Типологии праязыков семитохамитской семьи

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по праязыкам хамитосемитских языковых ветвей
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Афразийской семьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Представленные языки афразийской общности ведут свою историю от праафразийского языка. На основе этимологических баз праязыков их групп (египетской, кушитской, ливийской, семитской, чадской) реконструирован праафразийский словарь.

База составлена А. Ю. Милитаревым и О. В. Столбовой как на основании многочисленных опубликованных источников, так и собственной, непрерывно продолжающейся работы. Именно в силу того, что базы постоянно изменяются и пополняются, они выглядят довольно сыро на фоне более "завершенных" электронных словарей сайта, но даже в том виде, в котором они представлены, их совокупная ценность выше, чем ценность любого из существующих на сегодняшний день этимологических афразийских словарей. Подчиненные базы посвящены дочерним семьям праафразийского (семитской, египетской, берберской, кушитским, чадским; авторство чадских баз целиком принадлежит О. В. Столбовой, остальных - почти целиком А. Ю. Милитареву). По-видимому, наиболее солидный вид на сегодня имеет семитская база, основанная на совместной работе А. Ю. Милитарева и Л. Е. Когана над Этимологическим словарем семитских языков. Смотрите и сам Праафразийский этимологический словарь.

Всего здесь представлено 6 типологических разделов, посвящённых ветвям большой афро-азиатской языковой семьи:

  1. Обзоры типологий древнеегипетских языков (Ancient Egyptian)
  2. Обзоры типологий берберских языков (Berber)
  3. Обзоры типологий чадских языков (Chadic)
  4. Обзоры типологий омотских языков (Omotic)
  5. Обзоры типологий кушитских языков (Cushitic)
  6. Обзоры типологий семитских языков (Semitic)

Также смотрите сведения по афразийскому языковедению (семитохамитологии).


Обзоры типологий древнеегипетских языков (Ancient Egyptian)

Number: 1317
Language: Ancient Egyptian
Location: Egypt
Population: c. 2,500 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Ancient Egyptian Grammar: Sander-Hansen, C. E. 1963. Ågyptische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Donadoni, Sergio. 1963. Appunti di grammatica egiziana. Milan: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino. du Bourguet, Pierre. 1971. Grammaire égyptienne. Louvain: Peeters. černy, Jaroslav. 1975. A Late Egyptian Grammar. Rome: Biblical Institute Press.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [2]) N-POSS D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1318
Language: Coptic
Location: Egypt
Population: extinct (19th c.)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Ancient Egyptian Dictionary: Cerny, J. 1976. Coptic Etymological Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Grammar: Elanskaja, A. I. 1964. Koptskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Kosack, Wolfgany. 1974. Lehrbuch des Koptischen. Graz: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt.
Other Sources: Houghton, Herbert Pierrepont. 1959. The Coptic Verb. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Knudsen, Ebbe E. 1961. "Saidic Coptic Vowel Phonemes," Acta Orientalia 26, 29-42.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š x h β v m n l r Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β v s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP

Обзоры типологий берберских языков (Berber)

Number: 1319
Language: Proto-Berber
Location: N Africa
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber
Other Sources: Prasse, Karl-G. 1972-74. Manuel de grammaire touaregue, 3 vols. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ f s (š) χ h z ʁ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z (š) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ d z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1320
Language: Guanche
Location: Canary Islands
Population: extinct (16th c.)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Guanche
Consonant system:
Number: 1321
Language: East Numidian Alternate Name: Old Libyan
Location: Morocco
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: East Numidian
Consonant system:
Number: 1322
Language: Siwa
Location: NW Egypt
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1323
Language: Awjila
Location: NE Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1324
Language: Sokna
Location: NC Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1325
Language: Ghadames
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1326
Language: Tamahaq Dialect: Ahaggar
Location: S Algeria
Population: 200,000 (10,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg Dictionary: Cortade, Jean-Marie. 1967. Lexique français-touareg. Algiers: Arts et Métiers Graphiques. Grammar: Prasse, Karl-G. 1972-74. Manuel de grammaire touaregue, 3 vols. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Consonant system: t̪ k q (ʔ) b d̪ ɟ ɡ f s̪ š χ h z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ q (ʔ) Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ ɐ v̄̄ (overlonɡ) all but ǝ ɐ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1327
Language: Tamazheq
Location: Niger
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg
Consonant system:
Number: 1328
Language: Tamasheq
Location: Niger
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg
Consonant system:
Number: 1329
Language: Zenaga
Location: SW Mauritania
Population: 16,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Western Grammar: Nicolas, F. 1953. La langue berbère de Mauritanie. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h ð z ž ɣ (ʕ) m n ñ l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š ž ɣ (ʕ) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d k θ ð s z l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO/SVO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1330
Language: Shilha
Location: SW Morocco
Population: 3 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Grammar: Applegate, Joseph R. 1958. An Outline of the Structure of Shilha. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Other Sources: Nakano, Aki'o. 1976. Dialogues in Moroccan Shilha. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo Univ.
Consonant system: t k q (ʔ) b d ɡ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but cɒ and ɡlides cɒ t d k s z l r cʷ k ɡ q χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Syntax: VSO NA Comments: Men, but not women, are bilingual in Arabic.
Number: 1331
Language: Tamazight Dialect: Ayt Ayache
Location: C Morocco
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Dictionary: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971a. A Computerized Lexicon of Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan. Grammar: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971b. A Reference Grammar of Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan.
TextBooks: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971c. A Course in Spoken Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan.
Other Sources: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1968. Tamazight Verb Structure. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: t̪h k̄ q qʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ̄ m n l̪ ɾ Stops: b t̪h d̪ k̄ ɡ̄ q qʷ ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ most cɒ t d s z l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO/(SVO) NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1332
Language: Tamazight Dialect: Ait Ndhir
Location: C Morocco
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Grammar: Willms, Alfred. 1972. Grammatik der südlichen Beraberdialekte. Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin. Penchoen, Thomas G. 1973. Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena.
Other Sources: Harries, Jeanette. 1970. "A Berber Tanšhat: In a Tamazight Dialect," BSOAS 33, 308-21.
Consonant system: t̪ k kʷ q b d̪ ɡ ɡ̄ʷ č̄ ɡ̌̄ m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k kʷ ɡ ɡ̄ʷ q Affricates: č̄ ɡ̌̄ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but θ x xʷ β ð ɣ ɣʷ ʁ j w (č ɡ̌ ɡʷ are always lonɡ) cɒ t ð (s) z r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1333
Language: Kabyle
Location: N Algeria
Population: 1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Kabyle Dictionary: Newmen, Francis William. 1887. Kabail Vocabulary. London: Trübner. Grammar: Hanoteau, Adolphe. 1906. Essai de grammaire kabyle. Algiers. [Reprinted 1976 by Philo Press, Amsterdam.] Hanouz, S. 1968. Grammaire berbère. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Saı̈d, Boulifa S. A.1910. Une première année de langue kabyle. Algiers: Adolphe Tourdan. Vincennes, Louis de and J.-M. Dallet. 1960. Initiation à la langue berbère (Kabylie). Fort-Nationale, Algeria: Fichier de documentation berbère.
Consonant system: t k kʷ q b d ɡ ɡʷ ts č dz ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1334
Language: Shawiya
Location: NE Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1335
Language: Tidikelt
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1336
Language: Tuat
Location: C Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1337
Language: Riff
Location: N Morocco
Population: 1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati Dictionary: Ibañez, Esteban. 1959. Diccionario español-senhayi. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1338
Language: Ghmara
Location: Morocco
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1339
Language: Tlemcen
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1340
Language: Sheliff Basin
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1341
Language: Gurara
Location: C Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1342
Language: Mzab
Location: NC Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1343
Language: Wargla
Location: NE Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1344
Language: Ghardaia
Location: NC Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1345
Language: Tugurt
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1346
Language: Tmagurt
Location: S Tunisia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1347
Language: Sened
Location: S Tunisia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1348
Language: Jerba
Location: S Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1349
Language: Tamezret
Location: Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1350
Language: Taujjut
Location: Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1351
Language: Zwara
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1352
Language: Nefusi
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:

