Лексика уральского праязыка на *I

Реконструированный словарный фонд протоуральского языка с инициалью *I- (всего 17 корней):

№: 142
PROTO-URALIC: *ićä
MEANING: father
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Vater
FIN: isä 'Vater', iso 'Vater, Väterchen', ? iso 'groß an Fläche, weit'
EST: isa 'Vater'
SAA: æč, æčče (N), jiečče (jea) (T), ehč (ejj) (Not.), jēč (ječča), eč (ečče) (A)
MRD: oćä (M) 'Vaterbruder, der älter ist als der Vater', oću 'groß' (?)
MAR: ǝzä (KB), iza (U), iźa (M) 'älterer Bruder; jüngerer Bruder des Vaters', iza (B) 'älterer Bruder'
MAN: ǟś (KU P) 'Vater der Mutter'
UGR: ős (dial. ös, ösi) 'Ahn, der Urahne, Vorfahr, Vorvater; uralt; (altung.) Großvater'
NEN: nīśe 'Vater' (O)
ENC: äδǟ (Ch.), eδe (K.)
NGA: jase (gen. jaje)
SLK: ɛ̂s (Ta.), as (Ke.), êhê, êχ (N)
SAMM2: FU *is'ä
RESHET: Note Finn iso 'big, large' and Mord. Mks. oc'u 'big' - really related to the words meaning 'father' etc.? In Mord., o- corresponding to FB *i- is attested in some over cases (factors causing its appearance are being cleared up now).
LIT: FUV; SKES; Budenz MUSz. 857; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Beitr. 161, 237; Collinder Comp.Gr. 377
№: 143
PROTO-URALIC: *ićä (*üćä)
MEANING: few, small
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: wenig, klein
EST: üsa 'Weniges', üsaga 'bei Wenigem, wenig zur Zeit', ei üsagi 'gar nichts'
MAR: izi (KB U), iźe (M), ize (B) 'klein'
UDM: ič́i (S), ići (G) 'wenig', ič́i-meń (S), ići-meń (G) 'junge Frau; Schwägerin; Braut'
KOM: ić-aj (I) 'Stiefvater', ić-iń (V) 'Stiefmutter', ić-moń (S), ić-mo.ń (P) 'junge Frau, Schwiegertochter', ići-pi (PO) 'Schwager, Mannesbruder', iće̮t (S), uće̮t (P), u̇ćø.t (PO) 'klein'
MAN: ǖ͔š́ (= wūć od. üwć od. üć?) (TJ), wiś (KU), iś (P) 'klein', uś ēŋk (LO) 'младшая золовка'
UGR: *(w)üc'
SMD: *ücä
ADD: Vgl. Sk. ča? Wahrscheinlich auch rejected Sam, vgl. auch Sam \*ücä.
RESHET: The Mansi word may be a Komi loan, but at present we have no decisive arguments in favour of this assumption. In Samoyed, *üsä would be expected. However, we may deal with a specific reflexation of Ur. *-c'- connected with the presence of an adjacent labial vowel (in Samoyed, similar phenomena are observed in several other examples). On the other hand, cf. also Lapp N (Friis) ucce 'parvus, exiguus' (Paas. Beitr. 160, Setälä FUF 2:229 etc., quoted also by Lytkin in ИВПЯ 179) with *-c- (although geminate) normally corresponding to Samoyed *-c-; still the comparison with Lapp is unreliable because of irregular vocalism (the Lapp form should be checked - note its scarse attestation as well as a possibility of other etymological relations).
