Типы праязыков ностратической (в широком смысле) филы

Фонетико-грамматические обзоры по афразийским и евразийским праязыкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Ностратической суперсемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня", основанную Сергеем Анатольевичем Старостиным. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Сергей Анатольевич считал, что собственно ностратическими языками (их он называл "евразийскими") являются все обычно включаемые туда языки, кроме афразийских и эламского. Здесь же принята концепция не в узком, а в широком смысле - с упомянутыми эламским и семито-хамитскими языками.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых систем, происходящих от праностратического языка, распределённых по 13 семьям и изолированным языкам:

  1. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Афразийской семьи (Afro-Asiatic)
  2. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Картвельской семьи (Kartvelian)
  3. Обзоры типов языков, возможно, входящих в Евразийскую макросемью (этрусский)
  4. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Индо-хеттской семьи (Indo-Hittite)
  5. Краткие типологические обзоры юкагирских языков (Yukaghir)
  6. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Уральской семьи (Uralic)
  7. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Алтайской семьи (Altaic)
  8. Краткие типологические обзоры айнских диалектов (Ainu)
  9. Краткие типологические обзор нивхского языка (Gilyak, Nivx, Nivkh)
  10. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Чукче-камчатской семьи (Chukchi-Kamchatkan)
  11. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Эскимо-алеутской семьи (Eskimo-Aleut)
  12. Краткий типологический обзор эламитского языка (Elamite)
  13. Краткие типологические обзоры языков Дравидической семьи (Dravidian)

В базе, правда, юкагирские языки отнесены к уральским, а эламский - к эламо-дравидским (но все остальные дравидские к эламо-дравидским не отнесены).


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Афразийской семьи

Number: 1317
Language: Ancient Egyptian
Location: Egypt
Population: c. 2,500 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Ancient Egyptian Grammar: Sander-Hansen, C. E. 1963. Ågyptische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Donadoni, Sergio. 1963. Appunti di grammatica egiziana. Milan: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino. du Bourguet, Pierre. 1971. Grammaire égyptienne. Louvain: Peeters. černy, Jaroslav. 1975. A Late Egyptian Grammar. Rome: Biblical Institute Press.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [2]) N-POSS D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1318
Language: Coptic
Location: Egypt
Population: extinct (19th c.)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Ancient Egyptian Dictionary: Cerny, J. 1976. Coptic Etymological Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Grammar: Elanskaja, A. I. 1964. Koptskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Kosack, Wolfgany. 1974. Lehrbuch des Koptischen. Graz: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt.
Other Sources: Houghton, Herbert Pierrepont. 1959. The Coptic Verb. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Knudsen, Ebbe E. 1961. "Saidic Coptic Vowel Phonemes," Acta Orientalia 26, 29-42.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š x h β v m n l r Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β v s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1319
Language: Proto-Berber
Location: N Africa
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber
Other Sources: Prasse, Karl-G. 1972-74. Manuel de grammaire touaregue, 3 vols. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ f s (š) χ h z ʁ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z (š) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ d z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1320
Language: Guanche
Location: Canary Islands
Population: extinct (16th c.)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Guanche
Consonant system:
Number: 1321
Language: East Numidian Alternate Name: Old Libyan
Location: Morocco
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: East Numidian
Consonant system:
Number: 1322
Language: Siwa
Location: NW Egypt
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1323
Language: Awjila
Location: NE Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1324
Language: Sokna
Location: NC Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1325
Language: Ghadames
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 1326
Language: Tamahaq Dialect: Ahaggar
Location: S Algeria
Population: 200,000 (10,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg Dictionary: Cortade, Jean-Marie. 1967. Lexique français-touareg. Algiers: Arts et Métiers Graphiques. Grammar: Prasse, Karl-G. 1972-74. Manuel de grammaire touaregue, 3 vols. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
Consonant system: t̪ k q (ʔ) b d̪ ɟ ɡ f s̪ š χ h z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ q (ʔ) Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ ɐ v̄̄ (overlonɡ) all but ǝ ɐ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1327
Language: Tamazheq
Location: Niger
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg
Consonant system:
Number: 1328
Language: Tamasheq
Location: Niger
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Tuareg
Consonant system:
Number: 1329
Language: Zenaga
Location: SW Mauritania
Population: 16,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Western Grammar: Nicolas, F. 1953. La langue berbère de Mauritanie. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h ð z ž ɣ (ʕ) m n ñ l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š ž ɣ (ʕ) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d k θ ð s z l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4mf 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO/SVO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1330
Language: Shilha
Location: SW Morocco
Population: 3 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Grammar: Applegate, Joseph R. 1958. An Outline of the Structure of Shilha. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Other Sources: Nakano, Aki'o. 1976. Dialogues in Moroccan Shilha. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo Univ.
Consonant system: t k q (ʔ) b d ɡ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but cɒ and ɡlides cɒ t d k s z l r cʷ k ɡ q χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Syntax: VSO NA Comments: Men, but not women, are bilingual in Arabic.
Number: 1331
Language: Tamazight Dialect: Ayt Ayache
Location: C Morocco
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Dictionary: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971a. A Computerized Lexicon of Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan. Grammar: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971b. A Reference Grammar of Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan.
TextBooks: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1971c. A Course in Spoken Tamazight. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, Univ of Michigan.
Other Sources: Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1968. Tamazight Verb Structure. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: t̪h k̄ q qʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ̄ m n l̪ ɾ Stops: b t̪h d̪ k̄ ɡ̄ q qʷ ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ most cɒ t d s z l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO/(SVO) NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1332
Language: Tamazight Dialect: Ait Ndhir
Location: C Morocco
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Atlas Grammar: Willms, Alfred. 1972. Grammatik der südlichen Beraberdialekte. Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin. Penchoen, Thomas G. 1973. Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena.
Other Sources: Harries, Jeanette. 1970. "A Berber Tanšhat: In a Tamazight Dialect," BSOAS 33, 308-21.