Обзоры типологий чадских языков (Chadic)

Number: 1353
Language: Proto-Chadic
Location: N Africa
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1977. Chadic Classification and Reconstructions, Afroasiatic Linguistics 5:1.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ʄ ɡ f s š x z m n ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ Fricatives: f s z š x Nasals: m n Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj k ɡ x cʷ k ɡ x ?Nc mb ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Tones: hi lo (perhaps a pitch accent)
Number: 1354
Language: Masa
Location: SW Chad (W TandjilВ)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 1355
Language: Zime
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1356
Language: Mesme
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1357
Language: Marba
Location: SW Chad (W TandjilВ)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1358
Language: Musey
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 48,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa Grammar: Platiel, Suzanne. 1968. Esquisse d'une étude du musey. BSELAF 6.
Consonant system: p t k b mb d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s ç h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b mb t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ç h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1359
Language: Somrai
Location: SW Chad (N TandjilВ)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1360
Language: Tumak
Location: SW Chad (E TandjilВ)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai Dictionary: Caprile, Jean-Pierre. 1975. Lexique tumak-français. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ̪ ɡ ŋɡ ɡ̌ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ũ õ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4de 4i 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1361
Language: Ndam
Location: SW Chad (SE TandjilВ)
Population: 670
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1362
Language: Sarwa
Location: SW Chad (S Chari-Baguirimi)
Population: 400
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1363
Language: Gadang
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1364
Language: Mod
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1365
Language: Miltu
Location: SC Chad (NW Moyen-Chari)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1366
Language: Nancere
Location: SW Chad (S TandjilВ)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Other Sources: Hoffman, Carl. 1971. "On the Classification of Nancere," JWAL 8, 5-12.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1367
Language: Lele
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1368
Language: Gabri
Location: N Central African Republic
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Consonant system:
Number: 1369
Language: Kabalai
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Consonant system:
Number: 1370
Language: Kera
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Kera
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1371
Language: Kwang
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Kera
Consonant system:
Number: 1372
Language: Mokulu
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B
Consonant system:
Number: 1373
Language: Dangla Alternate Name: Dangaleat
Location: SC Chad (N Guera)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla Dictionary: Fédry, Jacques. 1971. Dictionnaire dangaléat. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Other Sources: Fédry, Jacques. 1969. "Syntagmes de détermination en dangaléat," JWAL 6, 5-19. Fédry, Jacques. 1971a. "Masculin, féminin et collectif en dangaléat (groupe 'sokoro-mubi' - Tchad," JAL 10, 34-46. Fédry, Jacques. 1971b. Phonologie du dangaléat. Lyon: Afrique et Language.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b ɓ d̪ ɗ̪ ɟ ʄ ɡ s z m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1374
Language: Migama
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1375
Language: Mahwa
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1376
Language: Jegu
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1377
Language: Mogum
Location: SC Chad (C Guera)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1378
Language: Bidiyo Alternate Name: Bidiya
Location: Chad
Population: 14,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1379
Language: Mubi
Location: SW Chad (NE Guera)
Population: 36,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1380
Language: Masmaje
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1381
Language: Kajakse
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1382
Language: Kujarge
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1383
Language: Toram
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1384
Language: Sokoro
Location: SW Chad (C Guera)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1385
Language: Barain
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1386
Language: Saba
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1387
Language: Tera
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera Grammar: Newman, Paul. 1970. A Grammar of Tera. UCPL 57.
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1964. "A Word List of Tera," JWAL 1:2, 33-50.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ b mb ɓ d nd ɗ ʄ ɡ ɡʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ɠ č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ f s š x xʷ v z ž ɣ ɣʷ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b mb ɓ t d nd ɗ ʄ k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ɠ Affricates: č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p ɓ v Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1388
Language: Jara
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Consonant system:
Number: 1389
Language: Ga'anda
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Other Sources: Newman, Roxana Ma. 1971. "Downstep in Ga'anda," JAL 10, 15-27.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ mb ɓ nd ɗ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ č ñɡ̌ f s š x xʷ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p mb ɓ t nd ɗ k kʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š x xʷ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ x Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (fall) downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1390
Language: Hona
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Consonant system:
Number: 1391
Language: Bura Dialect: Pabir
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1392
Language: Chibak
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1393
Language: Putai
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1394
Language: Margi Dialect: Lassa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 151,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1395
Language: Margi
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 151,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi Grammar: Hoffman, Carl. 1963. A Grammar of the Margi Language. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Consonant system: p pt t c k ʔ b ɓ bd bɗ d ɗ ɟ ɡ pts ts pč č bdz dz bɡ̌ ɡ̌ f fs s fç š ç x v vz z vj ̂ ž j ̂ ɣ m n mñ ñ ŋ l ɬ bɮ ɮ (v̊) r Stops: p b ɓ pt bd bɗ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: pts bdz ts dz pč bɡ̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v fs vz s z š ž ç j ̂ fç vj ̂ x ɣ Nasals: m n mñ ñ ŋ Laterals: bɮ l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: (v̊) r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ts dz č ɡ̌ š ɬ cʷ p b ɓ mb t nt k ɡ ŋk ŋɡ nts f v s x ɣ m ŋ ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: hi lo ris (fall)
Number: 1396
Language: Kilba
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1397
Language: Higi Dialect: Nkafa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 203,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: Mohrlang, Roger. 1971. "Vectors, Prosodies, and Higi Vowels," JAL 10, 75-86. Mohrlang, Roger. 1972. Higi Phonology. Studies in Nigerian Languages, No. 2. Zaria: Institute of Linguistics.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ v̊ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ cj all but r cʷ all but l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1398
Language: Higi Dialect: Baza
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 203,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1399
Language: Bana
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1400
Language: Sukur
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1401
Language: Lamang
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1402
Language: Mandara Alternate Name: Malgwa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 190,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1403
Language: Paduko Alternate Name: Podokwo
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1404
Language: Glavda
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 19,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara Dictionary: Rapp, Eugen Ludwig, Brigitta Benzing and Christraud Mühle. 1968, 1969. Dictionary of the Glavda Language, 2 vols. Frankfurt on Main: Frankfurt on Main Bible Society.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ŋɡ tl č dl ɡ̌ f s š ç x v z ž ɣ n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋj l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: tl dl č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž ç x ɣ Nasals: n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋj Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO ND N-POSS
Number: 1405
Language: Guduf
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1406
Language: Dghwede
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1407
Language: Gvoko
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1408
Language: Mafa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1409
Language: Mofu Alternate Name: Mofu-Gudur Dialect: Zulgo
Location: N Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Other Sources: Haller, Beat. 1980. Phonology of Zulgo. Yaoundé, Cameroon: Institut des Sciences Humaines.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b mb ɓ d nd ɗ ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ts dz ndz f s h v z m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b mb ɓ t d nd ɗ k kʷ ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz ndz Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo downstep
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1410
Language: Gisiga
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 44,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1411
Language: Mada
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1412
Language: Hurza
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1413
Language: Muktele
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1414
Language: Daba Dialect: Musgoy
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 31,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Other Sources: Wedekind, Klaus. 1976. "Kolá, tpalá, ou ʔkpalá ?: Notes sur les occlusives doubles dans la langue daba-mousgoy (Kola) du Nord-Cameroun," AFL 2, 91-104.
Consonant system: p pt t̪ kt k kʷ (ʔkp) b ɓ bd d̪ ɗ̪ ɡd ɡ ɡʷ t̪s d̪z f s̪ h v z̪ m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ ɮ̪ r Stops: p b ɓ pt bd t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ kt ɡd k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ (ʔkp) Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ ɮ̪ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ dz Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1415