LIT: FUV; КЭСКЯ; Paas. Beitr. 160-161FUV; Collinder Comp. Gr. 178, 414; ИВПЯ 179; Munkácsi B. Árja és kaukázusi elemek... 150
№: 144
PROTO-URALIC: *iće ~ *iśe
MEANING: shadow; shadow soul
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Schatten; Schattenseele
FIN: itse 'selbst'
EST: ise 'selbst; eigen, besonder'
SAA: ieš ~ jieš, (du., pl.) ieǯâ ~ jieǯâ (N) 'himself, self-', ietj (L) 'selbst, selber', jičče, pl. jiǯ (T), īčč (Kld.), jiehč, jehč (Not.), īč (A) 'selbst, sich, sein'
MRD: eś, äś (E), eś (M) 'selbst, selber, eigen'
MAR: ǝške, ške (KB), ǝ̑ške, ške (U), iške (M) 'selbst, eigen', ške (B) 'selbst'
KOM: aći̮m (S P), a.ćim (PO)
KHN: i̮л-ēs (J) 'Schattenseele', is (Kr.) 'Seele, Geist', is-χȯ̆r (O) 'Schattenbild; Gespenst'
MAN: jisú-k`ørø (T) 'der Name einer unruhig umherirrenden Seele', jiw-is (LM) 'der Schatten des Baumes', iskoar (KM), isχor (So.) 'Schattengestalt; Schattenseele des lebenden Menschen; Geist', is (So.) 'der wirkliche, im Sonnenschein sichtbare Schatten des Menschen; Geist'
UGR: ísz, isz, iz (dial.) 'Brand (Krankheit), Krebs; eine böse Krankheit des Zahnfleisches; ein seelischer zwingender Grund, wahrscheinlich einer von den Bösen' ?, is (dial. ës, és, ēs) 'auch', ? és, s 'und'
SAMM2: *ii/is'/c'i
YUK: eʒie, iʒie 'selbst; oneself'
LIT: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; EtSz.; MSzFgrE; TeSz.; Paas. Beitr. 168, 172; Collinder, JukUr. 73; Angere J. Die uralo-jukagirische Frage... 70, 127
№: 145
PROTO-URALIC: *ičV-
MEANING: to press
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: drücken, pressen, drängen
MRD: iče- 'kneten'
MAR: jǝ̑še- (JU), iše- (U) 'drücken, bedrängen', iš- (B) 'pressen, drücken'
UDM: iški̮- (NyK) 'теребить (лен); рвать (цветы); щипать', i̮čki̮-, ị̑škị̑- 'abreißen'
KOM: i̮čki̮- 'mähen'
KHN: iš- (DN, Kr.) 'drücken, schieben, treiben, drängen', is- (O), ĭš- 'beschädigen', ĭš- (Kaz.) 'id.; in seinen Magen stopfen'
LIT: FUV; DEWO 5; Paas. Beitr. 262; Stein.FgrVok. 60; Collinder Comp.Gr. 390
№: 146
PROTO-URALIC: *ike(-ńe, -ne)
MEANING: palate; gums
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Gaumen; Zahnfleisch
FIN: ien (gen. ikenen) 'Zahnfleisch'
EST: ige (gen. igeme) 'Gaumen', pl. igemed 'Zahnfleisch'
UDM: aŋ (S K) 'Zahnfleisch, Gaumen' ?
KOM: an, piń-an (S) 'Zahnfleisch', an (Pr.) 'id., Gaumenn'
UGR: íny (dial. én, ény, in, ín) 'id.; Gaumen; Geschmack; (altung.) Rachen; Kinnbacken, Kiefer'
SAMM2: FU *i/eki/äni
REDEI: *ik3n
RESHET: Despite Rédei, the Ob-Ugric form belongs here (not to the etymological group listed in URAET 44); for its semantics ('chin') cf. the meaning 'jaw' alongside with 'gum' in Hun. In spite of semantics of Permic *aŋ 'gum, palate', I would reject Rédei's hypothesis that it is also a reflex of the FU word in question, but phonetically influenced by Permic *aŋ 'jaw' (apparently belonging to the etymology presented in URAET 683); the situation seems to be simpler - we can suppose that the Permic word meaning 'gum, palate' is historically identic with *aŋ 'jaw', being a result of a secondary semantical development (cf. the semantical correlation observed in Ugric).
