunceli)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Zaza-Gorani
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1769
Language: Gorani
Location: Iran (W Kordestan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Zaza-Gorani
Consonant system:
Number: 1770
Language: Baluchi Dialect: Eastern
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f θ s š x h ð z ž ɣ m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄
Number: 1771
Language: Baluchi Dialect: Western
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi Dictionary: Gilbertson, G. W. 1925. English-Baluchi Colloquial Dictionary, 2 vols. Hertford. Grammar: Rastorgueva, V. S. 1960. Beludzhskij jazyk. Moscow. Rastorgueva, V. S. 1966. "Beludzhskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 323-41.
TextBooks: Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman and Aqil Khan Mengal. 1969. A Course in Baluchi. Montreal: McGill University, Institute of Islamic Studies.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō (ı̃̄) ẽ̄ ã̄ (ũ̄) ȭ Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5)/N-POSS(3,6) D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1772
Language: Bashkardi
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi
Consonant system:
Number: 1773
Language: Kirmanji
Location: Syria
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Grammar: Bedir Khan, Emir Djeladet and Roger Lescot. 1970. Grammaire kurde. Paris: Maisonneuve.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3(mf) (6) 3m, 3f, 6 in oblique case only
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1774
Language: Kirmanji Alternate Name: Kurdish
Location: Armenia
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Dictionary: Kurdoev, K. K. 1960. Kurdsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Farizov, I. O. 1957. Russko-kurdskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Kurdov, K. K. 1957. Grammatika kurdskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Bakaev, C. X. 1962. Govor kuidov Turkmenii. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Bakaev, C. X. 1965. Jazyk azerbajdzhanskix kurdov. Moscow: Nauka. Bakaev, C. X. 1966. " Kurdskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 257-80.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ m n l ɾ r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɒ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1775
Language: Kurdi
Location: Iraq
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Dictionary: McCarus, Ernest N. 1967. A Kurdish-English Dictionary. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press.
TextBooks: Abdulla, Jamal Jalal and Ernest N. McCarus. 1967. Kurdish Basic Course. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ (sɯ) (v) z̪ m n̪ ŋ l̪ lɯ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s̪ z̪ (sɯ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1776
Language: Kurdi Dialect: Mukri
Location: NW Iran
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Grammar: Ejjubi, K. R. and I. A. Smirnova. 1968. Kurdskij dialect mukri. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l lɯ r rɯ Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r rɯ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: øe ua yi Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1777
Language: Kermanshahi
Location: NW Iran (Kermanshahan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish
Consonant system:
Number: 1778
Language: Old Persian
Location: Iran
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Kent, Roland G. 1953. Old Persian. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ ṣ š x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au āi āu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) rˈ
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: (def)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1779
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Tehran
Location: Iran
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Mehan, M. n.d. Persian Grammar. Stockholm: Skriptor. Rubinchik, Y. A. 1971. The Modern Persian Language. Moscow: Nauka.
TextBooks: Obolensky, Serge, Kambiz Yazdan Panah and Fereidoun Khaje Nouri. 1963. Persian Basic Course. Washington D.C.: CAL. Lambton, Ann K. S. 1967. Persian Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Mace, John. 1969. Teach Yourself Modern Persian. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Scott, Charles T. 1964. "Syllable Structure in Tehran Persian," AL 6:1, 27-30. OPYT
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x (h) v z ž ɣ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ (h) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e æ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ū ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ei ai ui ou
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: honorific pronouns (< nouns) for 1 2 3
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1780
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Dari
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Farhadi, A. G. 1955. Le persan parlé en Afghanistan. Paris: Klincksieck.
Other Sources: Henderson, Michael M. T. 1975. "Diglossia in Kabul Persian Phonology," JAOS 95, 651-4. Henderson, Michael M. T. 1978. "Modern Persian Verb Morphology,," JAOS 98, 375-88.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: aj aw
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1781
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Hazaras
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Efimov, V. A. 1965. Jazyk afganskix xazara. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š (h) z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ɛ̄ ʋ̄ ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1782
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Shahrudi
Location: Iran
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian
Other Sources: Yarshater, E. 1959. "The Dialect of Shahrud (Khalkhal), " BSOAS 22, 52-68.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (o) ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ei ou āi āu
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1783
Language: Tajiki Alternate Name: Tajik
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Dictionary: Arzumanov, D. and X. K. Karimov. 1957. Russko-tadzhikskij slovar'. Moscow. Raxim, M. V. and L. V. Uspenskaja. 1954. Tadzhiksko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Kerimova, A. A. 1959. Govor tadzhikov buxary. Moscow. Rastorgueva, V. S. 1963. A Short Sketch of Tajik Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Kerimova, A. A. 1966. "Tadzhikskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 212-36.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: ph th kh qh b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ f s š χ h v z (ž) ʁ m n l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ qh Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 5 is also used as a polite form for 2
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1784
Language: Tati
Location: SW Russia (S Dagestan ASSR)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Tati Grammar: Grjunberg, A. L. 1966. "Tatskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 281-301.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ G č ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ G Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y æ Back Vowels: u ɑ Diphthongs: ei ɔu øy
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final in noun; variable in verb
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1785
Language: Fars
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Fars
Consonant system:
Number: 1786
Language: Lari
Location: SW Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Fars
Consonant system:
Number: 1787
Language: Luri
Location: SW Iran
Population: 4.3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Luri
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1788
Language: Kumzari
Location: N Oman
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Luri
Consonant system:

Обзоры типологий албанских диалектов (Albanian)

Number: 1789
Language: Albanian Dialect: Tosk
Location: S Albania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Albanian Dictionary: Drizari, Nelo. 1957. Albanian-English and English-Albanian Dictionary. New York: Frederic Ungar. Grammar: Newmark, Leonard. 1957. Structural Grammar of Albanian. IJAL 23:4, Part II.
TextBooks: Drizari, Nelo. 1959. Spoken and Written Albanian. New York: Frederick Ungar. Camaj, Martin. 1969. Lehrbuch der albanischen Sprache. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ñ l lɯ ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei oi ui yi ie ye ua (ue) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (n) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: The national language is based on the Tosk dialect.
Number: 1790
Language: Albanian Dialect: Gheg
Location: N Albania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Albanian
Other Sources: Lowman, G. S. 1932. "The Phonetics of Albanian," Lg 8, 271-93. Byron, Janet. 1976. Selecton among Alternates in Language Standardization. The Hague: Mouton, AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž ɣ m n ñ l lɯ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ỹ ɛ̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ie yi ei ai ui ue ɔi Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO

Обзоры типологий греческих языков (Greek)

Number: 1791
Language: Classical Greek Alternate Name: Linear B Dialect: Mycenaean
Location: Greece (Knossos)
Population: c. 1,000 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Other Sources: Chadwick, John. 1970. The Decipherent of Linear B. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ s z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k kh ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au eu oi ou ei ui
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1792
Language: Classical Greek Dialect: Cyprian
Location: Cyprus
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Other Sources: Chadwick, John. 1970. The Decipherent of Linear B. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɡ s x z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ Fricatives: s z x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1793
Language: Classical Greek
Location: Greece
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Goodwin, William Watson. 1930. Greek Grammar. Boston: Ginn and Company. McKay, K. L. 1974. Greek Grammar for Students. Canberra: Dept of Classics, Australian National University.
TextBooks: Ruck, Carl A. P. 1972. Ancient Greek: A New Approach. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Other Sources: Allen, W. Sidney. 1968. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ s h m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i y ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai au eu oi
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1794
Language: Greek
Location: Greece
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Mirambel, André. 1959. La langue grecque moderne. Paris: Klincksieck. Householder, Fred W., Kostas Kazazis and Andreas Koutsoudas. 1964. Reference Grammar of Literary Dhimotiki. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Thomson, George. 1967. A Manual of Modern Greek. London: Collets.
TextBooks: Kahane, Henry, Renée Kahane and Ralph L. Ward. 1945. Spoken Greek. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts dz f θ s x v ð z ɣ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v θ ð s z x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1795
Language: Greek Dialect: Cypriot
Location: Cyprus
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Newton, Brian. 1972. Cypriot Greek. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k č f θ š x v ð z ž ɣ m n̪ l r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: č Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ð z ž ɣ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: DN NUM-N
Number: 1796
Language: Tsakonian
Location: S Greece (E Peloponnesos)
Population: 30O
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Consonant system: Comments: All bilingual in Greek

Обзоры типологий тохарских языков (Tocharian)

Number: 1656
Language: Tocharian A
Location: NW China (Turkestan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Tocharian Dictionary: Windekens, A. J. van. 1941. Lexique étymologique des dialectes tokhariens. Louvain: Muséon. Grammar: Sieg, Emil and Wilhelm Siegling. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Gøttingen: Dandenhoe.
Other Sources: Windekens, A. J. van. 1944. Morphologie comparée du tokharien. Louvain: Muséon. Zimmer, Stefan. 1976. Tocharische Bibliographie, 1959-1975. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Adams, Douglas Q. 1978. "Ablaut and Umlaut in the Tocharian Vowel System, " JAOS 98, 446-50.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k ts č s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1657
Language: Tocharian B
Location: NW China (Turkestan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Tocharian Grammar: GD: Krause, Wolfgang and Werner Thomas. 1960, 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, 2 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
Other Sources: Windekens, A. J. van. 1976. Le tocharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européenes, 2 vols. Louvain: Centre International de Dialectologie Générale.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k ts č s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p k ts m Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: ai oi au āu
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST

Обзоры типологий итало-романских языков (Italic)