Consonant system: t̪ k kʷ q b d̪ ɡ ɡ̄ʷ č̄ ɡ̌̄ m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k kʷ ɡ ɡ̄ʷ q Affricates: č̄ ɡ̌̄ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but θ x xʷ β ð ɣ ɣʷ ʁ j w (č ɡ̌ ɡʷ are always lonɡ) cɒ t ð (s) z r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: u Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1333
Language: Kabyle
Location: N Algeria
Population: 1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Kabyle Dictionary: Newmen, Francis William. 1887. Kabail Vocabulary. London: Trübner. Grammar: Hanoteau, Adolphe. 1906. Essai de grammaire kabyle. Algiers. [Reprinted 1976 by Philo Press, Amsterdam.] Hanouz, S. 1968. Grammaire berbère. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Saı̈d, Boulifa S. A.1910. Une première année de langue kabyle. Algiers: Adolphe Tourdan. Vincennes, Louis de and J.-M. Dallet. 1960. Initiation à la langue berbère (Kabylie). Fort-Nationale, Algeria: Fichier de documentation berbère.
Consonant system: t k kʷ q b d ɡ ɡʷ ts č dz ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1334
Language: Shawiya
Location: NE Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1335
Language: Tidikelt
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1336
Language: Tuat
Location: C Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1337
Language: Riff
Location: N Morocco
Population: 1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati Dictionary: Ibañez, Esteban. 1959. Diccionario español-senhayi. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1338
Language: Ghmara
Location: Morocco
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1339
Language: Tlemcen
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1340
Language: Sheliff Basin
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1341
Language: Gurara
Location: C Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1342
Language: Mzab
Location: NC Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1343
Language: Wargla
Location: NE Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1344
Language: Ghardaia
Location: NC Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1345
Language: Tugurt
Location: Algeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: Mzab-Wargla
Consonant system:
Number: 1346
Language: Tmagurt
Location: S Tunisia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1347
Language: Sened
Location: S Tunisia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1348
Language: Jerba
Location: S Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1349
Language: Tamezret
Location: Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1350
Language: Taujjut
Location: Tunisia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1351
Language: Zwara
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1352
Language: Nefusi
Location: Libya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Berber: Northern: Zenati: East Zenati
Consonant system:
Number: 1353
Language: Proto-Chadic
Location: N Africa
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1977. Chadic Classification and Reconstructions, Afroasiatic Linguistics 5:1.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ʄ ɡ f s š x z m n ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ Fricatives: f s z š x Nasals: m n Laterals: ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj k ɡ x cʷ k ɡ x ?Nc mb ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ a only
Tones: hi lo (perhaps a pitch accent)
Number: 1354
Language: Masa
Location: SW Chad (W TandjilВ)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 1355
Language: Zime
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1356
Language: Mesme
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1357
Language: Marba
Location: SW Chad (W TandjilВ)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa
Consonant system:
Number: 1358
Language: Musey
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 48,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Masa Grammar: Platiel, Suzanne. 1968. Esquisse d'une étude du musey. BSELAF 6.
Consonant system: p t k b mb d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s ç h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b mb t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ç h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1359
Language: Somrai
Location: SW Chad (N TandjilВ)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1360
Language: Tumak
Location: SW Chad (E TandjilВ)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai Dictionary: Caprile, Jean-Pierre. 1975. Lexique tumak-français. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ̪ ɡ ŋɡ ɡ̌ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ũ õ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4de 4i 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1361
Language: Ndam
Location: SW Chad (SE TandjilВ)
Population: 670
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1362
Language: Sarwa
Location: SW Chad (S Chari-Baguirimi)
Population: 400
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1363
Language: Gadang
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1364
Language: Mod
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1365
Language: Miltu
Location: SC Chad (NW Moyen-Chari)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Somrai
Consonant system:
Number: 1366
Language: Nancere
Location: SW Chad (S TandjilВ)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Other Sources: Hoffman, Carl. 1971. "On the Classification of Nancere," JWAL 8, 5-12.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1367
Language: Lele
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1368
Language: Gabri
Location: N Central African Republic
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Consonant system:
Number: 1369
Language: Kabalai
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Nancere
Consonant system:
Number: 1370
Language: Kera
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Kera
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1371
Language: Kwang
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group A: Kera
Consonant system:
Number: 1372
Language: Mokulu
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B
Consonant system:
Number: 1373
Language: Dangla Alternate Name: Dangaleat
Location: SC Chad (N Guera)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla Dictionary: Fédry, Jacques. 1971. Dictionnaire dangaléat. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Other Sources: Fédry, Jacques. 1969. "Syntagmes de détermination en dangaléat," JWAL 6, 5-19. Fédry, Jacques. 1971a. "Masculin, féminin et collectif en dangaléat (groupe 'sokoro-mubi' - Tchad," JAL 10, 34-46. Fédry, Jacques. 1971b. Phonologie du dangaléat. Lyon: Afrique et Language.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b ɓ d̪ ɗ̪ ɟ ʄ ɡ s z m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1374
Language: Migama
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1375
Language: Mahwa
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1376
Language: Jegu
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1377
Language: Mogum
Location: SC Chad (C Guera)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1378
Language: Bidiyo Alternate Name: Bidiya
Location: Chad
Population: 14,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1379
Language: Mubi
Location: SW Chad (NE Guera)
Population: 36,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1380
Language: Masmaje
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1381
Language: Kajakse
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1382
Language: Kujarge
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1383
Language: Toram
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Dangla
Consonant system:
Number: 1384
Language: Sokoro
Location: SW Chad (C Guera)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1385
Language: Barain
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1386
Language: Saba
Location: Chad
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: East: Group B: Sokoro
Consonant system:
Number: 1387
Language: Tera
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera Grammar: Newman, Paul. 1970. A Grammar of Tera. UCPL 57.
