Типологии креольских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по пиджинизированным и креолизованным языкам
Главная > Словари праязыков > Типологии пиджинов и креолей
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике пиджинов и креолей, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в словарных разделах этих языков.

Всего здесь представлено X креольских языковых систем, распределённых по семьям:

  1. Типообзоры африканских креолов и пиджинов
  2. Типообзоры австронезийских креолов и пиджинов
  3. Типообзоры индейских креолов и пиджинов
  4. Типообзоры индийских креолов и пиджинов
  5. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе английского языка
  6. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе французского языка
  7. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе испанского языка
  8. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе португальского языка
  9. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе голландского языка
  10. Типообзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе немецкого языка
  11. Типообзоры смешанных креолов и пиджинов на основе европейских языков

Типологические обзоры австронезийских креолов и пиджинов

Number: 5732
Language: Bazaar Malay
Location: Malaysia
Classification: Malay-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5733
Language: Hiri Motu Alternate Name: Police Motu
Location: SE PNG (Central)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Motu-Based Pidgin Dictionary: Brett, R. R. 1962. A Dictionary of Police Motu. Port Moresby: SIL. Grammar: Chatterton, P. 1972. Hiri Motu (Police Motu). Port Moresby: Unevangelized Fields Mission Press.
TextBooks: Wurm, S. A. and J. B. Harris. 1963. Police Motu. PL 81.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ s h v m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ei ai oi eu au ou
Syllable: (C)V
Noun
Number: s [p] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Police Motu is a pigin based on Motu, and is widely spoken in the southern half of PNG. In recent years, however, its use as a lingua franca has been encroached upon by the growing popularity of Melanesian Pidgin English.

Краткие типологические обзоры африканских креолов и пиджинов

Number: 5687
Language: Asian Swahili
Location: Kenya
Classification: Swahili-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5688
Language: Fanagolo Alternate Name: Piki
Location: South Africa
Population: 200,000
Classification: Zulu-Based Pidgin Grammar: GD: Bold, J. D. 1971. Dictionary, Phrase-Book and Grammar of Fanagalo. Johannesburg: Hugh Keartland.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n l ɬ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: / || ! Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai ej au oi ou
Syllable: mˈ nˈ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Fanagalo is a pidgin based on Zulu, used as a lingua franca in Southern Africa.

Типологические обзоры индейских креолов и пиджинов

Number: 5734
Language: Chinook Jargon
Location: Washington
Population: 50
Classification: Chinook-Based Pidgin
Other Sources: Grant, Rena V. 1945. "Chinook Jargon," IJAL 11, 225-33. Thomason, Sarah Grey. 1983. "Chinook Jargon in Areal and Historical Context," Lg 59, 820-70.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷq qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ tlʔ č (čʔ) s š x xʷ χ χʷ m n (ŋ) l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č (čʔ) Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic, but mostly word initial
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: "A pidgin used as a lingua franca from northern California to southern Alaska. Based on Chinook, but with Nootka, French and English as major donor languages." Voegelin & Voegelin, p. 116.

Типологические обзоры индийских креолов и пиджинов

Number: 5731
Language: Naga Pidgin
Location: NE India (Assam)
Classification: Assamese-Based Creole
Other Sources: Sreedhar, M. V. 1976. "Standardization of Naga Pidgin," AL 18, 371-9.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b b̤ d d̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) s š h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе английского языка