Number: 1797
Language: Oscan
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian Grammar: Budk, Carl Darling. 1904. A Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian. Boston: Ginn.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h v z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ai ei oi au ou
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1798
Language: Umbrian
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian Grammar: Buck, Carl Darling. 1904. A Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian. Boston: Ginn.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s ç h v z m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z ç h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1799
Language: Sabellian
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian
Consonant system:
Number: 1800
Language: Faliscan
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic Grammar: Giacomelli, Gabriella. 1963. La Lingua falisca. Florence: Leo S. Olschki.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai oi au ou
Number: 1801
Language: Proto-Romance
Location: Italy
Population: c. 500 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance
Other Sources: Hall, Robert A., Jr. 1976. Proto-Romance Phonology. New York: Elsevier.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s̪ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1802
Language: Latin Dialect: Classical
Location: C Italy
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic Dictionary: Simpson, D. P. 1960. Cassell's New Latin Dictionary. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Grammar: Serbat, Guy. 1975. Les structures du latin. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
TextBooks: Moreland, Floyd L. and Rita M. Fleischer. 1974. Latin: An Intensive Course. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Other Sources: Palmer, L. R. 1954. The Latin Language. London: Faber & Faber. Allen, W. Sidney. 1965. Vox Latina. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ f s h m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ae au ui (oe) (eu) Stress: non-phonemic (penult/antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1803
Language: Sardinian
Location: Italy (Sardinia)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance Grammar: Wagner, M. L. 1951. La lingua sarda. Berne: Francke.
Other Sources: Mazzola, Michael Lee. 1976. Proto-Romance and Sicilian. Lisse: Peter de Ridder. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts dz f s v m n̪ ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: v̄ Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1804
Language: Rumanian Alternate Name: Daco-Rumanian
Location: Rumania
Population: 22 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Levitchi, Leon. 1960. Dictionar romin-englez. Bucharest: Editura Stiintifica. Levitchi, Leon, ed. 1974. Dictionar englez-roman. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Grammar: Guillermou, Alain. 1953. Manuel de langue roumaine. Paris: Klincksieck. Agard, Frederick B. 1958. Structural Sketch of Rumanian. Supplement to Lg 34:3. Repina, T. A. 1968. Rumynskij jazyk. Moscow: Moscow Univ Press.
TextBooks: Augerot, James E. and Florin D. Popescu. 1971. Modern Romanian. Seattle: Univ of Washington Press. Cazacu, B., et al. 1978. Cours de langue roumaine. Bucharest: Editura Didactica.
Other Sources: Ruhlen, Merritt. 1973. Rumanian Phonology. Stanford: Stanford Univ Diss. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ij ea oa uw ou eau ieu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f [the so called neuter nouns in Rumanian behave like masc nouns in the singular, and fem nouns in the plural] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) formal, (2) familiar, (3)intimate 3mf & 6mf have polite and plain forms.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1805
Language: Istro-Rumanian
Location: Croatia (Istrian Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Maiorescu, Ioan. 1900. Itinerar in Istria si vocabularul istriano-roman. Bucharest: Socecu. Grammar: Kovačec, August. 1971. Descrierea istroromanei actuale. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Puscariu, Sextil. 1926. Studii istroromane, vol 2. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ts č (ɡ̌) f s š h v z ž ɣ m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c k Affricates: ts č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ (a) Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1806
Language: Megleno-Rumanian
Location: N Greece
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Capidan, T. 1935. Meglenoromanii, vol 3: Dictionarul Meglenoroman. Bucharest: Academia Romana. Grammar: Capidan, T. 1925. Meglenoromanii, vol 1: Istoria si graiul lor. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts č̌ dz ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ l lɯ ʎ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ea oa au eu iu ou ia ie io iu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1807
Language: Arumanian
Location: N Greece
Population: 250,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Papahagi, Tache. 1974. Dictionarul dialectului aroman. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Grammar: Capidan, T. 1932. Aromanii: Dialectul aroman. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Other Sources: Caragiu-Marioteanu, Matilda.1968. Fono-morfologie aromana. Bucharest: Editura Academiei.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f (θ) s š h v (ð) z ž (ɣ) m n̪ ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) (ð) s z š ž (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ea ia ie io iu oa wa
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 3mf & 6mf have polite and plain forms.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1808
Language: Dalmatian
Location: Yugoslavia
Population: extinct (c.1898)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance
Consonant system:
Number: 1809
Language: Italian
Location: Italy
Population: 60 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance Grammar: Hall, Robert A., Jr. 1971. La struttura dell'italiano. Rome: Armando Armando.
TextBooks: Speight, Kathleen. 1962. Italian. London: English Universities Press. Traversa, Vincenzo. 1967. Parola e pensiero. New York: Harper & Row.
Other Sources: Agard, Frederick B. and Robert J. Di Pietro 1965. The Sounds of English and Italian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Migliorini, Bruno B. and T. Gwynfor Griffith. 1966. The Italian Language. New York: Barnes & Noble. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š v m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ š Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but š ñ ǝ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ja jo je jɛ ju wɔ wa we wi ɛj aj ɔj uj ɛw aw
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) intimate, (2) plain, (3) polite 5 has 2 forms:(1) initimate-plain, (2) polite
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1810
Language: Italian Dialect: Sicilian
Location: Italy (Sicily)
Population: 60 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance
Other Sources: Fodale, Peter. 1964. The Sicilian Dialects as a Diasystem: A Study in Structural Dialectology. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Diss. Mazzola, Michael Lee. 1976. Proto-Romance and Sicilian. Lisse: Peter de Ridder.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ḍ̄ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š v m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ḍ̄ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s š Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v j w (ḍ is always lonɡ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) mˈ nˈ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1811
Language: Friulian
Location: Rumania
Population: 400,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Iliescu, Maria. 1972. Le frioulan à partir des dialectes parlés en Roumanie. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k b d g č ɡ̌ f s v z m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1812
Language: Friulian
Location: Italy
Population: 600,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1813
Language: Ladin
Location: N Italy (S Tyrol)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance
Consonant system:
Number: 1814
Language: Romansch Dialect: Engadin
Location: S Switzerland
Population: 50,000 (9,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Borodina, M. A. 1969. Sovremennyj literaturnyj retoromanskij jazyk shvejtsarii. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ ć Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ç h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai au ea ɛi īǝ ou yǝ yi ui uǝ iǝ iē iø uɛ̄ uē uɛ uī Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1815
Language: Romansch Dialect: Surselva
Location: S Switzerland
Population: 50,000 (26,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Borodina, M. A. 1969. Sovremennyj literaturnyj retoromanskij jazyk Shvejtsarii. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z f s̪ š ç h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ć Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ç h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ai au iu ɛu ie uǝ ia iu ieu Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1816
Language: Franco-Provençal
Location: SE France
Population: 332,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance
Other Sources: Martinet, André. 1956. La description phonologique avec application au parler franco-provençal d'Hautiville ( Savoie). Geneva: Droz.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f θ s š v ð z ž m n ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ɛ̆ ă ɔ̆ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ɔ̃
Syllable: (C) (C)V [ɾ] Stress: phonemic (final or penult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1817
Language: Franco-Provençal Dialect: Gascon
Location: SW France (Gascony)