LIT: FUV; SKES; MUSz. 818; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Stein. Fgr.Vok. 61
№: 147
PROTO-URALIC: *ikte (*ükte)
MEANING: one
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: ein, eins
FIN: yksi (gen. yhden) 'einer, ein'
EST: üks (gen. ühe) 'ein, eins'
SAA: ǫk'tâ ~ âk'tâ -vt- 'one, single' (N), akta (L) 'einer, eine, eines', akt (T), øχt, øvt (Kld. Not. A) 'ein, derselbe'
MRD: vejke, viJkä, väJkä (E), fkä, ifkä (M) 'ein'
MAR: ik' (KB U B adj.), iktǝ, iktǝt (KB), ikte, iktǝ̑t (U B) (noun)
UDM: odi̮g, og (S), odik, ok (K), odị̑g, odig, og (G) 'ein, einzig'; ukmi̮s (S), ukmǝ̑s (K), ukmị̑s (G) 'neun'
KOM: e̮t-pi̮r (S P), ȯt-pør (PO) 'einmal, einst', e̮t́i, e̮t́ik (S), e̮ti̮k, e̮ti.k (P) 'ein, einer', ȯ.tik (PO) 'ein'; e̮kmi̮s 'neun'
MAN: ük (TJ), äko (KU), äk (P), akoa (So.) 'ein'
SAMM2: FP *ükti
LIT: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 769; Orbán G. A finnugor nyelvek számnevei, Bratislava 1932; Collinder IUrSprg. 10, JukUr. 104; Munkácsi B. Árja és kaukázusi elemek... 216
№: 148
PROTO-URALIC: *ilma
MEANING: sky, weather; god
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Himmel, Wetter; Gott
FIN: ilma 'Luftkreis, Luft; Wind; Wetter, Witterung' ( > Saam. N il'bme -lm- 'world; air')
EST: ilm (gen. ilma) 'Welt; Wetter, Witterung'
SAA: âl'bme -lm- (N) 'heaven, sky; heavy snowfall', al'mē (L), ailme (T), ailm (Kld.), øilm (Not. A) 'Himmel (A auch Welt)'
UDM: in (inm-) (S), iń (ińm-) (K) 'Luft; Himmel', in (inm-) (G) 'Himmel', inmar 'Gott'
KOM: jen (jenm-) (S P) 'Gott; Himmel', jen (je.nm-) 'Gott')
KHN: itǝm (Ko.) 'Welt, Himmelsstrich', ilǝm (O) 'trübe, wölkig (Tag); Witterung', jeлǝm (Kaz. folk.) 'Welt, Himmelsstrich' ( > Mansi N jēlǝm), num-itǝm (Ko.), num-ilǝm (O) 'Himmel, Himmelsgott'
MAN: jelėm, jēlǝm, ēlm (LU), ilėm (LM), ēlėm (N) 'Wetter, Luft'
SAMM2: *ilma
RESHET: Cf. Finn Ilmari(nen) 'god of heaven' and Udm. inmar 'god' - reflexes of an old derivative?
LIT: FUV; MUSz. 785; Donn. VglWb. 1:107, 2:31; SKES; ИВПЯ 135
№: 149
PROTO-URALIC: *ilV
MEANING: evening
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Abend
FIN: ilta 'Abend'
MRD: iĺät́ 'abends; Abend'
KHN: itȧj (DN), ilȧ (O) 'Abend'
RESHET: Rédei doesn't accept the comparison with the Finn word: he rejects Collinder's hypothesis (presented in FUV) that historically il-ta is a partitive form of a word *ile-, which, in its turn, makes him repudiate this Finn etymology itself. However, even if Rédei is right denying the idea about the partitive, his final conclusion is premature, since the Finn word in question still may be a result of some derivational processes (cf., on the other hand, -t' in the Mord. cognate, which, true, is deemed to be identic with a productive temporal suffix).
LIT: FUV
№: 150
PROTO-URALIC: *ime-
MEANING: to suck
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: saugen
FIN: ime- 'saugen'
EST: ime-
KHN: em- (V DN)
UGR: em- (altung.) 'saugen', emlő 'Brust, Zitze'
NEN: ńimńe-, ŋaḿā- (O)
NGA: ńimiri-
SLK: ńem- (Ty.)
KAM: ńimēr-, emēr-
ADD: Mot. нюмнiямъ 'грудь сосу' ?; Taig. nímu
RESHET: Lallwort (Rédei) - not obvious! Alongside with the forms listed in SAMDET 54 (which don't correspond to each other in regard to vocalism - see Notes in the above-mentioned record), we have also an etymological group reflecting Proto-Sam. *n'im- (and *n'im-ǝjr-) 'to suck' (see SAMDET 55), which may be related to Lapp *n'эmэ- 'to suck' (> N njâmmâ-, Not. n'imme-, Ter n'i̊mmi̊-, Kld. n'i̊mme-) and Komi Pm. n'imȧv- 'id.', thus going back to Ur. *n'im- (the Lapp-Komi parallel - without the Proto-Lapp reconstruction - is noted in UEW, and it is correctly kept apart from the Ur. stem 'to suck' having no initial *n'-). This situation is complicated by the circumstance that the North Sam. forms with *n'- (listed by me under Proto-Sam. *n'im-) may, in fact, still belong to Ur. */i/m-, the initial nasal being due to a prothesis regular for North Sam. (let's stress that it is only the North Sam. material that is characterized by such unambiguity). Note the presence of parallel forms apparently presenting two different Proto-Sam. stems - in particular, Kms. emēr- 'to suck' and n'imēr- 'id.'. In UEW, the Sam. reflexes of Ur. */i/m- and *n'im- are erroneously united under *ime-.