Number: 5689
Language: Sea Island Creole Alternate Name: Gulla
Location: Georgia (Sea Island)
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kp b d ɡ ɡb ts dz f s š šʔ h v z m n ñ l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z š šʔ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ã ũ
Number: 5690
Language: Guyanese
Location: Guyana
Classification: English-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5691
Language: Western Caribbean Creole Alternate Name: Jamaican Creole
Location: Jamaica
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: English-Based Creole Dictionary: Cassidy, F. G. and R. G. Le Page, eds. 1967. Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
TextBooks: Bailey, Beryl Loftman. 1968. Jamaican Creole Language Course. Washington, D.C.
Other Sources: Bailey, Beryl Loftman. 1966. Jamaican Creole Syntax. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Diphthongs: ai ie uo ou au Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3PH 6 P=plain, H=non=human
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5693
Language: Krio
Location: Sierra Leone
Population: 70,000
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: ph th kh (kph) b d ɡ (ɡb) čh ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n (ñ) ŋ (ŋm) l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ (kph) (ɡb) Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ (ŋm) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: (ı̃) (ɛ̃) (ã) (ũ) (ɔ̃)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Number: 5694
Language: Wescos
Location: Cameroons
Classification: English-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5695
Language: Djuka Alternate Name: Aucaan, Ndyuka
Location: Surinam
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5696
Language: Djuka
Location: E Surinam
Population: 21,000
Classification: English-Based Creole Dictionary: Huttar, George L. 1972. "A Comparative Word List for Djuka, " in LOG, 12-21.
Other Sources: Huttar, George L. and Mary L. Huttar. 1972. "Notes on Djuka Phonology," in LOG, 1-11.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(G)V(N) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo
Number: 5697
Language: Saramaccan
Location: C Surinam
Population: 22,000
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, Jan. 1961. "Le ton et la grammaire dans le saramaccan," Word 17, 146-63. Grimes, Joseph E. and Naomi Glock. 1970. "A Saramaccan Narrative Pattern," Lg 46, 408-25. Rountree, S. Catherine. 1972. "The Phonological Structure of Stems in Saramaccan," in LOG, 22-34. Glock, Naomi. 1972. "Clause and Sentence in Saramaccan," JAL 11, 45-61. AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t c k kp b mb d nd ɟ ñɟ ɡ ŋɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ l Stops: p b mb t d nd c ɟ ñɟ k ɡ ŋɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: ɛ ɔ are 'bright'; e o are 'muffled'
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo Stress: non-phonemic Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5698
Language: Sranan
Location: Surinam
Population: 80,000
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, Jan. 1962. Sranan Syntax. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Echteld, J. J. M. 1962. The English Words in Sranan. Groningen: J. B. Wotters. AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s š (h) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s š (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ō ā ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: ai oi ui ei au ou Stress: penultimate
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 4=5
Syntax: SVO AN GN ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5699
Language: Pitcairnese
Location: Pitcairn Island
Classification: English-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5700
Language: Hawaiian Creole
Location: Hawaii
Classification: English-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5701
Language: Roper River Creole Alternate Name: Kriol
Location: Australia
Classification: English-Based Creole
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5702
Language: Torres Strait Creole Alternate Name: Australian Pidgin
Location: N Australia
Population: 23,000
Classification: English-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5703
Language: Tok Pisin Alternate Name: Melanesian Pidgin
Location: Papua New Guinea
Population: 500,000
Classification: English-Based Pidgin Grammar: DG: Mihalic, Francis. 1971. The Jacaranda Dictionary and Grammar of Melanesian Pidgin. Milton, Australia: Jacaranda Press.
TextBooks: Dutton, T. E. 1973. Conversational New Guinea Pidgin. PL D12.
Other Sources: AL 6:8 Woolford, Ellen B. 1979. Aspects of Tok Pisin Grammar. PL B66.
Consonant system: (p) t k b d ɡ ɡ̌ ɸ (f) s h v m n ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ (f) v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au oi
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: mostly initial Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4tie 4ie 2 5d 5t 5 3 6d 6t 6
Syntax: SVO AN/(NA) NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5704
Language: Bislama Alternate Name: Beach-la-Mar
Location: New Hebrides
Population: 50,000
Classification: English-Based Creole Grammar: DG: Guy, J. B. M. 1974. Handbook of Bichelamar/Manuel de bichelamar. PL C34.
Consonant system: p t k b f s h v m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t k Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Diphthongs: ae ao ea ia oe ua
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 1 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6dPC 6 P=plain; C=collective
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Used as a lingua franca in the New Hebrides.
Number: 5705
Language: Solomon Pijin Alternate Name: Neo-Solomonic
Location: Solomon Islands
Population: 50,000
Classification: English-Based Pidgin
Consonant system:
Number: 5706
Language: Micronesian Pidgin
Location: Micronesia
Population: practically extinct
Classification: English-Based Pidgin
Consonant system:

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе французского языка

Number: 5692
Language: Lesser Antillean Creole
Location: St. Lucia
Classification: French-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5709
Language: French Creole Dialect: Louisiana
Location: Louisiana
Population: 7.8 million
Classification: French-Based Creole Grammar: Conwell, Marilyn T. and Alphonse Juilland. 1963. Louisiana French Grammar. The Hague : Mouton.
Other Sources: Morgan, Raleigh, Jr. 1959. "Structural Sketch of Saint Martin Creole," AL 1:8, 20-24.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a ɑ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ɑ̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: (m f) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5710
Language: French Creole Dialect: Haitian
Location: Haiti
Population: 7.8 million (1 million)
Classification: French-Based Creole Dictionary: Faine, Jules. 1974. Dictionnaire français-créole. Ottawa: Leméac. Grammar: d'Ans, André-Marcel. 1968. Le créole français d'Haı̈ti. The Hague: Mouton.
TextBooks: Valdman, Albert. 1970. Basic Course in Haitian Creole. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (y) u e (ø) o ɛ (œ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) ɛ (œ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã õ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5711
Language: French Creole Dialect: Guyana
Location: Guyana
Population: 7.8 million
Classification: French-Based Creole Grammar: Fauquenoy, Marguerite Saint Jacques. 1972. Analyse structurale du créole guyanais. Paris: Klincksieck.
Other Sources: Corne, Chris. 1971. "Le patois créole français de la Guyane (St-Laurent-du-Maroni): Esquisse de grammaire," Te Reo 14, 81-103.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʁ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (y) u e (ø) o ɛ (œ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) ɛ (œ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã õ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 intimate/2 polite
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5712
Language: French Creole Dialect: Indian Ocean
Location: Seychelles Is, Mauritius, Reunion Is.
Population: 7.8 million
Classification: French-Based Creole Dictionary: Chaudenson, Robert. 1974. Le lexique du parler créole de la Réunion.
Other Sources: Corne, Chris. 1969. "Les dialectes créoles français de Maurice et des Seychelles, Esquisse de phonologie, suivie de textes," Te Reo 12, 48-63. Corne, Chris. 1977. "Notes on Seychelles Creole Phonology," Te Reo 20, 95-110.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s v z m n ñ ŋ l ʁ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã õ Stress: final Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5713
Language: French Creole Alternate Name: Tay Boi Dialect: Vietnam
Location: Vietnam
Population: 7.8 million (extinct)
Classification: French-Based Creole
Other Sources: Liem, Nguyen Dang. 1979. "Cases and Verbs in Pidgin French (Tay Boi)," in PL A57, 217-46.
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ f s̪ š ɣ m n̪ ñ l̪ ṛ Stops: b t̪ d̪ k Fricatives: f s̪ š ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ ɤ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɔ
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris lo-lev mid-ris lo-ris
Syntax: SVO

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе испанского языка

Number: 5714
Language: Bamboo Spanish
Location: Philippines (Davao)
Population: few
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5715
Language: Chavacano Dialect: Davaueño
Location: SE Philippines (SE Mindanao)
Population: 293,000 (3,000)
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t k b d g č s š h m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Number: 5716
Language: Chavacano Dialect: Ermitaño
Location: NC Philippines (S Luzon)
Population: 293,000 (nearly extinct)
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t k b d g č s š h m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Number: 5717
Language: Chavacano Dialect: Zamboangueño
Location: S Philippines (W Mindanao)
Population: 293,000 (155,000)
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t k b d g č s š h m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Number: 5718
Language: Chavacano Dialect: Caviteño
Location: NC Philippines (S Luzon)
Population: 293,000 (29,000)
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Other Sources: AL 6:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č s š h m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Number: 5719
Language: Palenquero
Location: Colombia
Classification: Spanish-Based Creole
Consonant system:

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе португальского языка

Number: 5720
Language: Indo-Portuguese
Location: Sri Lanka
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Other Sources: Smith, Ian Russell. 1978. "Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese," IJDL 7, 248-406. Smith, Ian. 1979. "Substrata vs. Universals in the Formation of Sri Lanka Portuguese," in PL A57, 183-200.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s z m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o æ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: on final syllable if closed; otherwise penult
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2 3 5 6 have (1) plain and (2) honorific forms
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5721
Language: Macanese
Location: Macao
Population: 4,000
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5722
Language: Malacca Creole
Location: Malaysia
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole Dictionary: Hancock, Ian F. 1973. "Malacca Creole Portuguese: A Brief Transformational Outline," Te Reo 16, 23-44.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s (š) z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z (š) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au eu iu oi ia iǝ ua ue uǝ Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5723
Language: Timor Pidgin
Location: Timor Lorosae
Population: extinct
Classification: Portuguese-Based Pidgin
Consonant system:
Number: 5724
Language: Crioulo
Location: Guinea-Bissau
Population: 159,000
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5725
Language: Crioulo Dialect: São Tomé
Location: São Tomé e Prı́ncipe
Population: 159,000 (8,000)
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Consonant system:
Number: 5726
Language: Crioulo
Location: Senegal
Population: 159,000 (46,000)
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Other Sources: Doneux, J. L. n.d. Les systèmes phonologiques des langues de Casamance. Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliqué.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s (v) (z) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f (v) s (z) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Number: 5727
Language: Fa d'Ambu Alternate Name: Annobonesa
Location: Equatorial Guinea (Annobon Is)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole Grammar: Barrena, Natalio. 1957. Gramatica annobonesa. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas.
Consonant system: p t k b mb d nd ɡ č f s š x (h) v z ž m n ñ l (r) Stops: p b mb t d nd k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s z š ž x (h) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ʋ e ǝ o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: ē ā Nasal Vowels: ã Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5728
Language: Papiamento
Location: Indonesia
Population: 200,000
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole Dictionary: Hassell, E. A. 1953. English-Papiamento, Papiamento-English Dictionary. Aruba, Netherlands West Indies: The Lago Oil and Transport Co.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA(AN) GN/NG DND
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5729
Language: Cafundo Creole
Location: Brazil
Classification: Portuguese-Based Creole
Consonant system:

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе голландского языка

Number: 5707
Language: Dutch Creole Alternate Name: Negerhollands
Location: USA (Virgin Islands)
Population: nearing octinction
Classification: Dutch-Based Creole
Consonant system: Comments: "A Dutch-based pidgin-preole nearing extinction." p. 146. (Voegelins)

Типологические обзоры креолов и пиджинов на основе немецкого языка

Number: 5708
Language: Unserdeutsch
Location: Papua New Guinea
Classification: German-Based Creole
Consonant system:

Типологические обзоры смешанных креолов и пиджинов на основе европейских языков

Number: 5730
Language: Russo-Norsk
Location: NW Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Russian/Norwegian-Based Pidgin
Consonant system:

Словники языков: праязыков | древних | угасших | современных | модельных
Типологии праязыков: австралийских | америндских | аустрических | дене-кавказских | индо-тихоокеанских | койсанских | нигеро-кордофанских | нило-сахарских | ностратических | пиджинов и креолей | языков-изолятов | лингвопроектов
Лингвистические страницы: Языки мира | Письменности | Интерлингвистика | Основания языка | Компаративистика | Контактология | Экстралингвистика | Лексикология | Грамматика | Фонетика
Полезные страницы: История | Регионы | Карты | Энциклопедии

© «Lexicons.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 22.09.2019
Метрика