Language: Gawar
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Consonant system:
Number: 1416
Language: Hina
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 4,300
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Consonant system:
Number: 1417
Language: Gudu
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1418
Language: Bata
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 39,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1419
Language: Bata Dialect: Bachama
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 39,000 (20,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1420
Language: Gude
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Other Sources: Hoskison, James. 1974. "Prosodies and Verb Stems in Gude," Linguistics 141, 17-26. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts dz f s x v z ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ s z x ɬ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1421
Language: Nzangi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1422
Language: Musgu Dialect: Vulum
Location: SW Chad (N Mayo-Kebbi)
Population: 50,000 (8,500)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B Grammar: Tourneux, Henry. 1978. Le mulwi ou vulum de mogroum (Tchad). Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ ɡ f s h v z m n̪ (ñ) ŋ l ɬ ɮ ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī (ē) ā ū (ō) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (sing only) Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6hN N=non-hum
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1423
Language: Gidar
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Consonant system:
Number: 1424
Language: Buduma
Location: W Chad (Lac)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Other Sources: Benton, P. A. 1912. Notes on Some Languages of the Western Sudan. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 by Frank Cass & Co, London, as The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol 1.] WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1425
Language: Kotoko
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: NG
Number: 1426
Language: Logone Alternate Name: Lagwan
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1427
Language: Hausa
Location: N Nigeria (Kano)
Population: 20 million (12 million speak it as a first language)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Hausa Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1962. Dictionary of the Hausa Language. London: Univ of London Press. Skinner, Neil. 1970. English-Hausa Dictionary. Zatia: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company. Grammar: Abraham, R. C. 1959. The Language of the Hausa People. London: Univ of London Press. Taylor, F. W. 1959. A Practical Hausa Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
TextBooks: Hodge, Carleton T. and Ibrahim Umaru. 1963. Hausa Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute. Kraft, Charles H. and Marguerite E. Kraft. 1973. Introductory Hausa. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Kraft, Charles H. and Anthony Kirk-Greene. 1973. Teach Yourself Hausa. London: English Universities Press. Cowan, J. Ronayne and Russell G. Schuh. 1975. Spoken Hausa. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Language Services.
Other Sources: Kraft, Charles H. 1963. A Study of Hausa Syntax, 3 vols. HSL 8-10. Hoffman, Carl. 1969. "Hausa," in TNL, 73-84.
Consonant system: t k kʷ kj kʔ kʔʷ kʔj ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡʷ ɡj č ɡ̌ ɸ s sʔ š h z m n l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: b ɓ t d ɗ k kʷ kj kʔ kʔʷ kʔj ɡ ɡʷ ɡj ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s sʔ z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo fall downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1428
Language: Gwandara
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Hausa
Other Sources: Matsushita, Shuji. 1974. A Comparative Vocabulary of Gwandara Dialects. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ s š h z m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p k ɡ cʷ b k ɡ č h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid lo (+ 6 contour tones)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 1429
Language: Karekare
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1430
Language: Bole
Location: NE Nigeria (Bornu)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
TextBooks: Lukas, J. 1971. "Über das erweiterte Verb im Bolanci (Nordnigerien)," JAL 10, 1-14.
Other Sources: Benton, P. A. 1912. Notes on Some Languages of the Western Sudan. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 by Frank Cass & Co, London, as The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol 1.]
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ z Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1431
Language: Bele
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1432
Language: Ngamo
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1433
Language: Maha
Location: N Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1965. "A Brief Note on the Maha Language," JWAL 2:1, 57-8.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: m̄ Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1434
Language: Kirfi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1435
Language: Deno
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1436
Language: Kubi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1437
Language: Galambu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1438
Language: Gera
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1439
Language: Kanakuru
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡ̌ f s š m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1440
Language: Tangale
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: Jungraithmayr H. 1971. "The Tangale Vowel Harmony System Roconsidered," JAL 10, 28-33. WALS
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 1441
Language: Pero
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1442
Language: Kupto
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Consonant system:
Number: 1443
Language: Gerka
Location: EC Nigeria (NE Benue-Plateau)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1444
Language: Angas
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: Burquest, D. A. 1971. A Preliminary Study of Angas Phonology. Studies in Nigerian Languages, No. 1. Zaria: Institute of Linguistics. STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ č ɡ̌ s š ž l w cj p b k ɡ cʷ p b ɓ k ɡ č ɡ̌ f v s š ž m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ɨ̄ ā Diphthongs: ǝI
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NA N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1445
Language: Sura Alternate Name: Mupun
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ɓ ɗ č čh f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1446
Language: Kofyar Dialect: Kwolla
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas Dictionary: Netting, Robert. 1967. A Word List of Kofyar. Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 1.2. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 1447
Language: Chip
Location: C Nigeria (NE Benue-Plateau)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1448
Language: Goemai Alternate Name: Ankwe
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d ɗ k kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1449
Language: Montol
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1450
Language: Tal
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1451
Language: Pyapun
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1452
Language: Koenoem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1453
Language: Fyer
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1454
Language: Ron
Location: C Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1455
Language: Sha
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1456
Language: Kulere
Location: Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1457
Language: Karfa
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1458
Language: Shagawu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1459
Language: Duwai
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade
Consonant system:
Number: 1460
Language: Bade
Location: NE Nigeria (NW North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade
Consonant system:
Syntax: NG
Number: 1461
Language: Ngizim
Location: N Nigeria (NW North-Eastern)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade Dictionary: Schuh, Russell G. 1981. A Dictionary of Ngizim. UCPL 99.
Other Sources: Schuh, Russell G. 1971. "Verb Forms and Verb Aspects in Ngizim," JAL 10, 47-60.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ f s š h v z ž m n ñ l ɬ ɮ ɾ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ŋɡ Nc b d ɡ Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: (ɨ) a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi lo (ris) fall downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/AN
Number: 1462
Language: Warji Alternate Name: Warjawa
Location: NC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1463
Language: Pa'a Alternate Name: Owon Afa
Location: Nigeria (Western)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Other Sources: Awobuluyi, Oladele. 1972. "The Morphophonemics of Owon Afa," Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 5.2-3, 25-44.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h hʷ m n ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h hʷ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO AN NG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1464
Language: Siri Alternate Name: Sirawa
Location: NC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1465
Language: Diri Alternate Name: Diryawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 3,300
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1466
Language: Jimbin
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1467
Language: Miya Alternate Name: Miyawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 5,200
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1468
Language: Mburku
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1469
Language: Kariya
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1470
Language: Tsagu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1471
Language: Zaar Alternate Name: Seyawa
Location: EC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Other Sources: Schneeberg, Nan. 1971. "Sayanci Verb Tonology," JAL 10, 87-100.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ dz ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO NA NG
Number: 1472
Language: Barawa
Location: EC Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1473
Language: Zeem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1474
Language: Polchi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1475
Language: Geji
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1476
Language: Guruntum
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1477
Language: Ju
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1478
Language: Boghom
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1479
Language: Mangas
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:

Обзоры типологий омотских языков (Omotic)

Number: 1480
Language: Hamar Alternate Name: Hamer
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 22,500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South Grammar: Lydall, Jean. 1976. "Hamer," in NSLE, 393-438.
Consonant system: p t k qʔ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ ts č ɡ̌ s š h z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n l r ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Ḭ ɛ̰ æ̰ ʋ̰ ɔ̰ (v̰ = constricted pharynx and retracted tonɡue root; v = open pharynx and advanced tonɡue root) Diphthongs: aj aw je jo ej oj we ow
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1481
Language: Ari
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Gemu Gofa)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1482
Language: Dime
Location: SW Ethiopia (NW Gemu Gofa)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1483
Language: Dizi Alternate Name: Maji
Location: SW Ethiopia (SW Kefa)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid Grammar: Allan, Edward J. 1976. "Dizi," in NSLE, 377-92.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ b d ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h β z ž m n l r Stops: b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s z š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) lˈ Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1484
Language: Nao Alternate Name: Nayi
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Kefa)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1485
Language: Shako Alternate Name: Sheko
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Kefa)
Population: 23,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1486
Language: Bambeshi
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1487
Language: Hozo
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Consonant system:
Number: 1488
Language: Sezo
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Consonant system:
Number: 1489
Language: Ganza
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1490
Language: Kafa Alternate Name: Kefa
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Kefa)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South Grammar: Cerulli, Enrico. 1951. La lingua caffina. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. Fleming, Harold C. 1976. "Kefa (Gonga) Languages," in NSLE, 351-76.
Consonant system: p (pʔ) t tʔ k k ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f š h m n l r Stops: p (pʔ) b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1491
Language: Mocha Alternate Name: Shekkacho
Location: SW Ethiopia (SC Ilubabor)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South Dictionary: Leslau, Wolf. 1959. A Dictionary of Moča (Southwestern Ethiopia). UCPL 18.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1492
Language: Bosha
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South
Consonant system:
Number: 1493
Language: Anfillo Alternate Name: Southern Mao
Location: W Ethiopia (N Ilubabor)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1494
Language: Naga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1495
Language: Guba
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1496
Language: Boro Alternate Name: Shinasha
Location: W Ethiopia (W Gojam)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1497
Language: Amuru
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1498
Language: Janjero Alternate Name: Yemsa
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Janjero Grammar: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l' Oriente.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ḍʔ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ ɸ f s š χ h z ʁ m mʔ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d ḍʔ k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ f s z š χ ʁ h Nasals: m mʔ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j jʔ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1499
Language: Fuga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Janjero
Consonant system:
Number: 1500
Language: Bencho Alternate Name: Gimira
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Kefa )
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Gimira
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1501
Language: She
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Ilubabor)
Population: 42,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Gimira
Consonant system:
Number: 1502
Language: Chara
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Kefa)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Chara
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h z ž m n nʔ l r Stops: b t tʔ d dʔ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž h Nasals: m n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1503
Language: Basketo
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Gemu Gofa)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: West
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. E
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ b bʔ d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h z m mʔ n nʔ l r Stops: p b bʔ t tʔ d dʔ k kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV Comments: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 1504
Language: Male
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 12,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: South
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1505
Language: Oyda
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 3,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1506
Language: Ometo Alternate Name: Walamo, Gamo Dialect: Gofa
Location: SW Ethiopia (NE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 908,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central Grammar: GD: Moreno, Martino Mario 1938. Introduzione alla lingua ometo. Rome: A. Mondadori.
Other Sources: Ohman, Walter A., et al. 1976. "Three Other Ethiopian Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d ɗ̣ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s sʔ š h m n l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s sʔ š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthongs
Noun
Number: s p (pl forms not normally used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1507
Language: Ometo Alternate Name: Walamo, Wolaytta Dialect: Kullo
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Kefa)
Population: 908.000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central Grammar: Allan, Edward J. 1976. "Kullo," in NSLE, 324-50.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ ts tsʔ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n l r Stops: b ɓ t tʔ d ɗ k kʔ ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: ai oi aw
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) (no CGVC)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2 respectful
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1508
Language: Zayse
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 21,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Consonant system: p t k kʔ ʔ b d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɸ f s š h z ž m n nʔ l r Stops: p b t d dʔ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: ɸ f s z š ž h Nasals: m n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N
Number: 1509
Language: Zergulla
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1510
Language: Ganjule
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1511
Language: Gidiccho
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1512
Language: Gatsame Alternate Name: Kachama
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1513
Language: Koyra Alternate Name: Koorete
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Sidamo)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV

Обзоры типологий кушитских языков (Cushitic)