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1964. "A Word List of Tera," JWAL 1:2, 33-50.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ b mb ɓ d nd ɗ ʄ ɡ ɡʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ɠ č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ f s š x xʷ v z ž ɣ ɣʷ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b mb ɓ t d nd ɗ ʄ k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ɠ Affricates: č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p ɓ v Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1388
Language: Jara
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Consonant system:
Number: 1389
Language: Ga'anda
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Other Sources: Newman, Roxana Ma. 1971. "Downstep in Ga'anda," JAL 10, 15-27.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ mb ɓ nd ɗ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ č ñɡ̌ f s š x xʷ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p mb ɓ t nd ɗ k kʷ ŋɡ ŋɡʷ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š x xʷ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ŋɡ x Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (fall) downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1390
Language: Hona
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Tera
Consonant system:
Number: 1391
Language: Bura Dialect: Pabir
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1392
Language: Chibak
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1393
Language: Putai
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1394
Language: Margi Dialect: Lassa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 151,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1395
Language: Margi
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 151,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi Grammar: Hoffman, Carl. 1963. A Grammar of the Margi Language. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Consonant system: p pt t c k ʔ b ɓ bd bɗ d ɗ ɟ ɡ pts ts pč č bdz dz bɡ̌ ɡ̌ f fs s fç š ç x v vz z vj ̂ ž j ̂ ɣ m n mñ ñ ŋ l ɬ bɮ ɮ (v̊) r Stops: p b ɓ pt bd bɗ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: pts bdz ts dz pč bɡ̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v fs vz s z š ž ç j ̂ fç vj ̂ x ɣ Nasals: m n mñ ñ ŋ Laterals: bɮ l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: (v̊) r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ts dz č ɡ̌ š ɬ cʷ p b ɓ mb t nt k ɡ ŋk ŋɡ nts f v s x ɣ m ŋ ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: hi lo ris (fall)
Number: 1396
Language: Kilba
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1397
Language: Higi Dialect: Nkafa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 203,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: Mohrlang, Roger. 1971. "Vectors, Prosodies, and Higi Vowels," JAL 10, 75-86. Mohrlang, Roger. 1972. Higi Phonology. Studies in Nigerian Languages, No. 2. Zaria: Institute of Linguistics.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ v̊ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ cj all but r cʷ all but l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1398
Language: Higi Dialect: Baza
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 203,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1399
Language: Bana
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Bura-Higi
Consonant system:
Number: 1400
Language: Sukur
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1401
Language: Lamang
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1402
Language: Mandara Alternate Name: Malgwa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 190,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1403
Language: Paduko Alternate Name: Podokwo
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1404
Language: Glavda
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 19,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara Dictionary: Rapp, Eugen Ludwig, Brigitta Benzing and Christraud Mühle. 1968, 1969. Dictionary of the Glavda Language, 2 vols. Frankfurt on Main: Frankfurt on Main Bible Society.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ŋɡ tl č dl ɡ̌ f s š ç x v z ž ɣ n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋj l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: tl dl č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž ç x ɣ Nasals: n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋj Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO ND N-POSS
Number: 1405
Language: Guduf
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1406
Language: Dghwede
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1407
Language: Gvoko
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Mandara
Consonant system:
Number: 1408
Language: Mafa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1409
Language: Mofu Alternate Name: Mofu-Gudur Dialect: Zulgo
Location: N Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Other Sources: Haller, Beat. 1980. Phonology of Zulgo. Yaoundé, Cameroon: Institut des Sciences Humaines.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b mb ɓ d nd ɗ ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ts dz ndz f s h v z m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b mb ɓ t d nd ɗ k kʷ ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz ndz Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo downstep
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1410
Language: Gisiga
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 44,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1411
Language: Mada
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1412
Language: Hurza
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1413
Language: Muktele
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bura-Mandara: Mandara-Matakam: Matakam
Consonant system:
Number: 1414
Language: Daba Dialect: Musgoy
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 31,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Other Sources: Wedekind, Klaus. 1976. "Kolá, tpalá, ou ʔkpalá ?: Notes sur les occlusives doubles dans la langue daba-mousgoy (Kola) du Nord-Cameroun," AFL 2, 91-104.
Consonant system: p pt t̪ kt k kʷ (ʔkp) b ɓ bd d̪ ɗ̪ ɡd ɡ ɡʷ t̪s d̪z f s̪ h v z̪ m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ ɮ̪ r Stops: p b ɓ pt bd t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ kt ɡd k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ (ʔkp) Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ ɮ̪ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ dz Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1415
Language: Gawar
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Consonant system:
Number: 1416
Language: Hina
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 4,300
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Daba
Consonant system:
Number: 1417
Language: Gudu
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1418
Language: Bata
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 39,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1419
Language: Bata Dialect: Bachama
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 39,000 (20,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Number: 1420
Language: Gude
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Other Sources: Hoskison, James. 1974. "Prosodies and Verb Stems in Gude," Linguistics 141, 17-26. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ts dz f s x v z ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ s z x ɬ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1421
Language: Nzangi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group A: Bata
Consonant system:
Number: 1422
Language: Musgu Dialect: Vulum
Location: SW Chad (N Mayo-Kebbi)
Population: 50,000 (8,500)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B Grammar: Tourneux, Henry. 1978. Le mulwi ou vulum de mogroum (Tchad). Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ ɡ f s h v z m n̪ (ñ) ŋ l ɬ ɮ ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e (ø) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī (ē) ā ū (ō) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (sing only) Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6hN N=non-hum
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1423
Language: Gidar
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Consonant system:
Number: 1424
Language: Buduma
Location: W Chad (Lac)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Other Sources: Benton, P. A. 1912. Notes on Some Languages of the Western Sudan. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 by Frank Cass & Co, London, as The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol 1.] WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1425
Language: Kotoko
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: NG
Number: 1426
Language: Logone Alternate Name: Lagwan
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Biu-Mandara: Group B
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1427
Language: Hausa
Location: N Nigeria (Kano)
Population: 20 million (12 million speak it as a first language)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Hausa Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1962. Dictionary of the Hausa Language. London: Univ of London Press. Skinner, Neil. 1970. English-Hausa Dictionary. Zatia: Northern Nigerian Publishing Company. Grammar: Abraham, R. C. 1959. The Language of the Hausa People. London: Univ of London Press. Taylor, F. W. 1959. A Practical Hausa Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
TextBooks: Hodge, Carleton T. and Ibrahim Umaru. 1963. Hausa Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute. Kraft, Charles H. and Marguerite E. Kraft. 1973. Introductory Hausa. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Kraft, Charles H. and Anthony Kirk-Greene. 1973. Teach Yourself Hausa. London: English Universities Press. Cowan, J. Ronayne and Russell G. Schuh. 1975. Spoken Hausa. Ithaca, N.Y.: Spoken Language Services.
Other Sources: Kraft, Charles H. 1963. A Study of Hausa Syntax, 3 vols. HSL 8-10. Hoffman, Carl. 1969. "Hausa," in TNL, 73-84.
Consonant system: t k kʷ kj kʔ kʔʷ kʔj ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡʷ ɡj č ɡ̌ ɸ s sʔ š h z m n l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: b ɓ t d ɗ k kʷ kj kʔ kʔʷ kʔj ɡ ɡʷ ɡj ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s sʔ z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo fall downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS D+A+N+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1428
Language: Gwandara
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Hausa
Other Sources: Matsushita, Shuji. 1974. A Comparative Vocabulary of Gwandara Dialects. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ s š h z m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p k ɡ cʷ b k ɡ č h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid lo (+ 6 contour tones)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 1429
Language: Karekare
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1430
Language: Bole
Location: NE Nigeria (Bornu)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
TextBooks: Lukas, J. 1971. "Über das erweiterte Verb im Bolanci (Nordnigerien)," JAL 10, 1-14.