Population: 332,000 (255,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Palay, Simin. 1974. Dictionnaire du béarnais et du gascon modernes. Paris: CNRS. Grammar: Kelly, Reine Cardaillac. 1973. A Descriptive Analysis of Gascon. The Hague: Mouton. Darrigrand, R. and M. Grosclaude. 1971. Abrégé de grammaire béarnaise et gasconne. Bordeaux.
Other Sources: Kelly, Reine Cardaillac. 1971. "The Sound System of a Gascon Dialect," Linguistics 68, 5-12.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ɡ̌ f s š z ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ t m n l Glides: j (ɥ) w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: au eu ɛu iu ou triph
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1818
Language: French Dialect: Parisian
Location: France
Population: 66 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Dubois, Marguerite-Marie. 1960. Larousse Modern French-English, English-French Dictionary. New York: McGraw Hill. Grammar: Chevalier, Jean-Claude, et al. 1964. Grammaire Larousse du français contemporain. Paris: Larousse.
TextBooks: Harris, Julian and André Léveque. 1973. Basic Conversational French. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Other Sources: Armstrong, Lilias E. 1964. The Phonetics of French. London: G. Bell and Sons. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š v z ž ʁ m n̪ ñ l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ (ɑ) Nasal Vowels: (œ̃) æ̃ õ ɑ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf + indef politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol (2pol = 5)
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1819
Language: French Dialect: Canadian
Location: Canada
Population: 66 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Grammar: Morgan, Raleigh, Jr. 1975. The Regional French of County Beauce, Quebec. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: Ellis, Patricia M. 1965. "Les phonèmes du français maillardvillois," Canadian Journal of Linguistics 11, 7-30.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ø̃ ã ɔ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf + indef politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol (2pol = 5)
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1820
Language: Provençal
Location: S France
Population: 355,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Piat, L. 1970. Dictionnaire français-occitanien. Aix-en-Provence: Ramoun Berenguié. Alibert, Louis. 1965. Dictionnaire occitan-français. Toulouse: Institut d'Études Occitanes. Grammar: Journot, Jean. 1967. Elements de gramatica occitana. Toulouse: Institut d'Études Occitanes.
Other Sources: Coustenoble, Hélène N. 1945. La phonétique du provençal moderne. Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons. Bec, Pierre. 1973. Manuel pratique d'occitan moderne. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s d̪z f s v z ʁ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r R Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ei ɛi eu ɛu ai ɑu ɔi ɔu ou ui øi œi je jɛ ja jɔ jo ju jø jei jɛi jeu jɛu jai jɑu jɔu jou jœi Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1821
Language: Catalan Dialect: Eastern
Location: NE Spain
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Wheeler, Max W. 1972. "Distinctive Features and Natural Classes in Phonological Theory," JL 8, 87-102.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ f s š v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1822
Language: Catalan
Location: NE Spain
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Grammar: GD: Gili, Joan. 1967. Introducory Catalan Grammar. Oxford: The Dolphin Book Co. Badia Margarit, Antonio M. 1962. Gramatica catalana, 2 vols. Madrid: Gredos.
Other Sources: Badia Margarit, Antonio Straka and Georges Straka, eds. 1973. La linguistique catalane. Paris: Klincksieck. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ l ʎ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei oi ui au eu iu ou Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 [reduced to 2 in most modern dialectos] Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: familiar/politeness distinction for 2 and 5.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN/(ND) NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS [optional for 6])
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1823
Language: Spanish Dialect: Castilian
Location: Spain
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Velázquez de la Cadena, Mariano, Edward Gray and Juan L. Iribas. 1974. Velázquez Spanish and English Dictionary. Chicago: Follett. Grammar: Pottier, Bernard. 1970. Gramática del español. Madrid: Alcala.
TextBooks: Wilson, N. Scarlyn. 1970. Spanish. London: Teach Yourself Books.
Other Sources: Llorach, Emilio Alarcos. 1968. Fonologı́a española. Madrid: Gredos. Dalbor, John B. 1969. Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Macpherson, I. R. n.d. Spanish Phonology: Descriptive and Historical. New York: Barnes & Noble. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f θ s x m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ie ia io iu ei ai oi ui ue ua uo eu au ou Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politness: intim/polite distinction for 2 & 5
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1824
Language: Spanish Dialect: Andalusian
Location: S Spain
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1825
Language: Spanish Dialect: Judeo-Spanish
Location: Rumania
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Sala, Marius. 1971. Phonétique et phonologie du judéo-espagnol de Bucharest: The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1826
Language: Spanish Dialect: Mexican
Location: Mexico
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
TextBooks: Bolinger, Dwight, et al, eds. 1960. Modern Spanish. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Other Sources: Stockwell, Robert P. and J. Donald Bowen. 1965. The Sounds of English and Spanish. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s x m n̪ ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ej aj oj aw ew uj iw
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 3 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1827
Language: Spanish Dialect: Cuban
Location: Cuba
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Isbăsescu, Cristina. 1968. El español en Cuba. Bucharest: Sociedad Rumana de Lingüı́stica Románica.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1828
Language: Spanish Dialect: Costa Rican
Location: Costa Rica
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Chavarria-Aguilar, O. L. 1951. "The Phonemes of Costa Rican Spanish," Lg 27, 248-53.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1829
Language: Spanish Dialect: Panamanian
Location: Panama
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Alvarado de Ricord, Elsie. 1971. El español de Panamá. Panama: Editorial Universitaria.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1830
Language: Spanish Dialect: Colombian
Location: Colombia
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Florez, Luis. 1965. El español hablado en Santander. Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1831
Language: Spanish Dialect: Ecuadorean
Location: Ecuador
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s š x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1832
Language: Galician
Location: NW Spain
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Franco Grande, X. L. 1968. Diccionario galego-castelan. Colón: Galaxia. Grammar: Carballo Calero, Ricardo. 1970. Gramática elemental del gallego común. Colón: Galaxia.
Other Sources: Veiga Arias, Amable. 1976. Fonologia gallega. Valencia: Bello.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f θ s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ia ie io iu ua ue ui uo ai au ei eu oi ou
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1833
Language: Portuguese Dialect: Lisbon
Location: Portugal
Population: 130 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
TextBooks: Willis, R. Clive. 1971. An Essential Course in Modern Portuguese. London: Goerge G. Harrap.
Other Sources: Head, Brian. 1964. A Comparison of the Segmental Phonology of Lisbon and Rio de Janieiro. Austin: Univ of Texas Diss.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š v z̪ ž ʁ m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v z̪ s š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ɐ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ɐ̃ ũ õ Diphthongs: ɐ̃w ɐ̃j õj
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 4 forms: (1) very familiar, (2) fairly familiar, (3) pol masc, (4) pol fem. 5 has 3 forms: (1) fam, (2) pol masc, (3) pol fem.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1834
Language: Portuguese Dialect: Brazilian
Location: Brazil
Population: 130 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Michaelis, H. 1958. The New Michaelis Illustrated Dictionary, 2 vols. Sao Paulo: Melhorametos.
TextBooks: Ellison, Fred P. and Francisco Gomes de Matos. 1971. Modern Portuguese. New York : Alfred A. Knopf. Thomas, Earl W. 1974. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese. Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ Press.
Other Sources: Head, Brian Franklin. 1964. A Comparison of the Segmental Phonology of Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. Austin: Univ. of Texas Diss. Camara, Joaquin Mattoso, Jr. 1972. The Portuguese Language. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š x v z̪ ž m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v z̪ s š ž x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ɐ̃ ũ õ Diphthongs: au ai eu ei ɛu ɛi iu ou oi ɔi ui ão ãe ẽi õi Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 & 5 each have 3 forms: (1) intim, (2) pol masc, (3) pol fem.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1835
Language: Mozarabic
Location: Spain
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Consonant system:

Обзоры типологий кельтских языков (Celtic)

Number: 1836
Language: Gaulish
Location: S France
Population: extinct (c. 500 A.D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Continental
Other Sources: Fowkes, Robert A. 1940. "The Phonology of Gaulish," Lg 16, 285-99. Watkins, Calvert. 1955. "The Phonemics of Gualish: The Dialect of Narbonensis," Lg 31, 9-19.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts s m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au oi ou ūi (eu)
Number: 1837
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Dictionary: Dinneen, Patrick S. 1904. An Irish-English Dictionary. London: David Nutt. Grammar: Calder, George. 1923. A Gaelic Grammar. Glasgow: Gairn.
TextBooks: Dillon, Myles and Donncha Ó Cróinı́n. 1961. Irish. London: English Universities Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ f s x h v m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ou iǝ uǝ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1838
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Waterford
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: Breatnach, Risteard B. 1947. The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h ch kh b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɸ s š ç x h β ɣ ɣʷ m n̪ ŋ lj ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ch ɟ kh ɡ Fricatives: ɸ β s š ç x ɣ ɣʷ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: lj Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b t d f v h m n ŋ r (l is always palatalized; non-palatalized consonants are velarized.)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: iǝ ia uǝ ai au ǝi ǝu Stress: initial
Number: 1839
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Galway
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: de Bhaldraithe, Tomás. 1966. The Irish of Cois Fhairrge, Co. Galway. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h th kh b d̪ d ɡ ts tr č dr ɡ̌ ɸ s š x h β ɣ m n n̥ ñ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ ʎ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d kh ɡ Affricates: ts tr dr č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š x ɣ h Nasals: m n n̥ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Modified Consonants: cj p b t d k ɡ ɸ β x m n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ ei uǝ ai au uǝi uǝu Stress: initial
Number: 1840
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Cork
Location: S Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: Ó Cuiv, Brian. 1968. The Irish of West Muskerry, Co. Cork. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɸ s š x h β z ž ɣ m n̪ n̪̥ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ β s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n̪̥ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Modified Consonants: cj all but s z š ž j ɣ h č Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ ia uǝ ǝi ai au ou Stress: initial
Number: 1841
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Mayo, Erris
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Grammar: Fhailigh, Éamonn Mhac an. 1968. The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h th kh b d̪ d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s š ç x h βj ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ l ʎ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ βj s š ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b k ɡ ɸ m n ŋ l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ (õ) ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ũ̄ ȭ ɑ̃̄ Stress: initial
Number: 1842
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Mayo, Tourmakeady
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: de Búrca, Seán. 1970. The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (t) c kh b d̪ (d) ɟ ɡ (č) (ɡ̌) ɸ s ç x h ̤β (z) ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ l ʎ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (t) (d) c ɟ kh ɡ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: ɸ β s (z) ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj all but ɣ h k ɡ c ɟ x ŋ l̪ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ ǝi ǝu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Number: 1843
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Aran
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s x h v ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ʌ Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ū ō ɔ̄ Stress: non-phonemic
Number: 1844
Language: Scottish Gaelic
Location: Scotland
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Grammar: Holmer, Nils M. 1938. Studies on Argyllshire Gaelic. Uppsala: Almgvist & Wiksells. Holmer, Nils M. 1957. The Gaelic of Arran. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Holmer, Nils M. 1962. The Gaelic of Kintyre. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Other Sources: Dorian, Nancy C. 1978. "The Fate of Morphological Complexity in Language Death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic," Lg 54, 590-609.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (th) ch kh (ʔ) b d̪ (d ) ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š ç x h v (z) ɣ m n̪ n̪̥ (n) ñ ñ̥ ŋ l l̥ lɯ ʎ (ʎ̥) r r̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (th) (d) ch ɟ kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s (z) š ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n̪̥ (n) ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ lɯ ʎ (ʎ̥) Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ nasals and liquids Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Y e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1845
Language: Manx
Location: England (Isle of Man
Population: extinct (20th century)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Vowel system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1846
Language: Breton
Location: NW France
Population: 1.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Grammar: Ternes, Elmar. 1970. Grammaire structurale du breton de l'Ile de Groix. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
TextBooks: Hemon, Roparz. 1972. Cours élémentaire de breton. n.p.: Al Liamm.
Other Sources: Hemon, Roparz. 1975. A Historical Morphology and Syntax of Breton. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ čh ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j ɥ w w̃
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ɛ̃) Diphthongs: (ea) (eo) eā eō ei øy ou ae
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS) Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1847
Language: Welsh
Location: Great Britain (Wales)
Population: 660,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Dictionary: Evans, H. Meurig and W. O. Thomas. 1953. The New Welsh Dictionary. Llandebie: Christopher Davies. Grammar: James, Dan L. 1966. Modern Welsh Course. Cardiff: Univ of Wales Press.
TextBooks: Bowen, John T. 1960. Welsh. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Hamp. Eric P. 1951. "Morphophonemes of the Keltic Mutations," Lg 27, 230-47.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ɡ̌) f θ s š x h v ð m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v θ ð s š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɨ̄ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ae ai au ei eu aw ew iw wi oe oi ou ow Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2 intim, 2 pol [2 pol=5]
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1848
Language: Cornish
Location: England (Cornwall)
Population: extinct (c. 1800)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Grammar: Smith, A. S. D. 1965. Cornish Simplified. Cornwall: An Lef Kernewek.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aw ow aj ej ew oj Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP

Обзоры типологий германских языков (Germanic)