Number: 1514
Language: Beja Alternate Name: Bedauye, Bedawi
Location: NE Sudan (N Kassala)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Beja Dictionary: Reinisch, Leo. 1985. Wörterbuch der Bedauye-Sprache. Vienna. Grammar: GD: Roper, E. M. 1928. Tu Bedawiɛ. Hertford, England: Stephen Austin & Sons. Hudson, Richard A. 1976. "Beja," in NSLE, 97-132.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ ṭʔ k kʷ ʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ ɡʷ ɡ̌ f s̪ šʔ (x) h (z̪) (ɣ) m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ṭʔ ḍ k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ (z̪) šʔ (x) (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(t)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN/(NG) DN/(ND) NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1515
Language: Awngi Alternate Name: Awiya
Location: W Ethiopia (SC Gojam)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: Hetzron, Robert. 1978. "The Nominal System of Awngi (Southern Agaw)," BSOAS 41, 121-41. LA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š χ z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ k ɡ χ ʁ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: (ɨ) a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi mid lo fall Stress: normally penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 & 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1516
Language: Xamir Alternate Name: Khamir
Location: N Ethiopia (W Elo)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1517
Language: Kemant Alternate Name: Falasha, Qimant
Location: W Ethiopia (S Begemdir and Simen)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central Grammar: GD: Conti Rossini, Carlo. 1912. La langue des kemant en abyssinie. Vienna: Alfred Hölder. Appleyard, D. L. 1975. "A Descriptive Outline of Kemant," BSOAS 38, 316-50.
Consonant system: t (tʔ) k kʷ (kʔ) b d ɡ ɡʷ (č) (čʔ) ɡ̌ f s š x xʷ z ɣ ɣʷ m n ŋ ŋʷ l ɾ Stops: b t (tʔ) d k kʷ (kʔ) ɡ ɡʷ Affricates: (č) (čʔ) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1518
Language: Bilin Alternate Name: Bilen
Location: NW Ethiopia (W Eritrea)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: Palmer, F. R. 1957. "The Verb in Bilin," BSOAS 19, 131-59. Palmer, F. R. 1958. "The Noun in Bilin", BSOAS 21, 376-91. LA
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʷ kʔ kʔʷ q qʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ č čʔ ɡ̌ m n ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: b t tʔ d k kʷ kʔ kʔʷ ɡ ɡʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: Some, but not all, words have a prominent syllable [= hi pitch + stress]
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f [sg only] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1519
Language: Xamta Alternate Name: Xamtanga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1520
Language: Burji
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b (ɓ) d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ (ñ) l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b (ɓ) t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s (p) (only a few plurals exist)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1521
Language: Sidamo
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 850,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland Grammar: GD: Moreno, Martino Mario. 1940. Manuale di Sidamo. Rome: A Mondadori. Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia dei Sidamo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77. LA.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r ɾ̣ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p (pl seldom used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1522
Language: Gedeo Alternate Name: Derasa
Location: S Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia dei Sidamo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r ɾ̣ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1523
Language: Kambata Alternate Name: Kaambata
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Shewa)
Population: 290,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h z̪ m n̪ l̪ r̪ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1524
Language: Hadiyya
Location: C Ethiopia (Arusi )
Population: 700,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L. 1976. "Two Cushitic Languages," in LE. Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 3 polite
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1525
Language: Yaaku Alternate Name: Mogogodo
Location: C Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. "The Mogogodo, a Forgotten Cushitic People," JAL 2, 29-43.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 1526
Language: Harso Dialect: Bussa
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1527
Language: Gawwada
Location: SW Ethiopia (Gemu Gofa)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay Grammar: Black, Paul. 1976. "Werizoid," in NSLE, 222-31.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ ɓ ɗ č čʔ m n ñ l r Stops: p ɓ t tʔ ɗ k kʔ q ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NG N-NUM
Number: 1528
Language: Tsamay Alternate Name: Tsamai
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1529
Language: Birale Alternate Name: Ongota
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1530
Language: Afar Alternate Name: Qafar
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 1.6 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Afar-Saho Grammar: Bliese, Loren. 1976. "Afar," in NSLE, 133-65.
Other Sources: Hayward, R. J. 1974. "The Segmental Phonemes of 'Afar,' " BSOAS 37, 385-406. Morin, Didier. 1977. "Le nom en afar du sud," BSOAS 40, 354-70.
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ k ɡ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 4 (3 + very far) + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1531
Language: Saho
Location: Eritrea
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Afar-Saho
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 1532
Language: Dasenech Alternate Name: Dhaasanac, Galeba
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana Grammar: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1976. "Dasenech," in NSLE, 196-221.
Other Sources: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1974. "Notes on the Structure of Galab," BSOAS 37, 407-38. LA
Consonant system: t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ č ɡ̌ f s š h ð m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f ð s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: Ī ɛ̄ ā ʋ̄ ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: iɛ uɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo hi-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Independent third-person pronouns do not exist in the subject paradigm. In case of ambiguity words like 'man,' 'woman,' 'wife,' 'girl,' 'people,' etc. are used.
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1533
Language: Elmolo
Location: Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Consonant system:
Number: 1534
Language: Arbore
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1535