Other Sources: Benton, P. A. 1912. Notes on Some Languages of the Western Sudan. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 by Frank Cass & Co, London, as The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol 1.]
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ z Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1431
Language: Bele
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1432
Language: Ngamo
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1433
Language: Maha
Location: N Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Other Sources: Newman, Paul. 1965. "A Brief Note on the Maha Language," JWAL 2:1, 57-8.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: m̄ Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1434
Language: Kirfi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1435
Language: Deno
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1436
Language: Kubi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1437
Language: Galambu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1438
Language: Gera
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Bole
Consonant system:
Number: 1439
Language: Kanakuru
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡ̌ f s š m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1440
Language: Tangale
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: Jungraithmayr H. 1971. "The Tangale Vowel Harmony System Roconsidered," JAL 10, 28-33. WALS
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 1441
Language: Pero
Location: E Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1442
Language: Kupto
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Tangale
Consonant system:
Number: 1443
Language: Gerka
Location: EC Nigeria (NE Benue-Plateau)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1444
Language: Angas
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: Burquest, D. A. 1971. A Preliminary Study of Angas Phonology. Studies in Nigerian Languages, No. 1. Zaria: Institute of Linguistics. STAL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ č ɡ̌ s š ž l w cj p b k ɡ cʷ p b ɓ k ɡ č ɡ̌ f v s š ž m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ɨ̄ ā Diphthongs: ǝI
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NA N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1445
Language: Sura Alternate Name: Mupun
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ɓ ɗ č čh f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph ɓ t th ɗ k kh Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1446
Language: Kofyar Dialect: Kwolla
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas Dictionary: Netting, Robert. 1967. A Word List of Kofyar. Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 1.2. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 1447
Language: Chip
Location: C Nigeria (NE Benue-Plateau)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1448
Language: Goemai Alternate Name: Ankwe
Location: C Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d ɗ k kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1449
Language: Montol
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1450
Language: Tal
Location: EC Nigeria (N Benue-Plateau)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1451
Language: Pyapun
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1452
Language: Koenoem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Bole-Angas: Angas
Consonant system:
Number: 1453
Language: Fyer
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1454
Language: Ron
Location: C Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1455
Language: Sha
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1456
Language: Kulere
Location: Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1457
Language: Karfa
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1458
Language: Shagawu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group A: Ron
Consonant system:
Number: 1459
Language: Duwai
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade
Consonant system:
Number: 1460
Language: Bade
Location: NE Nigeria (NW North-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade
Consonant system:
Syntax: NG
Number: 1461
Language: Ngizim
Location: N Nigeria (NW North-Eastern)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Bade Dictionary: Schuh, Russell G. 1981. A Dictionary of Ngizim. UCPL 99.
Other Sources: Schuh, Russell G. 1971. "Verb Forms and Verb Aspects in Ngizim," JAL 10, 47-60.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ f s š h v z ž m n ñ l ɬ ɮ ɾ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ŋɡ Nc b d ɡ Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: (ɨ) a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi lo (ris) fall downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/AN
Number: 1462
Language: Warji Alternate Name: Warjawa
Location: NC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1463
Language: Pa'a Alternate Name: Owon Afa
Location: Nigeria (Western)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Other Sources: Awobuluyi, Oladele. 1972. "The Morphophonemics of Owon Afa," Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 5.2-3, 25-44.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h hʷ m n ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h hʷ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO AN NG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1464
Language: Siri Alternate Name: Sirawa
Location: NC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1465
Language: Diri Alternate Name: Diryawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 3,300
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1466
Language: Jimbin
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1467
Language: Miya Alternate Name: Miyawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 5,200
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1468
Language: Mburku
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1469
Language: Kariya
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1470
Language: Tsagu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Warji
Consonant system:
Number: 1471
Language: Zaar Alternate Name: Seyawa
Location: EC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Other Sources: Schneeberg, Nan. 1971. "Sayanci Verb Tonology," JAL 10, 87-100.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ dz ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO NA NG
Number: 1472
Language: Barawa
Location: EC Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1473
Language: Zeem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1474
Language: Polchi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1475
Language: Geji
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1476
Language: Guruntum
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1477
Language: Ju
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1478
Language: Boghom
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1479
Language: Mangas
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: West: Group B: Zaar
Consonant system:
Number: 1480
Language: Hamar Alternate Name: Hamer
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 22,500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South Grammar: Lydall, Jean. 1976. "Hamer," in NSLE, 393-438.
Consonant system: p t k qʔ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ ts č ɡ̌ s š h z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n l r ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Ḭ ɛ̰ æ̰ ʋ̰ ɔ̰ (v̰ = constricted pharynx and retracted tonɡue root; v = open pharynx and advanced tonɡue root) Diphthongs: aj aw je jo ej oj we ow
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1481
Language: Ari
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Gemu Gofa)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1482
Language: Dime
Location: SW Ethiopia (NW Gemu Gofa)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: South
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1483
Language: Dizi Alternate Name: Maji
Location: SW Ethiopia (SW Kefa)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid Grammar: Allan, Edward J. 1976. "Dizi," in NSLE, 377-92.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ b d ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h β z ž m n l r Stops: b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s z š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) lˈ Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1484
Language: Nao Alternate Name: Nayi
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Kefa)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1485
Language: Shako Alternate Name: Sheko
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Kefa)
Population: 23,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Dizoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1486
Language: Bambeshi
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1487
Language: Hozo
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Consonant system:
Number: 1488
Language: Sezo
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Consonant system:
Number: 1489
Language: Ganza
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Mao
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1490
Language: Kafa Alternate Name: Kefa
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Kefa)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South Grammar: Cerulli, Enrico. 1951. La lingua caffina. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. Fleming, Harold C. 1976. "Kefa (Gonga) Languages," in NSLE, 351-76.
Consonant system: p (pʔ) t tʔ k k ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f š h m n l r Stops: p (pʔ) b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1491
Language: Mocha Alternate Name: Shekkacho
Location: SW Ethiopia (SC Ilubabor)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South Dictionary: Leslau, Wolf. 1959. A Dictionary of Moča (Southwestern Ethiopia). UCPL 18.