Number: 1849
Language: Proto-Germanic
Location: N Germany
Population: c. 500 B. C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic Grammar: Coetsem, Frans van and Herbert L. Kufner, eds. 1972. Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Other Sources: Antonsen, Elmer M. 1975. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ f θ s̪ h hʷ z̪ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ h hʷ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ei ai eu au
Syllable: nˈ lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1850
Language: Gothic Dialect: Crimean
Location: SW Russia (Crimea)
Population: extinct (c. 1700 A.D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East Grammar: Stearns, MacDonald, Jr. 1978. Crimean Gothic. Saratoga, CA: Anma Libri.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ f θ s̪ š x v ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k Fricatives: f v θ s̪ š x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN
Number: 1851
Language: Gothic
Location: E Bulgaria
Population: c. 350 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East Dictionary: Regan, Brian T. 1974. Dictionary of the Biblical Gothic Language. Phoenix: Wellspring Books. Grammar: Mossé, Fernand. 1956. Manuel de la langue gotique. Paris: Aubier. Krause, Wolfgang. 1968. Handbuch des Gotischen. Munich: C. H. Beck'sche.
Other Sources: Moulton, William G. 1948. "The Phonemics of Gothic," Lg 24, 76-86. Marchand, James W. 1973. The Sounds and Phonemes of Wulfila's Gothic. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ f θ s xʷ h z m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ Fricatives: f θ s z xʷ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: iu Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Except for Runic inscriptions, Wulfila's translation of the Bible in Gothic is the earliest Germanic Text.
Number: 1852
Language: Vandalic
Location: Germany
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1853
Language: Burgundian
Location: Germany
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1854
Language: Runic
Location: Norway
Population: c. 500 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Grammar: Antonsen, Elmer H. 1975. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f θ s h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f θ s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai iu ɵu au
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA GN(inan)/NG(anim) ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Earliest attestation of a Germanic language.
Number: 1855
Language: Danish
Location: Denmark
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Nielsen, B. Kjaerulff. 1964. Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog. Copenhagen: Nordisk. Vinterberg, Hermann and C. A. Bodelsen: 1954,1956. Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog, 2 vols. Copenhagen: Nordisk. Grammar: Bredsdorff, Elias, 1970. Danish: An Elementary Grammar and Reader. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Diderichsen, Paul. 1972. Essentials of Danish Grammar. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
TextBooks: Koefoed, H. A. 1964. Teach Yourself Danish. London: English Universities Press. Norlev, Erling and H. A. Koefoed. 1973. The Way to Danish. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ f s š h v ð ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Fricatives: f v ð s š ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ai ɔi au ɔu ɛu œu eu iu yu øu Stress: usually initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common masc and fem are semantically determined by sex; common and neuter are grammatically determined by noun class. politeness: 2 & 5 each have polite and intimate forms; however 2 pol=5 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1856
Language: Swedish
Location: Sweden
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Wessely, Ignaz Emanuel. 1941. Wessely's Swedish-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: David McKay.
TextBooks: McClean, R. J. 1969. Teach Yourself Swedish. London : English Universities Press. Borland, Harold H. 1970. Swedish for Students. London: George G. Harrap.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph t̪h ṭh kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ f s̪ ṣ̌ ç h v m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ ḷ ɹ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ṭh ḍ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s̪ ṣ̌ ç h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: ɹ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: y I ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ Ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ʋ̄ ō ɑ̄
Tones: fall fall-fall (falling tone accurs on monosyllabic words, fall-fall on polysyllabic words.) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1857
Language: Norwegian
Location: Norway
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Gleditsch, T. 1948. Engelsk-Norsk Ordbok. Oslo: H. Aschehoug. Haugen, Einar, ed. 1965. Norwegian-English Dictionary. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
TextBooks: Haugen, Einar. 1964. Spoken Norwegian. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Marm, Ingvald. 1967. Teach Yourself Norwegian. New York: David McKay.
Other Sources: Vanvik, Arne. 1972. "A Phonetic-Phonemic Analysis of Standard Eastern Norwegian," Norwegian Journal of Linguistics 25:2, 119-64.
Consonant system: p t̪ (ṭ) k b d̪ (ḍ) ɡ f s̪ (ṣ̌) š ç h v m n̪ (ṇ) ŋ l̪ (ḷ) ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ (ṭ) (ḍ) k ɡ Fricatives: f v s̪ (ṣ̌) š ç h Nasals: m n̪ (ṇ) ŋ Laterals: l̪ (ḷ) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: y I ø ɛ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ǣ ʉ̄ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai æʉ ɛi ɔi ʉi øy øu æi æu
Tones: lo-ris hi-fall-ris Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS/(POSS-N) D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Modern Norwegian has two different standards. Bokmål reflects the heavy Danish influence during the Middle Ages, while Nynorsk represents an attempt to preserve a 'purer' older form of Norwegian, denuded of Danish borrowings. There is some hostility between the two gruops, but the two varieties of speech are easily mutually intellegible.
Number: 1858
Language: Norwegian Dialect: Trondheim
Location: Norway
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North
Other Sources: Vanvik, Arne. 1966. "A Phonetic-Phonemic Analysis of the Dialect of Trondheim. Oslo: Universititsforlaget.
Consonant system: ph t̪h ṭh ch kh b d̪ ḍ ɟ ɡ f s š ç h v m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ ʎ ʎ̥ ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ṭh ḍ ch ɟ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s š ç h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ ʎ ʎ̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ʉ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ǣ ʉ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ei øy øʉ (ɑi) (ɔy)
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) nˈ lˈ
Tones: lo-level hi-fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1859
Language: Icelandic
Location: Iceland
Population: 210,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Arngrı́mur, Sigurdsson. 1970. Íslenzk-ensk orðabók. Reykjavik: Prentsmiðjan Leiftur. Bogason, Sigurður Örn. 1966. English-Icelandic Dictionary. Reykjavik: Isafoldarprentsmiðja. Grammar: Einarsson, Stefán. 1967. Icelandic: Grammar, Texts, Glossary. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univ Press.
TextBooks: Glendening, P. J. T. 1961. Teach Yourself Icelandic. London: English Universities Press. TD: Jónsson, Snoebjörn. 1966. A Primer of Modern Icelandic. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Haugen, Einar. 1958. "The Phonemes of Modern Icelandic," Lg 34, 55-88. Malone, Kemp. 1970. "The Phonemes of Modern Icelandic," in Studies in Honor of Albert Morey Sturtevant, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 5-21. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh f θ s h v ð m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: f v θ ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I Y ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ui ei oi ou ai øi au Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6mfn politeness: 2 forms of 2: (1) intim [2 pol=5] (2) pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1860
Language: Faroese
Location: Netherlands (Faroe Islands)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Svabo, J. C. 1966, 1970. Dictionarium Færoense. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Grammar: Lockwood, W. G. 1955. An Introduction to Modern Faroese. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ š h v m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k ɡ f s m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ā ū ō Diphthongs: ɛa ɔa ʋY ɔu ʉu ai ɛi ɔi Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1861
Language: German
Location: Germany
Population: 100 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Betteridge, Harold T., ed. 1958. The New Cassell's German Dictionary. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Grammar: Lederer, Herbert. 1969. Reference Grammar of the German Language. New York: Charles Scribner's.
TextBooks: Lohnes, Walter F. W. and F. W. Strothmann. 1967. German: A Structural Approach. New York: Norton.
Other Sources: Moulton, William G. 1962. The Sounds of English and German. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ pf t̪s f s š x h v z ž ʁ m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: pf t̪s Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ai oi au Stress: generally initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 + indef politeness: 2 & 5 each have familiar & polite forms; however 2 pol = 5 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1862
Language: Yiddish
Location: W Russia
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Bergman, Aaron. 1968. Student's Dictionary: English-Yiddish, Yiddish-English. New York: Kinderbuch. Grammar: Fal'kovich, E. M. 1966. "Evrejskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 599-629.
TextBooks: Weinreich, Uriel. 1967. College Yiddish. New York: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č f s š x h v z ž ʁ m n l lɯ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Diphthongs: aj ej oj
Syllable: nˈ lˈ Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: In 1939 there were an estimated twelve million speakers of Yiddish, Hitler's massacre of the Jews during WWII, and the subsequent dispersal of East European Jews around the world (with consequent assimilation to various cultures and languages) has reduced the number to perhaps four million.
Number: 1863
Language: Luxembourgeois
Location: Luxembourg
Population: 390,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1864
Language: Dutch
Location: Netherlands
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Prick Van Wely, F. P. H. 1951. Cassell's English-Dutch, Dutch-English Dictionary. London: Cassell.
TextBooks: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1944. Spoken Dutch. New York: Holt. Shetter, Wiiliam Z. 1958. Introduction to Dutch. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Koolhoven, H. 1961. Dutch. New York: David McKay.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d (č) f s š x h v z (ɣ) ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k Affricates: (č) Fricatives: f v s z š x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ā ū ō Diphthongs: ɛi œi yu ɔu āi ōi ūi īu ēu Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 politeness: 2 = 2fam; 5 = 2 pol & 5
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1865
Language: Afrikaans
Location: South Africa
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
TextBooks: Burgers, M. P. O. 1957. Teach Yourself Afrikaans. London: The English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Pienaar, P. de V. and A. G. Hooper. 1948. An Afrikaans-English Phonetic Reader. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ. Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d (ɡ) č f s š x v (z) ɦ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s (z) š x ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ (↔ē) (ǝ̄) ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai āi ǝi ɔi ɔ̄i ui ōi ēu ou œy
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 politeness: + 2 polite
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1866
Language: Frisian
Location: Netherlands (Frisian Islands)
Population: 730,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s x h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Comments: Frisian, the language most closely related to English, has for some time been on the decline. All speakers are bilingual in Dutch or German.
Number: 1867
Language: English Dialect: British
Location: England
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Grammar: Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. 1973. A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English. New York : Harcount Brace Jovanovich.
Other Sources: Jones, Daniel. 1950. An Outline of English Phonetics. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons. Gimson, A. C. 1962. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ŋ l ɹ̣ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɒ Long Vowels: ī ǝ̄ ū ɔ̄ ɑ̄ Diphthongs: eI aI ɔI oʋ ɑʋ Iǝ ɛǝ ʋa
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 2=5 politeness: a few varieties of British English preserve a polite/intimate distinction for the 2 pronoun (i.e thou/you)
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1868
Language: English Dialect: Scottish
Location: Scotland
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ʌ
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1869
Language: English Dialect: West Canadian
Location: W Canada
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1870
Language: English Dialect: American
Location: USA
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Guralnik, David B., ed. 1970. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Grammar: Stageberg, Norman C. 1971. An Introductory English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Other Sources: Kenyon, John Samuel. 1943. American Pronunciation. Ann Arbar: George Wahr. Thomas, Charles Kenneth. 1958. An Introduction to the Phonetics of American English. New York: The Ronald Press. King, Harold V. 1961. English Phonology. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Publishers. Bronstein, Arthur J. 1960. The Pronunciation of American English. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h hʷ v ð z ž m n ŋ lɯ ɹ̣ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h hʷ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: (ɨ̄) ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: Ii eI aI ɔI oʋ ʋu aʋ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP

Обзоры типологий балтских языков (Baltic)

Number: 1871
Language: Old Prussian
Location: NE Poland
Population: extinct (c. 1700)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: West Dictionary: Toporov, V. N. 1975. Prusskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Grammar: Schmalstieg, William R. 1974. An Old Prussian Grammar. University Park: Pennsyvania State Univ Press.
Other Sources: Levin, Jules F. 1974. The Slavic Element in the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary. UCPL 77.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (f) s̪ š (h) v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š (ž) (h) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1872
Language: Latvian
Location: Latvia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East Grammar: Grabis, R. 1966. "Latyshskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 466-99.
TextBooks: Lazdina, Tereza Budina. 1966. Teach Yourself Latvian. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Grava, Arnolds. 1970. "Phonemic Inventory of Vowels and Diphthongs in Latvian," Linguistics 56, 31-51. Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts (č) dz ɡ̌ (f) s š x (h) v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r rj Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x (h) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r rj Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ñ l ʎ r j v Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū Diphthongs: ai au ei ie ui uo (oi)
Tones: long-level falling ris-ʔ-fall Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf 2=intim; 5=2 polite & 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1873
Language: Latvian Dialect: Lagalian
Location: Latvia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East
Other Sources: Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š (x) (h) v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž (x) (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1874
Language: Lithuanian
Location: Lithuania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East Dictionary: Laučka, A., B. Piesarskas and E. Stasiulevičiute. 1978. English Lithuanian Dictionary. Vilnius: Mokslas. Grammar: Ambrazas, V. 1966. "Litovskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 501-27. Peterson, M. N. 1955. Ocherk litovskogo jazyka. Moscow.
TextBooks: Dambriunas, Leonardas, Antanas Klimas and William R. Schmalstieg. 1966. Introdution to Modern Lithuanian. Brooklyn: Franciscan Fathers Press.
Other Sources: Klimas, Antanas. 1970. "Some Attempts to Inventory Lithuanian Phonames," in Baltic Linguistics, ed. by Thomas F. Magner and William R. Schmalstieg, University Park, Penneylvania State Univ Press, 93-102.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž (x) h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ei ie ui uo
Syllable: (C) (C)V(N,L)
Tones: rls fall short
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf 2=intim; 5=2 polite & 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP

Обзоры типологий славянских языков (Slavic)