YUK: ibi 'saugen; to suck'
LIT: FUV; SKES; MUSz. 781; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Collinder JukUr. 77
№: 151
PROTO-URALIC: *imV
MEANING: old woman, grandmother
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: alte Frau, Grossmutter
SAA: ibme -m- (N) 'wife of paternal or maternal uncle', ipmē (L) 'die Frau des Oheims', ì̮mme (Ko. P), ė'mme (Not.) 'Frau des Vaterbruders od. Onkels'
KHN: imi (V) 'altes Weib; Mutter des Vaters od. der Mutter', imǝ (DN) 'alte Frau, Greisin', imi (O) 'Mutter des Mannes (als Anrede)'
NGA: imid́i 'бабушка; Großmutter'
SLK: ima (Ta.), ĕma (OM) 'старуха, баба'. emá, ĕ.ma (N) 'Eheweib'
JANH: (106) *imi (/?*n'imi)
SAMM2: *imi-
ADD: Koib. nemy-ka 'altes Weib'
LIT: FUV; Paas. Beitr. 12; DEWO 99
№: 152
PROTO-URALIC: *iptV (*üpte)
MEANING: high water; to rise (of water)
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: hoher Wasserstand; zunehmen, steigen (Wasser)
KOM: i̮t-va (S V) 'hoher Wasserstand, hohes Wasser'
KHN: ȧ̆pǝt- (Trj.) 'wallen, schäumen (Kessel, Suppe)', epǝt- (DN O) 'zunehmen, steigen (Wasser), überwallen' ( > Mansi So. ēptǝm wit 'Hochwasser')
LIT: КЭСКЯ; DEWO 154
№: 153
PROTO-URALIC: *ipV ~ *ipV-sV ~ *ipV-śV
MEANING: taste; odor
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Geschmack; Geruch
SAA: afse, avse = hakse (gen. havse), hâk'sâ -vs- (N) 'odor; excrement of reindeer in summer', hâk'se- -vs- (N) 'smell, sniff', hapsa ~ haksa (L) 'Geruch; der Rentiermist im Sommer', aps (T Kld.), øhps (Not.) 'Gestank, Geruch', aipse- (T Kld.), aihpse- (Not.) 'stinken, riechen'
MRD: opoś (M) 'Geruch, Witterung'
MAR: üpš (KB U, B), üpś (M) 'Geruch'
KOM: is (isk-) (S) 'Gestank, Geruch'
KHN: ewǝl (V), epǝt (DN), epǝl (O) 'Geruch, Geschmack', ewsint- (V), epsent- (DN) 'schnuppern, wittern (Hund)'
MAN: ǟp, äp (N) 'Dunst, Ausdünstung', ät (TJ), ǟt (KU P), at (So.) 'Geruch, Gestank'
UGR: íz (dial. iz, éz, üz, űz) 'Geschmack, dial. Geruch, Duft'
NEN: ŋapt (O) 'Geruch'
ENC: obto
NGA: ŋobta
SLK: aptэ (Ta.), ăptα (Ke.) 'Geruch, Gestank', āpte (Ty.) 'Geruch'
KAM: puʔbtu, puʔptu 'Geruch; Duft'
JANH: (98) *ipsi
SAMM2: *ipsi
ADD: Koib. обдалем 'пущаю дым из роту'
RESHET: A complicated, but quite reliable case.