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1492
Language: Bosha
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: South
Consonant system:
Number: 1493
Language: Anfillo Alternate Name: Southern Mao
Location: W Ethiopia (N Ilubabor)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1494
Language: Naga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1495
Language: Guba
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1496
Language: Boro Alternate Name: Shinasha
Location: W Ethiopia (W Gojam)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1497
Language: Amuru
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gonga: North
Consonant system:
Number: 1498
Language: Janjero Alternate Name: Yemsa
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Janjero Grammar: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l' Oriente.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ḍʔ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ ɸ f s š χ h z ʁ m mʔ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d ḍʔ k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ f s z š χ ʁ h Nasals: m mʔ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j jʔ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1499
Language: Fuga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Janjero
Consonant system:
Number: 1500
Language: Bencho Alternate Name: Gimira
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Kefa )
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Gimira
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1501
Language: She
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Ilubabor)
Population: 42,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Gimira
Consonant system:
Number: 1502
Language: Chara
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Kefa)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Chara
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h z ž m n nʔ l r Stops: b t tʔ d dʔ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž h Nasals: m n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1503
Language: Basketo
Location: SW Ethiopia (C Gemu Gofa)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: West
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. E
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ b bʔ d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h z m mʔ n nʔ l r Stops: p b bʔ t tʔ d dʔ k kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV Comments: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 1504
Language: Male
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 12,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: South
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1505
Language: Oyda
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 3,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1506
Language: Ometo Alternate Name: Walamo, Gamo Dialect: Gofa
Location: SW Ethiopia (NE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 908,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central Grammar: GD: Moreno, Martino Mario 1938. Introduzione alla lingua ometo. Rome: A. Mondadori.
Other Sources: Ohman, Walter A., et al. 1976. "Three Other Ethiopian Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d ɗ̣ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s sʔ š h m n l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s sʔ š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthongs
Noun
Number: s p (pl forms not normally used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1507
Language: Ometo Alternate Name: Walamo, Wolaytta Dialect: Kullo
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Kefa)
Population: 908.000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: Central Grammar: Allan, Edward J. 1976. "Kullo," in NSLE, 324-50.
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ ts tsʔ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n l r Stops: b ɓ t tʔ d ɗ k kʔ ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: ai oi aw
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) (no CGVC)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2 respectful
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1508
Language: Zayse
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 21,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1938. Il linguaggio dei Giangerò ed alcune lingue Sidama dell'Omo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Consonant system: p t k kʔ ʔ b d dʔ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɸ f s š h z ž m n nʔ l r Stops: p b t d dʔ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: ɸ f s z š ž h Nasals: m n nʔ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N
Number: 1509
Language: Zergulla
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1510
Language: Ganjule
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1511
Language: Gidiccho
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1512
Language: Gatsame Alternate Name: Kachama
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1513
Language: Koyra Alternate Name: Koorete
Location: SW Ethiopia (W Sidamo)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: North: Gimojan: Ometo: East
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1514
Language: Beja Alternate Name: Bedauye, Bedawi
Location: NE Sudan (N Kassala)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Beja Dictionary: Reinisch, Leo. 1985. Wörterbuch der Bedauye-Sprache. Vienna. Grammar: GD: Roper, E. M. 1928. Tu Bedawiɛ. Hertford, England: Stephen Austin & Sons. Hudson, Richard A. 1976. "Beja," in NSLE, 97-132.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ ṭʔ k kʷ ʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ ɡʷ ɡ̌ f s̪ šʔ (x) h (z̪) (ɣ) m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ṭʔ ḍ k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ (z̪) šʔ (x) (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(t)
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN/(NG) DN/(ND) NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1515
Language: Awngi Alternate Name: Awiya
Location: W Ethiopia (SC Gojam)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: Hetzron, Robert. 1978. "The Nominal System of Awngi (Southern Agaw)," BSOAS 41, 121-41. LA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š χ z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ k ɡ χ ʁ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: (ɨ) a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi mid lo fall Stress: normally penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 & 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1516
Language: Xamir Alternate Name: Khamir
Location: N Ethiopia (W Elo)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1517
Language: Kemant Alternate Name: Falasha, Qimant
Location: W Ethiopia (S Begemdir and Simen)
Population: 17,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central Grammar: GD: Conti Rossini, Carlo. 1912. La langue des kemant en abyssinie. Vienna: Alfred Hölder. Appleyard, D. L. 1975. "A Descriptive Outline of Kemant," BSOAS 38, 316-50.
Consonant system: t (tʔ) k kʷ (kʔ) b d ɡ ɡʷ (č) (čʔ) ɡ̌ f s š x xʷ z ɣ ɣʷ m n ŋ ŋʷ l ɾ Stops: b t (tʔ) d k kʷ (kʔ) ɡ ɡʷ Affricates: (č) (čʔ) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1518
Language: Bilin Alternate Name: Bilen
Location: NW Ethiopia (W Eritrea)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: Palmer, F. R. 1957. "The Verb in Bilin," BSOAS 19, 131-59. Palmer, F. R. 1958. "The Noun in Bilin", BSOAS 21, 376-91. LA
Consonant system: t tʔ k kʷ kʔ kʔʷ q qʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ č čʔ ɡ̌ m n ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: b t tʔ d k kʷ kʔ kʔʷ ɡ ɡʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: Some, but not all, words have a prominent syllable [= hi pitch + stress]
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f [sg only] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1519
Language: Xamta Alternate Name: Xamtanga
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1520
Language: Burji
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b (ɓ) d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ (ñ) l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b (ɓ) t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s (p) (only a few plurals exist)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1521
Language: Sidamo
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 850,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland Grammar: GD: Moreno, Martino Mario. 1940. Manuale di Sidamo. Rome: A Mondadori. Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia dei Sidamo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77. LA.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r ɾ̣ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p (pl seldom used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1522
Language: Gedeo Alternate Name: Derasa
Location: S Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia dei Sidamo. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente. Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r ɾ̣ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1523
Language: Kambata Alternate Name: Kaambata
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Shewa)
Population: 290,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h z̪ m n̪ l̪ r̪ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1524
Language: Hadiyya
Location: C Ethiopia (Arusi )
Population: 700,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Highland
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L. 1976. "Two Cushitic Languages," in LE. Hudson, Grover. 1976. "Highland East Cushitic," in NSLE, 232-77.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ r Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 3 polite
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1525
Language: Yaaku Alternate Name: Mogogodo
Location: C Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. "The Mogogodo, a Forgotten Cushitic People," JAL 2, 29-43.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 1526
Language: Harso Dialect: Bussa
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1527
Language: Gawwada
Location: SW Ethiopia (Gemu Gofa)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay Grammar: Black, Paul. 1976. "Werizoid," in NSLE, 222-31.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ ɓ ɗ č čʔ m n ñ l r Stops: p ɓ t tʔ ɗ k kʔ q ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NG N-NUM
Number: 1528
Language: Tsamay Alternate Name: Tsamai
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1529
Language: Birale Alternate Name: Ongota
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Yaakuan-Dullay
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1530
Language: Afar Alternate Name: Qafar
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 1.6 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Afar-Saho Grammar: Bliese, Loren. 1976. "Afar," in NSLE, 133-65.