Number: 1875
Language: Russian
Location: Russia
Population: 150 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Smirnitsky, A. I. 1959. Russian-English Dictionary. New York: E. P. Dutton. Müller, V. K. 1959. English-Russian Dictionary. New York: E. P. Dutton. Grammar: Forbes, Nevill. 1964. Russian Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Panov, M. V. 1966. "Russkij jazyk," in JNS 1, 55-122. Bidwell, Charles E. 1969. The Structure of Russian in Outline. Pittsburgh: Univ of Pittsburgh Press .
TextBooks: Stilman, Galina, Leon Stilman and William E. Harkins. 1972. Introductory Russian Grammar. Lexington, Mass: Xerox.
Other Sources: Jones, Daniel and Dennis Ward. 1969. The Phonetics of Russian. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Auty, Robert and Dimitri Obolensky. 1977. An Introduction to Russian Language and Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č f s š x v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d k f v s z m n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ij ɨj ej aj oj uj
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 2=intim, 5= 2pol + 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1876
Language: Byelorussian
Location: Belarus
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Krapivy, K. K., ed. 1962. Belorussko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Russko-belorusskij slovar'. 1953. Moscow Birillo, N. Y., M. G. Bulaxov and M. R. Sudnik. 1966. "Belorusskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 154-93.
TextBooks: Pashkievich, V. 1974, 1978. Fundamental Byelorussian, 2 vols. Toronto.
Other Sources: Bidwell, Charles E. 1967. Outline of Bielorussian Morphology. Pittsburgh. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ (ɡ) t̪s č (dz) ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x h v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) Affricates: t̪s (d̪z) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ts dz č s z š ž n l cj all but t d ts č ɡ̌ š ž r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1877
Language: Ukrainian
Location: Ukraine
Population: 40 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Podvezko, M. L. and M. I. Balla. 1974. English-Ukrainian Dictionary. Kiev: Radyanska Shkola. Andrusyshen, C. H. and J. N. Krett. 1957. Ukrainian-English Dictionary. Toronto: Univ of Toronto Press. Grammar: Beloded, I. K. and M. A. Zhovtobrjux. 1966. "Ukrainskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 123-53.
TextBooks: Slavutych, Yar. 1969. Conversational Ukrainian. Edmonton: Gateway.
Other Sources: Bidwell, Charles E. 1971. Outline of Ukrainian Morphology. Pittsburgh: Univ Center for International Studies, Univ of Pittsburgh. Chopyk, Dan B. 1973. "Variant Phonemic Systems of Contemporary Standard Ukrainian," Linguistics 98, 5-19. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (dz) ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n s z ts dz l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1878
Language: Polish
Location: Poland
Population: 35 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: Stanislawski, Jan. 1964. The Great English-Polish Dictionary. Warsaw: State Publishing House. Grammar: Brooks, Maria Zagorska. 1975. Polish Referece Grammar. The Hague: Mouton.
TextBooks: Schenker, Alexander M. 1973. Beginning Polish, 2 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z ɡ̌ ɟ́ f s̪ š ś x v z̪ ž ź m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ ć ɟ́ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ś ź x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b k ɡ f v x m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: (ɛ̃) ɔ̃ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1879
Language: Kashubian
Location: N Poland
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Grammar: GD: Perkowski, Jan Louis. 1969. A Kashubian Idiolect in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Stokhof, W. A. L. 1973. The Extinct East-Slovencian Kluki-Dialect. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r ř ř is a voiced apical alveolar sibilant trill) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř (voiced apical alveolar sibilant trill) Modified Consonants: cj p b f v m n l t d Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: all bilingual in Polish
Number: 1880
Language: Polabian
Location: N Germany
Population: extinct (c. 1740)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: Polań́ski, Kazimierz and james Allen Sehnert. 1967. Polabian-English Dictionary. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts dz f s x v z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but f Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ã õ Diphthongs: ai ɑi oi au ɑu Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1881
Language: Upper Sorbian Alternate Name: Lusatian
Location: SE Germany
Population: 55,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: initial
Number: 1882
Language: Lower Sorbian
Location: E Germany
Population: 14,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1883
Language: Czech
Location: Czech Republic
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Grammar: Mazon, André. 1952. Grammaire de la langue tchèque. Paris: Institut d'Études Slaves. Harkins, William E. 1953. A Modern Czech Grammar. New York: King's Crown Press.
TextBooks: Schwarz, J. 1960. Colloquial Czech. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ (ɡ) t̪s č (f) s š x v z ž ɦ m n̪ l r ř (ř = rž < rj) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř (= rž < rj) Modified Consonants: cj t d n Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū (ō) Diphthongs: ou
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1884
Language: Slovak
Location: Slovakia
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: šimko, Ján. 1968. English-Slovak Dictionary. Bratislava: Pedagogical Publishing House. Grammar: Bartoš, Jozef and Joseph Gagnaire. 1972. Grammaire de la langue slovaque. Paris: Institut d'Études Slaves.
TextBooks: Baláž, Peter, Jozef Bartoš and Miloslav Darovec. 1973. Manuel de slovaque à l'usage des slavisants. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatel'stvo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ Diphthongs: ia ie iu uo
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mM m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1885
Language: Old Church Slavonic
Location: Bulgaria
Population: extinct (c. 1,000 A. D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Grammar: Lunt, Horace G. 1974. Old Church Slavonic Grammar. The Hague: Mouton. Schmalstieg, William T. 1976. An Introduction to Old Church Slavic. Cambridge, MA: Slavica.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č dz s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r rj Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts d̪z č Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r rj Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Ĭ ʋ̆ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ɔ̃
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1886
Language: Slovene Alternate Name: Slovenian
Location: Slovenia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Kotnik, Janko. 1962. Slovene-English Dictionary. Ljubljana: Državna Založba Slovenije. Grad, Anton. 1971. English-Slovene Dictionary. Ljubljana.
Other Sources: Lenček, Rado L. 1966. The Verb Pattern of Contemporary Standard Slovene. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Bidwell, Charles E. 1969. Outline of Slovenian Morphology. Pittsburgh: Univ Center for International Studies, Univ of Pittsburgh. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable:
Tones: ris fall Stress: on v̄, final if no v̄
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmM 6mfn m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1887
Language: Serbo-Croatian
Location: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia
Population: 17 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Drvodelić, Milan. 1970. Croato-Serbian English Dictionary. Zagreb: školska Knjiga. Rustić, Svetomir and živojin Simić. 1975. An English-Serbocroatian Dictionary. Belgrad: Prosveta. Grammar: Grozdić, Oton. 1969. Serbo-Croatian Grammar and Reader. New York: Hafner. Popović, Alexandre and Michel Popović. 1969. Manuel pratique de langue serbo-croate. Paris: Klinksieck. Dmitriev, P. A. and G. I. Safronov. 1975. Serboxorvatskij jazyk. Leningrad: Leningrad Univ. Press. Hamm, Josip. 1975. Grammatik der serbokroatischen Sprache. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Magner, Thomas F. 1972. Introduction to the Croatian and Serbian Language. State College, PA: Singidunum Press. Javarek, Vera and Miroslava Sudjić. 1969. Teach Yourself Serbo-Croat. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Hodge, Carleton T. 1946. "Serbo-Croatian Phonemes," Lg 22, 112-20 Bidwell Charles E. 1964. "The Serbo-Croatian Verb," Lg 40, 532-50.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ć ɡ̌ ɟ́ f s š h v z ž m n̪ ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s ć ɟ́ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) rˈ
Tones: ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1888
Language: Macedonian
Location: Macedonia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Kitanovski, Dano. 1967. Frantsusko-makedonski rechnik. Skopje. Grammar: Lunt, Horace G. 1952. A Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language. Skopje.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l lɯ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1889
Language: Bulgarian
Location: Bulgaria
Population: 8 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Atanasova, T., et al. 1975. Bulgarian-English Dictionary. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo. Atanasova, T., et al. 1973. English-Bulgarian Dictionary, 2 vols. Sofia: Academy of Sciences.
Other Sources: Van Campen, Joseph A. 1959. "Alternative Analyses of the Bulgarian Nonsyllabic Phonemes," Lg 35, 264-70. Aronson, Howard I. 1968. Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology. The Hague: Mouton. Scatton, Ernest A. 1975. Bulgarian Phonology. Cambrige, MA: Slavica. Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (dz) (ɡ̌) f s š x v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts (dz) č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but č ɡ̌ š ž x Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP

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