LIT: FUV; Donn. Vgl.Wb. 807; MUSz. 764, 828; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Paas. Beitr. 245; Collinder Comp.Gr. 101
№: 154
PROTO-URALIC: *irkä (*ürkä)
MEANING: man; son, boy
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: Mann; Sohn, Knabe
FIN: yrkä 'Junggesell, Freier', yrkö 'Mann' ( > Saam. S irɛkē 'Bräutigam')
MAR: erɣǝ (KB), erɣe (U B) 'Sohn, Knabe; Enkel'
UGR: -ër, -ér, -ar in embër 'Mensch, Mann', férj 'Ehemann', magyar (altung. mogyër) 'Ungar, ungarisch', Mëgyër 'Name eines alten ungarischen Stammes'
LIT: FUV; SKES; MUSz. 516, 782; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.
№: 155
PROTO-URALIC: *irwV
MEANING: merry; to rejoice
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: lustig, froh; sich freuen
SAA: ârvuk (N) 'gay, lively, spirited', (h)arvuk (L) 'frühaufstehend, munter' ?
UGR: öröm 'Freude, Lust, Vergnügen', örül-, örvend 'sich freuen, froh sein' ?
RESHET: For the Hun. stem, a contact origin can be supposed - cf. similar material in Turk.: Yak. üör, Sag. ürün, Shor ürgün 'sich freuen; to rejoice (intr.), to be glad' (to appreciate this hypothesis, we still have to check some details).
LIT: MUSz. 853; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Collinder Comp. Gr. 403
№: 156
PROTO-URALIC: *irV- (*ürV-)
MEANING: to drink
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: trinken
MRD: iŕed́e- (E M) 'betrunken werden'
KOM: i̮re̮š (S P), ørø.š 'Dünnbier, Kwaß'
NEN: ŋäer- (O) 'trinken, einen Schluck tun'
SLK: îra- (Ke.) 'trinken', ȫra-, ē̮ra- 'sich betrinken'
ADD: Mot. urnia- 'trinken'; Karag. uršn-; Taig. örsu-
LIT: FUV; КЭСКЯ
№: 157
PROTO-URALIC: *itä
MEANING: to appear; become visible
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: das Erscheinen; erscheinen, sichtbar werden
FIN: itä- 'keimen, aufkeimen', itä 'Osten, Morgen', itu 'Keim' ( > Saam. N itte- -đ- 'appear, come into view', iđed 'morning', itto -đ- 'germ', L ihtē- 'sich zeigen, erscheinen', itēt 'Morgen', T jitte-, Kld. itte-, ėitte- 'zum Vorschein kommen, erscheinen', T jienta, jenta, janta, Kld. jenta, Not. iaδa 'morgen'; Est. ida, ide (gen. ideme), idu, ite (gen. itte, itme) 'Keim', ida 'Ost', idane- 'keimen') ?
KHN: et- (V DN O) 'сплавиться (рыба) (V); sichtbar werden (Mond) (V); sich erheben, wachsen (DN); aufstehen, zum Vorschein kommen, aufgehen (Sonne) (O)' ?
SMD: *ǝtǝ-; *ǝtǝ-/jVj/m-
REDEI: [Redei: if Finn. -t- goes back to *-č-, it can be compared with Saam. N âcce- -ʒ- 'rise (sea), L ahtsē- 'sich vermehren, zunehmen, steigen', T aicce- 'steigen']
YUK: jed- 'sichtbar werden, erscheinen; to become visible, to appear'
LIT: SKES; DEWO 204; Collinder Comp. Gr. 81, 390, 411
№: 158
PROTO-URALIC: *ittä-
MEANING: to hang
RUSSMEAN:
GERMMEAN: hängen, aufhängen
MRD: it́e- (M) 'aufhängen (z. B. eine Wiege)' ?
NEN: ŋidā- 'aufhängen' (O)
ENC: iriʔa- (Ch.), idiʔa- (B)
NGA: ŋidiʔe- 'aufhängen (Kessel, Kleid)', ŋüδa (NyK) 'hängen'
SLK: îta- (Ta.), îtta- (Ke.), êdá-, ĕ̮dá- (N) 'aufhängen'
KAM: edǝ- 'aufhängen', edш̄- 'hängen'
ADD: Koib. адля 'вишу'; Mot. идямъ; ? коми: ышт-
RESHET: Sam. material considered by Rédei related to this Mord. stem is listed by me within another entry (according to a suggestion by E.A. Helimsky) - see URAET 6, the Mord. word thus turning out isolated (Helimsky's attempt to compare it with Komi ɨšt- doesn't seem persusive enough).

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