Other Sources: Hayward, R. J. 1974. "The Segmental Phonemes of 'Afar,' " BSOAS 37, 385-406. Morin, Didier. 1977. "Le nom en afar du sud," BSOAS 40, 354-70.
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ k ɡ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 4 (3 + very far) + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1531
Language: Saho
Location: Eritrea
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Afar-Saho
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 1532
Language: Dasenech Alternate Name: Dhaasanac, Galeba
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 18,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana Grammar: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1976. "Dasenech," in NSLE, 196-221.
Other Sources: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1974. "Notes on the Structure of Galab," BSOAS 37, 407-38. LA
Consonant system: t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɠ č ɡ̌ f s š h ð m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f ð s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: Ī ɛ̄ ā ʋ̄ ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: iɛ uɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo hi-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Independent third-person pronouns do not exist in the subject paradigm. In case of ambiguity words like 'man,' 'woman,' 'wife,' 'girl,' 'people,' etc. are used.
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1533
Language: Elmolo
Location: Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Consonant system:
Number: 1534
Language: Arbore
Location: SW Ethiopia (S Gemu Gofa)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1535
Language: Bayso
Location: SW Ethiopia (N Sidamo)
Population: 500
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Hayward, R. J. 1978-79. "Bayso Revisited: Some Preliminary Linguistic Observations - I & II," BSOAS 41: 539-70 & 42: 101-32.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š h (z) m (ʔm) n ʔn l ʔl ɾ ʔɾ Stops: pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) š h Nasals: m (ʔm) n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl Vibrants: ɾ ʔɾ Modified Consonants: v̄ all but h and cʔ Glides: j w (ʔw)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Noun
Number: s P p P=paucal (2-6)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA/(AN [when no other modifier is present]) GN/NG DN N-NUM N-POSS D+N+Num+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1536
Language: Rendille
Location: NC Kenya (N Eastern)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Heine, Bernd. 1978. "The Sam Languages: A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali," AFL 6:2, 1-93. Oomen, Antoinette. 1978. "Focus in the Rendille Clause," SAL 9, 35-65.
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ ḍ ɡ č m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all ?
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/(GN) ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1537
Language: Somali
Location: Somalia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1964. Somali-English Dictionary. London: Univ of London Press. Abraham, R. C. 1967. English-Somali Dictionary. London: Univ of London Press. Philibert, Christophe. 1976. Petit lexique somali-français. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Kirk, J. W. C. 1905. A Grammar of the Somali Language. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. [Reprented 1969 by Gregg International, Farnsborough, England] Moreno, Martino Mario. 1955. Il somalo della Somalia. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato. Pia, John Joseph. 1965. Somali Sounds and Inflections. Bloomington: Indiana Univ Diss.
TextBooks: Beli C. R. V. 1953. The Somali Language. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Pia, J. Joseph, Paul D. Black and M. I. Samater. 1966. Beginning in Somali. Syracuse: Program of Eastern African Studies, Syracuse Univ.
Other Sources: Armstrong, Lilias E. 1934. The Phonetic Structure of Somali. Berlin. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, N.J.]
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but q ɡ̌ s χ ʕ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1538
Language: Aweer Alternate Name: Boni
Location: Kenya
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Omo-Tana
Other Sources: Sasse, Hans-Jürgen. 1979. "Entlehnung morphonemischer regeln im Boni," SUGIA 1, 93-108.
Consonant system: t (tʔ) k (kʔ) ʔ b (bʔ) d dʔ (ɟ) ɡ ɡʔ č (čʔ) ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b (bʔ) t (tʔ) d dʔ (ɟ) k (kʔ) ɡ ɡʔ ʔ Affricates: č (čʔ) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all (ã ã̄ only in loanwords)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 (verb suffixes)
Number: 1539
Language: Oromo
Location: WC Ethiopia (E Welega)
Population: 7 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid Dictionary: Foot, Edwin C. 1913. A Galla-English, English-Galla Dictionary. Cambridge. [Reprinted 1968 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, N.J.] Grammar: Gragg, Gene. 1976. "Oromo of Wellegga," in NSLE, 166-95. Bender, Marvin Lionel and Mulugeta Eteffa. 1976. "Galla," in LE, 130-48.
TextBooks: Launhardt, Johannes. 1973. Guide to Learning the Oromo Language. Addis Ababa.
Other Sources: Andrzejewski, B. W. 1957. "Some Preliminary Observations on the Borana Dialect of Galla," BSOAS 19, 354-74. Bender, Marvin L., et al. 1976. "Two Cushitic Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: (p) pʔ t tʔ k k ʔ b d ɗ̣ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š (x) h (v) (z) m n ñ l r Stops: (p) pʔ b t tʔ d ɗ̣ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s (z) š (x) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p (plural forms seldom used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1540
Language: Bussa
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Consonant system:
Number: 1541
Language: Gidole Alternate Name: Dirasha
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1542
Language: Konso Alternate Name: Komso
Location: SW Ethiopia (SE Gemu Gofa)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Eastern: Lowland: Oromoid
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1543
Language: Dahalo Alternate Name: Sanye
Location: SE Kenya (S Northeastern)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Dahalo
Other Sources: Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97. Heine, Bernd. 1978. "The Sam Languages: A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali," AFL 6:2, 1-93. Tucker, A. N., M. A. Bryan and James Woodburn. 1977. "The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison," in Zur Sprachgeschicte und Ethnohistorie in Africa, ed. by W. Möhlig, F. Rottland and B. Heine, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer, 300-22.