Language: Bayso
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Hayward, R. J. 1978-79. "Bayso Revisited: Some Preliminary Linguistic Observations - I & II," BSOAS 41: 539-70 & 42: 101-32.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h (z) m (ʔm) n ʔn l ʔl ɾ ʔɾ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) š h Nasals: m (ʔm) n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl Vibrants: ɾ ʔɾ Modified Consonants: v̄ all but h and cʔ Glides: j w (ʔw)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Noun
Number: s P p P=paucal (2-6)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN [when no other modifier is present]) GN/NG DN N-NUM N-POSS D+N+Num+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1536
Language: Rendille
Location: NC Kenya (N Eastern)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Heine, Bernd. 1978. "The Sam Languages: A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali," AFL 6:2, 1-93. Oomen, Antoinette. 1978. "Focus in the Rendille Clause," SAL 9, 35-65.
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ ḍ ɡ č m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all ?
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/(GN) ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1537
Language: Somali
Location: Somalia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1964. Somali-English Dictionary. London: Univ of London Press. Abraham, R. C. 1967. English-Somali Dictionary. London: Univ of London Press. Philibert, Christophe. 1976. Petit lexique somali-français. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Kirk, J. W. C. 1905. A Grammar of the Somali Language. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. [Reprented 1969 by Gregg International, Farnsborough, England] Moreno, Martino Mario. 1955. Il somalo della Somalia. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato. Pia, John Joseph. 1965. Somali Sounds and Inflections. Bloomington: Indiana Univ Diss.
TextBooks: Beli C. R. V. 1953. The Somali Language. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Pia, J. Joseph, Paul D. Black and M. I. Samater. 1966. Beginning in Somali. Syracuse: Program of Eastern African Studies, Syracuse Univ.
Other Sources: Armstrong, Lilias E. 1934. The Phonetic Structure of Somali. Berlin. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, N.J.]
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but q ɡ̌ s χ ʕ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1538
Language: Aweer Alternate Name: Boni
Location: Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1979. "Entlehnung morphonemischer regeln im Boni," SUGIA 1, 93-108.
Consonant system: t (tʔ) k (kʔ) ʔ b (bʔ) d dʔ (ɟ) ɡ ɡʔ č (čʔ) ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b (bʔ) t (tʔ) d dʔ (ɟ) k (kʔ) ɡ ɡʔ ʔ Affricates: č (čʔ) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all (ã ã̄ only in loanwords)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 (verb suffixes)
Number: 1539
Language: Oromo
Location: WC Ethiopia (E Welega)
Population: 7 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid Dictionary: Foot, Edwin C. 1913. A Galla-English, English-Galla Dictionary. Cambridge. [Reprinted 1968 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, N.J.] Grammar: Gragg, Gene. 1976. "Oromo of Wellegga," in NSLE, 166-95. Bender, Marvin Lionel and Mulugeta Eteffa. 1976. "Galla," in LE, 130-48.
TextBooks: Launhardt, Johannes. 1973. Guide to Learning the Oromo Language. Addis Ababa.
Other Sources: Andrzejewski, B. W. 1957. "Some Preliminary Observations on the Borana Dialect of Galla," BSOAS 19, 354-74. Bender, Marvin L., et al. 1976. "Two Cushitic Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: (p) pʔ t tʔ k k ʔ b d ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š (x) h (v) (z) m n ñ l r Stops: (p) pʔ b t tʔ d ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s (z) š (x) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p (plural forms seldom used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1540
Language: Bussa
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Consonant system:
Number: 1541
Language: Gidole Alternate Name: Dirasha
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1542
Language: Konso Alternate Name: Komso
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1543
Language: Dahalo Alternate Name: Sanye
Location: SE Kenya (S Northeastern)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Dahalo
Other Sources: Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97. Heine, Bernd. 1978. "The Sam Languages: A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali," AFL 6:2, 1-93. Tucker, A. N., M. A. Bryan and James Woodburn. 1977. "The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison," in Zur Sprachgeschicte und Ethnohistorie in Africa, ed. by W. Möhlig, F. Rottland and B. Heine, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer, 300-22.
Consonant system: p pʔ mph t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ŋk ʔ ɓ mb d̪ ɗ nd ɡ ŋɡ ts tl tlh č dz ɡ̌ f s ħ ɦ β v ɣ ʕ m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p pʔ mph ɓ mb t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ nd k kʔ ŋk ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz tl tlh č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f β v s ɣ ħ ʕ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Clicks: / n/ /ʔ Modified Consonants: Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1544
Language: Ma'a
Location: NE Tanzania (Tanga)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Ma'a
Other Sources: Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97.
Consonant system: t k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ f s š x h β m n l r Stops: b t d ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β f s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ n Nc Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: nc
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1545
Language: Asa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Consonant system:
Number: 1546
Language: Kw'adza
Location: Tanzania
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Consonant system:
Number: 1547
Language: Iraqw
Location: NE Tanzania (Arusha)
Population: 111,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: Whiteley, W. H. 1958. A Short Description of Item Categories in Iraqw. Kampala: East African Institute of Social Research. Whiteley, W. H. 1960. "The Verbal Radical in Iraqw," ALS 1, 79-95. Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ b ɓ d (ɗ) ɡ ɡʷ tsʔ tl m n ŋ ŋʷ l ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d (ɗ) k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ tl Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1548
Language: Alagwa Alternate Name: Alawa
Location: NC Tanzania (Arusha)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 1549
Language: Burunge
Location: NC Tanzania (N Dodoma)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: LA WALS E
Consonant system: Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV[already introduced object]/SVO[newly introduced object] N-POSS