Consonant system: p pʔ mph t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ŋk ʔ ɓ mb d̪ ɗ nd ɡ ŋɡ ts tl tlh č dz ɡ̌ f s ħ ɦ β v ɣ ʕ m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p pʔ mph ɓ mb t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ɗ nd k kʔ ŋk ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz tl tlh č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f β v s ɣ ħ ʕ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Clicks: / n/ /ʔ Modified Consonants: Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1544
Language: Ma'a
Location: NE Tanzania (Tanga)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Ma'a
Other Sources: Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97.
Consonant system: t k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ f s š x h β m n l r Stops: b t d ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: β f s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ n Nc Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: nc
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1545
Language: Asa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Consonant system:
Number: 1546
Language: Kw'adza
Location: Tanzania
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Consonant system:
Number: 1547
Language: Iraqw
Location: NE Tanzania (Arusha)
Population: 111,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: Whiteley, W. H. 1958. A Short Description of Item Categories in Iraqw. Kampala: East African Institute of Social Research. Whiteley, W. H. 1960. "The Verbal Radical in Iraqw," ALS 1, 79-95. Elderkin, E. Derek. 1976. "Southern Cushitic," in NSLE, 279-97.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ b ɓ d (ɗ) ɡ ɡʷ tsʔ tl m n ŋ ŋʷ l ɬ r Stops: p b ɓ t d (ɗ) k kʷ ɡ ɡʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ tl Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1548
Language: Alagwa Alternate Name: Alawa
Location: NC Tanzania (Arusha)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 1549
Language: Burunge
Location: NC Tanzania (N Dodoma)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Southern: Rift
Other Sources: LA WALS E
Consonant system: Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV[already introduced object]/SVO[newly introduced object] N-POSS
Number: 1550
Language: Proto-Semitic
Location: Arabia
Population: c. 4,000 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic Grammar: Gray, Louis H. 1934. Introduction of Semitic Comparative Linguistics. New York: Columbia Univ Press. Moscati, Sabatino, et al. 1964. An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t θ ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: CV(C)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1551
Language: Eblaic
Location: N Syria
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic
Consonant system:
Number: 1552
Language: Akkadian
Location: E Iraq
Population: c. 2000 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: East Dictionary: Gelb, I. J. 1957. Glossary of Old Akkadian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Grammar: Reiner, Erica. 1966. A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian. The Hague: Mouton. Castellino, G. R. 1970. Grammatica accadica introduttiva. Rome: Istituto di Studi del Vicino Oriente. Lipin, L. A. 1973. The Akkadian Language. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Gelb, Ignace J. 1969. Sequential Reconstruction of Proto-Akkadian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ s š x z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Fricatives: s z š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1553
Language: Old Aramaic
Location: Syria
Population: c. 900 B.C .
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Grammar: Degen, Rainer. 1969. Altaramäische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t k θ ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū Diphthongs: ai aw
Syllable: CV(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p`
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1554
Language: Syriac
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic
Consonant system:
Number: 1555
Language: Assyrian Dialect: Mandaic
Location: N Iraq
Population: 500,000 (extinct)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Dictionary: Drower, E. S and R. Macuch. 1963. A Mandaic Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Grammar: Macuch, Rudolf. 1965. Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Other Sources: Yamauchi, Edwin M. 1967. Mandaic Incantation Texts. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (č) (ɡ̌) m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ ǝ Diphthongs: ei eu ai ou oi au Stress: non-phonemic (penult/antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1556
Language: Assyrian Dialect: Syriac
Location: NE Syria
Population: 500,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic Dictionary: Oraham, A. 1943. Assyrian-English Dictionary. Chicago. Costaz, Louis. n.d. Dictionnaire syriaque-français New York: Altai Press. Grammar: GD: Garbell, Irene. 1965. The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Persian Azerbaijan. The Hague: Mouton. Costaz, Louis. 1955. Grammaire syriaque. Beruit: Imprimérie Catholique. Tsereteli, K. G.1964. Sovremennyj assirijskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Arsanis, G. V. 1968. "Sovremennyj assirijskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 489-507. Jacobi, Heidi. 1973. Grammatik des thumischen Neuaramäisch. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Sara, Solomon I. 1974. A Description of Modern Chaldean. The Hague: Mouton.
TextBooks: Robinson, Theodore H. 1962. Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Other Sources: Hetzron, Robert. 1969. "The Morphology of the Verb in Modern Syriac (Christian Colloquial of Urmi), JAOS 89, 112-27. Solomon, Zomaya S. and Robert K. Headley, Sr. 1973. "The Phonology of Modern Spoken Syriac," AL 15, 136-47.
Consonant system: ph th kh (q) ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) θ s š x h (v) ð z (ž) ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ (q) ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) θ ð s z š (ž) x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t ð s l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1557
Language: Aramaic Alternate Name: Neo-Aramaic
Location: Lebanon
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Aramaic
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1558
Language: Classical Hebrew
Location: Israel
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Grammar: Lambert, Mayer. 1972. Traité de grammaire hébraı̈que. Hildesheim: H. A. Gerstenberg. Blau, Joshua. 1976. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Davidson, A. B.1966. An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: aj aw Stress: mostly final (sometimes penult)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf *3mf *6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1559
Language: Hebrew
Location: Israel
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Dictionary: Sivan, Reuven and Edward A. Levenston. 1975. The New Bantam-Megiddo Hebrew & English Dictionary. New York: Bantam.
TextBooks: Rosén, Haiim B. 1966. A Textbook of Israeli Hebrew. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Mansoor, Menahem. 1972. Modern Hebrew. Madison. Harrison, R. K. n.d. Teach Yourself Hebrew. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Chayen, M. J. 1973. The Phonetics of Modern Hebrew. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (q) ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s ʁ m n̪ l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (q) ʔ Affricates: t̪s Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but tɒ sɒ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: mostly final (sometimes penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p (dual only used for body parts and things which come in pairs)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS Num+N +A +D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1560
Language: Phoenician
Location: Syria
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1561
Language: Ugaritic
Location: N Syria
Population: c. 1400 B.C.