Обзоры типологий семитских языков (Semitic)

Number: 1550
Language: Proto-Semitic
Location: Arabia
Population: c. 4,000 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic Grammar: Gray, Louis H. 1934. Introduction of Semitic Comparative Linguistics. New York: Columbia Univ Press. Moscati, Sabatino, et al. 1964. An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t θ ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: CV(C)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1551
Language: Eblaic
Location: N Syria
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic
Consonant system:
Number: 1552
Language: Akkadian
Location: E Iraq
Population: c. 2000 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: East Dictionary: Gelb, I. J. 1957. Glossary of Old Akkadian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Grammar: Reiner, Erica. 1966. A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian. The Hague: Mouton. Castellino, G. R. 1970. Grammatica accadica introduttiva. Rome: Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente. Lipin, L. A. 1973. The Akkadian Language. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Gelb, Ignace J. 1969. Sequential Reconstruction of Proto-Akkadian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ s š x z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Fricatives: s z š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1553
Language: Old Aramaic
Location: Syria
Population: c. 900 B.C .
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Grammar: Degen, Rainer. 1969. Altaramäische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t k θ ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū Diphthongs: ai aw
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p`
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1554
Language: Syriac
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic
Consonant system:
Number: 1555
Language: Assyrian Dialect: Mandaic
Location: N Iraq
Population: 500,000 (extinct)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Dictionary: Drower, E. S and R. Macuch. 1963. A Mandaic Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Grammar: Macuch, Rudolf. 1965. Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Other Sources: Yamauchi, Edwin M. 1967. Mandaic Incantation Texts. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (č) (ɡ̌) m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ ǝ Diphthongs: ei eu ai ou oi au Stress: non-phonemic (penult/antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1556
Language: Assyrian Dialect: Syriac
Location: NE Syria
Population: 500,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Dictionary: Oraham, A. 1943. Assyrian-English Dictionary. Chicago. Costaz, Louis. n.d. Dictionnaire syriaque-français New York: Altai Press. Grammar: GD: Garbell, Irene. 1965. The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Persian Azerbaijan. The Hague: Mouton. Costaz, Louis. 1955. Grammaire syriaque. Beruit: Imprimérie Catholique. Tsereteli, K. G.1964. Sovremennyj assirijskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Arsanis, G. V. 1968. "Sovremennyj assirijskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 489-507. Jacobi, Heidi. 1973. Grammatik des thumischen Neuaramäisch. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Sara, Solomon I. 1974. A Description of Modern Chaldean. The Hague: Mouton.
TextBooks: Robinson, Theodore H. 1962. Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Other Sources: Hetzron, Robert. 1969. "The Morphology of the Verb in Modern Syriac (Christian Colloquial of Urmi), JAOS 89, 112-27. Solomon, Zomaya S. and Robert K. Headley, Sr. 1973. "The Phonology of Modern Spoken Syriac," AL 15, 136-47.
Consonant system: ph th kh (q) ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) θ s š x h (v) ð z (ž) ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ (q) ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) θ ð s z š (ž) x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t ð s l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1557
Language: Aramaic Alternate Name: Neo-Aramaic
Location: Lebanon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1558
Language: Classical Hebrew
Location: Israel
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Grammar: Lambert, Mayer. 1972. Traité de grammaire hébraı̈que. Hildesheim: H. A. Gerstenberg. Blau, Joshua. 1976. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Davidson, A. B.1966. An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: aj aw Stress: mostly final (sometimes penult)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf *3mf *6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1559
Language: Hebrew
Location: Israel
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Dictionary: Sivan, Reuven and Edward A. Levenston. 1975. The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary. New York: Bantam.
TextBooks: Rosén, Haiim B. 1966. A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Mansoor, Menahem. 1972. Modern Hebrew. Madison. Harrison, R. K. n.d. Teach Yourself Hebrew. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Chayen, M. J. 1973. The Phonetics of Modern Hebrew. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (q) ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s ʁ m n̪ l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (q) ʔ Affricates: t̪s Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but tɒ sɒ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: mostly final (sometimes penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p (dual only used for body parts and things which come in pairs)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS Num+N +A +D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1560
Language: Phoenician
Location: Syria
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1561
Language: Ugaritic
Location: N Syria
Population: c. 1400 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Grammar: GD: Gorden, Cyrus H. 1965. Ugaritic Textbook. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1562
Language: Moabite
Location: Jordan
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1563
Language: Classical Arabic
Location: Saudi Arabia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Abcarius, J. John. 1974. English-Arabic Reader's Dictionary. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Grammar: Blachère, Régis. 1958. Éléments de l'arabe classique. Paris: Maisoneuve et Larose. Yushmanov, N. V. 1961. The Structure of the Arabic Language. Washigton, D.C.: CAL. Bateson, Mary Catherine. 1967. Arabic Language Handbook. Wahington, D.C.: CAL. Fischer, Wolfdietrich. 1972. Grammatik des klassischen Arabisch. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Ani, Salman H. al- and Jacob Y. Shammas. 1969. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill Univ. Tritton, Arthur S. 1970. Arabic. London: English Universities Press. Bishai, Wilson B. 1971. Concise Grammar of Literary Arabic: A New Approach. Dubuque, IA: Kendall & Hunt.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? cɒ t d ð s (z) (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: aj aw
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic (last long syllable/initial)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1564
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Saudi Arabian
Location: Saudi Arabia
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Schreiber, Giselher. 1970. Der arabische Dialekt von Mekka. Münster: Univ of Münster Diss.
Other Sources: Ingham, Bruce. 1971. "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech," BSOAS 34, 273-97. Bakalla, M. H. 1973. The Phonology and Morphology of Meccan Arabic. London: Univ of London Diss. E
Consonant system: t̪ k (q) (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (q) (ʔ) Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1565
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Palestinian
Location: Israel
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Elihai, Yohanan. 1973. Dictionnaire de l'arabe parlé palestinien. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Driver, Godfrey Rolles. 1925. A Grammar of the Colloquial Arabic of Syria and Palestine. London: Probsthain and Co.
TextBooks: Kapliwatzky, Jochanan. 1968. Colloquial Arabic. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1566
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Gulf
Location: United Arab Emirates
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Qafisheh, Hamdi A. 1977. A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press.
TextBooks: Qafisheh, Hamdi A. 1975. A Basic Course in Gulf Arabic. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t ð s l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: iw ij aw āw aj āj uw
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) (no CCVCC) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1567
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Iraqi
Location: Iraq
Population: 50 million ( 10 million)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Clarity, Beverly E., Karl Stowasser and Ronald G. Wolf, eds. 1964. A Dictionary of Iraqi: English-Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Erwin, Wallace M. 1963. A Short Reference Grammar of Iraqi Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetwon Univ Press.
TextBooks: Erwin, Wallace M. 1969. A Basic Course in Iraqi Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Other Sources: Ani, Salman H. al-. 1970. Arabic Phonology. The Haque: Mouton.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ (ɡ) č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ (p) (b) t (f) ð s (z) (m) (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: ʋ (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aj āj aw āw iw ēw
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (last long syllable/penult in 2-syllable words; antepenult in words of 3 or more syllables)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1568
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Lebanese
Location: Lebanon
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite
TextBooks: Kassab, Jean. 1970. Manuel du parler arabe moderne au moyen-orient. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
Consonant system: t k (q) ʔ b d m n l r Stops: b t d k (q) ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1569
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Syrian
Location: Syria
Population: 50 million (7 million)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Stowasser, Karl and Moukhtar Ani. 1964. A Dictionary of Syrian Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Cowell, Mark W. 1964. A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grotzfeld, Heinz. 1965. Syrisch-arabische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Benedict, Warren C. and Ziad N. Kayyal. 1971. Levantine Arabic Basic Course, 4 vols. Beirut: Foreign Service Institute. Ferguson, Charles A., et al. 1961. Damascus Arabic. Washington, D.C.: CAL.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ (ɡ) m n̪ l r Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ b t d s z m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: last long syllable; otherwise initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1570
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Egyptian
Location: Egypt
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Elias, Edward A. 1962. Practical Dictionary of the Colloquial Arabic of the Middle East. Cairo: Elias' Modern Press. Grammar: Tomiche, Nada. 1964. Le parler arabe du Caire. The Hague: Mouton. Khalafallah, Abdelghany A. 1969. A Descriptive Grammar of Saɛi:di: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. The Hague: Mouton. Wise, Hilary. 1975. A Transformational Grammar of Spoken Egyptian Arabic. Oxford: Blackwell.
TextBooks: Mitchell, T. F. 1962. Collloquial Arabic. London: English Universities Press. Harrell, Richard S., Laila Y. Tewfik and George D. Selim. 1963. Lessons in Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Washigton, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Other Sources: Harrel, Richard S. 1957. The Phonelogy of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (e) (æ) Back Vowels: ʋ (o) ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ū ō ɑ̄
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (mostly penult)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1571
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Cypriot Maronite
Location: Cyprus
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Tsiapera, Maria. 1964. A Descriptive Analysis of Cypriot Maronite Arabic. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p k v z n l cɒ t ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1572
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Chad
Location: Chad
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Roth-Laly, Arlette. 1969-72. Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 4 vols. Paris: CNRS. Grammar: Hagège, Claude. 1973. Profil d'un parler arabe du Tchad. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
TextBooks: Abu Absi, Samir and Andre Sinaud. 1968. Basic Chad Arabic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: t c k ʔ b d ɗ ɟ ɡ ɠ f s š χ h z m n ñ l r Stops: b t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Fricatives: f s z š χ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ɟ f r only Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ɨ̄ ā ū
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1573
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Tunisian
Location: Tunisia
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Nicolas, A. 1938. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Idiome tunisien. Tunis: C. Abella.
TextBooks: Inglefield, Patrick L., Kacem Ben-Hamza and Toufik Abida. 1970. Tunisian Arabic Basic Course, 2 vols. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Maamouri, Mohamed. 1967. The Phonology of Tunisian Arabic. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Diss.
Consonant system: t k q b d ɡ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ b t d ð s m l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1574
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Algerian
Location: Algeria
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Belkhassem, Ben Sédira. 1954. Dictionnaire français-arabe de la langue parlé en Algérie. Algiers. Grammar: Grand'henry, Jacques. 1976. Les parlers arabes de la région du mzab. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
TextBooks: Tapiéro, Norbert. 1971. Manuel d'arabe algérien moderne. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: t̪ k q (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q (ʔ) Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ej ou
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1575
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Moroccan
Location: Morocco
Population: 50 million (17 million )
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Harrell, Richard S., ed. 1966. A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Arabic-English. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Sobelman, Harvey and Richard S. Harrell, eds. 1963. A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: English-Moroccan. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Harrell, Richard S. 1962. A Short Reference Grammar of Moroccan Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Marçais, P. 1977. Esquisse grammaticale de l'arabe maghrébin. Paris: Maisonneuve.
TextBooks: Harrell, Richard S. 1965. A Basic Course in Moroccan Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1973. An Introduction to Moroccan Arabic. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z cɒ t d s ɾ (b z m l) cʷ b k ɡ q f χ ʁ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Diphthongs: aj aw ej ew Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO/(VSO) NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1576
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Mauritanian
Location: Mauritania
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Cohen, David. 1963. Le dialecte arabe hassaniya de Mauritanie. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Leriche, A. 1952. Cours de langue maure. Saint Louis: IFAN.
Consonant system: t̪ c k qɒ ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ qɒ ʔ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d q ð s z l r (b ɡ f m n) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 1577
Language: Maltese
Location: Malta
Population: 50 million (325,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Busuttil, Edgar D. 1941. Kalepin (dizjunarju) malti-ingliz. Valletta, Malta: St. Joseph Institute. Grammar: Aquilina, Joseph. 1959. The Structure of Maltese. Malta: Royal Univ of Malta.
TextBooks: Aquilina, Joseph. 1965. Teach Yourself Maltese. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Borg, Alexander. 1973. "The Segmental Phonemes of Maltese," Linguistics 109, 5-11. Fenech, Edward. 1978. Contemporary Journalistic Maltese. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie ew iw ej aj aw Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1578
Language: Epigraphic South Arabian
Location: Yemen
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South
Consonant system:
Number: 1579
Language: South Arabian Dialect: Shahari
Location: S Oman
Population: 426,000 (5,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South
Other Sources: Johnstone, T. M. 1975. " The Modern South Arabian Languages," AFL 1, 93-121.
Consonant system: t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ f θ s̪ s̪ʔ š sʔ ð ðʔ z̪ m n l ʔl ɬ ɮ r ʔr Stops: b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð ʔð s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š sʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ʔl ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all ?
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1580
Language: South Arabian Dialect: Harsusi
Location: South Yemen
Population: 426,000 (400,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South Dictionary: Johnstone, T. M. 1977. Harsusi Lexicon. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Johnstone, T. M. 1975. "The Modern South Arabian Languages," AFL 1, 93-121.
Consonant system: t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ f θ s̪ s̪ʔ š šʔ ð ʔð z̪ m n l ʔl ɬ ɮ r ʔr Stops: b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð ʔð s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š šʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ʔl ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w Central Vowels: ǝ a Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aj aw ej ew ēw īw ōj ūj
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1581
Language: Geez
Location: N Ethiopia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L. 1976. "Two Ethio-Semitic Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d̪ d̪ʔ ɡ ɡʷ f s̪ s̪ʔ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ d̪ʔ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but cʔ ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Geez is still used as a liturgical language by the Orthodox church.
Number: 1582
Language: Tigre Dialect: Mensa
Location: NW Eritrea
Population: 117,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North Dictionary: Da Milano, Prospero Maria. 1936. Vocabulario pratico: italiano-tigray-amarico. Milan: Genio. Littman, Enno and Maria Höfner. 1962 Wörterbuch der Tigrè-Sprache: Tigrè-Deutsch-Englisch. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1945. "Grammatical Sketches in Tigré (North Ethiopic), Dialect of Mensa," JAOS 65, 164-203.
TextBooks: Camperio, Manfredo. 1936. Manuale pratico della lingua tigrè con due dizionarietti. Milan: V. Hoepli.
Other Sources: Palmer, Frank R. 1962. The Morphology of the Tigre Noun. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Consonant system: pʔ t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s sʔ m n ñ l r Stops: pʔ b t tʔ d k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s sʔ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1583
Language: Tigrinya
Location: N Ethiopia (W Tigre)
Population: 5.1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North Dictionary: Bassano, Francesco de. 1918. Vocabolario tigray-italiano e repertorio italiano-tigray. Rome: C. de Luigi. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1941. Documents tigrigna. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Conti Rossini, Carlo. 1940. Lingua tigrina. Milan: Mondadori.
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L., et al. 1976. "Two Ethio-Semitic Languages," in LE, 99-199.
Consonant system: (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ (č) (čʔ) (ɡ̌) f s̪ s̪ʔ m n̪ (ñ) l̪ r Stops: (pʔ) b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: (č) (čʔ) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ ħ ʕ h cʷ k kʔ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: æj ɑj aj æw ɑw oj
Noun
Number: s d
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN/(ND) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1584
Language: Amharic
Location: NC Ethiopia
Population: 8 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal Dictionary: Leslau, Wolf. 1976. Concise Amharic Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1969. An Amharic Reference Grammar. Los Angeles: Dept. of Near Eastern and African Languages, UCLA. Cohen, Marcel. 1970. Traité de langue amharique. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
TextBooks: Leslau, Wolf. 1968. Amharic Textbook. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Consonant system: (p) (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ (s̪ʔ) š h z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l ɾ Stops: (p) (pʔ) b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ (s̪ʔ) z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h cʷ all (k kʔ ɡ most common) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (sg only) Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def ( indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 pol & 3 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1585
Language: Argobba
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1586
Language: Harari
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1587
Language: East Gurage Alternate Name: Silt'e Dialect: Harari
Location: EC Ethiopia (NW Harerge)
Population: 35,000 (13,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal Grammar: Cohen, Marcel. 1931. Études d'éthiopien méridional. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia di Harar. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š χ h z m n ñ l r Stops: b t tʔ d k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š χ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ie uo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1588
Language: Gafat
Location: NW Ethiopia
Population: extinct (c. 1950)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group Grammar: GD: Leslau, Wolf. 1945. Gafat Documents. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ b bʷ d̪ ɡ ɡʷ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ s̪ʔ š x h hʷ z̪ ž m n ñ l r Stops: (pʔ) b bʷ t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š ž x h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: æj aj ǝj oj æw aw
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1589
Language: Soddo Alternate Name: Kistane
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1590
Language: Goggot
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group
Consonant system:
Number: 1591
Language: Muher
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group Grammar: Cohen, Marcel. 1931. Études d'éthiopien méridional. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪ʔ k qʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k ɡ qʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž ç Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p (pl rarely used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1592
Language: Masqan
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group
Consonant system:
Number: 1593
Language: Central West Gurage Alternate Name: Sebat Bet Gurage Dialect: Chaha
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1950. Ethiopic Documents: Gurage. New York: Viking Fund.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç x z̪ ž m n̪ (l̪) r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž ç x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: (l̪) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ p b k kʔ ɡ f x m cj k kʔ ɡ (t) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1594
Language: Peripheral West Gurage
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group
Consonant system:

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