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest Grammar: GD: Gorden, Cyrus H. 1965. Ugaritic Textbook. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1562
Language: Moabite
Location: Jordan
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: North: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1563
Language: Classical Arabic
Location: Saudi Arabia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Abcarius, J. John. 1974. English-Arabic Reader's Dictionary. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Grammar: Blachère, Régis. 1958. Éléments de l'arabe classique. Paris: Maisoneuve et Larose. Yushmanov, N. V. 1961. The Structure of the Arabic Language. Washigton, D.C.: CAL. Bateson, Mary Catherine. 1967. Arabic Language Handbook. Wahington, D.C.: CAL. Fischer, Wolfdietrich. 1972. Grammatik des klassischen Arabisch. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Ani, Salman H. al- and Jacob Y. Shammas. 1969. A Basic Course of Literary Arabic. Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill Univ. Tritton, Arthur S. 1970. Arabic. London: English Universities Press. Bishai, Wilson B. 1971. Concise Grammar of Literary Arabic: A New Approach. Dubuque, IA: Kendall & Hunt.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? cɒ t d ð s (z) (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: aj aw
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic (last long syllable/initial)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1564
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Saudi Arabian
Location: Saudi Arabia
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Schreiber, Giselher. 1970. Der arabische Dialekt von Mekka. Münster: Univ of Münster Diss.
Other Sources: Ingham, Bruce. 1971. "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech," BSOAS 34, 273-97. Bakalla, M. H. 1973. The Phonology and Morphology of Meccan Arabic. London: Univ of London Diss. E
Consonant system: t̪ k (q) (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (q) (ʔ) Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1565
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Palestinian
Location: Israel
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Elihai, Yohanan. 1973. Dictionnaire de l'arabe parlé palestinien. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Driver, Godfrey Rolles. 1925. A Grammar of the Colloquial Arabic of Syria and Palestine. London: Probsthain and Co.
TextBooks: Kapliwatzky, Jochanan. 1968. Colloquial Arabic. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k q ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1566
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Gulf
Location: United Arab Emirates
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Qafisheh, Hamdi A. 1977. A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press.
TextBooks: Qafisheh, Hamdi A. 1975. A Basic Course in Gulf Arabic. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t ð s l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: iw ij aw āw aj āj uw
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) (no CCVCC) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1567
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Iraqi
Location: Iraq
Population: 50 million ( 10 million)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Clarity, Beverly E., Karl Stowasser and Ronald G. Wolf, eds. 1964. A Dictionary of Iraqi: English-Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Erwin, Wallace M. 1963. A Short Reference Grammar of Iraqi Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetwon Univ Press.
TextBooks: Erwin, Wallace M. 1969. A Basic Course in Iraqi Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Other Sources: Ani, Salman H. al-. 1970. Arabic Phonology. The Haque: Mouton.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ (ɡ) č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ (p) (b) t (f) ð s (z) (m) (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: ʋ (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aj āj aw āw iw ēw
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (last long syllable/penult in 2-syllable words; antepenult in words of 3 or more syllables)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1568
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Lebanese
Location: Lebanon
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite
TextBooks: Kassab, Jean. 1970. Manuel du parler arabe moderne au moyen-orient. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
Consonant system: t k (q) ʔ b d m n l r Stops: b t d k (q) ʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1569
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Syrian
Location: Syria
Population: 50 million (7 million)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Stowasser, Karl and Moukhtar Ani. 1964. A Dictionary of Syrian Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Cowell, Mark W. 1964. A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grotzfeld, Heinz. 1965. Syrisch-arabische Grammatik. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Benedict, Warren C. and Ziad N. Kayyal. 1971. Levantine Arabic Basic Course, 4 vols. Beirut: Foreign Service Institute. Ferguson, Charles A., et al. 1961. Damascus Arabic. Washington, D.C.: CAL.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ (ɡ) m n̪ l r Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ b t d s z m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: last long syllable; otherwise initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1570
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Egyptian
Location: Egypt
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Elias, Edward A. 1962. Practical Dictionary of the Colloquial Arabic of the Middle East. Cairo: Elias' Modern Press. Grammar: Tomiche, Nada. 1964. Le parler arabe du Caire. The Hague: Mouton. Khalafallah, Abdelghany A. 1969. A Descriptive Grammar of Saɛi:di: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. The Hague: Mouton. Wise, Hilary. 1975. A Transformational Grammar of Spoken Egyptian Arabic. Oxford: Blackwell.
TextBooks: Mitchell, T. F. 1962. Collloquial Arabic. London: English Universities Press. Harrell, Richard S., Laila Y. Tewfik and George D. Selim. 1963. Lessons in Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Washigton, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Other Sources: Harrel, Richard S. 1957. The Phonelogy of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Consonant system: t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all cɒ t d s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (e) (æ) Back Vowels: ʋ (o) ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ū ō ɑ̄
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (mostly penult)
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1571
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Cypriot Maronite
Location: Cyprus
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Tsiapera, Maria. 1964. A Descriptive Analysis of Cypriot Maronite Arabic. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p k v z n l cɒ t ð s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1572
Language: Eastern Arabic Dialect: Chad
Location: Chad
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Roth-Laly, Arlette. 1969-72. Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 4 vols. Paris: CNRS. Grammar: Hagège, Claude. 1973. Profil d'un parler arabe du Tchad. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
TextBooks: Abu Absi, Samir and Andre Sinaud. 1968. Basic Chad Arabic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: t c k ʔ b d ɗ ɟ ɡ ɠ f s š χ h z m n ñ l r Stops: b t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ɠ ʔ Fricatives: f s z š χ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ɟ f r only Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ɨ̄ ā ū
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/(N-NUM [1,2]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1573
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Tunisian
Location: Tunisia
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Nicolas, A. 1938. Dictionnaire arabe-français. Idiome tunisien. Tunis: C. Abella.
TextBooks: Inglefield, Patrick L., Kacem Ben-Hamza and Toufik Abida. 1970. Tunisian Arabic Basic Course, 2 vols. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Maamouri, Mohamed. 1967. The Phonology of Tunisian Arabic. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Diss.
Consonant system: t k q b d ɡ m n l r Stops: b t d k ɡ q Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ b t d ð s m l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1574
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Algerian
Location: Algeria
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Belkhassem, Ben Sédira. 1954. Dictionnaire français-arabe de la langue parlé en Algérie. Algiers. Grammar: Grand'henry, Jacques. 1976. Les parlers arabes de la région du mzab. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
TextBooks: Tapiéro, Norbert. 1971. Manuel d'arabe algérien moderne. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: t̪ k q (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q (ʔ) Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d s z l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ej ou
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1575
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Moroccan
Location: Morocco
Population: 50 million (17 million )
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Harrell, Richard S., ed. 1966. A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Arabic-English. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Sobelman, Harvey and Richard S. Harrell, eds. 1963. A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: English-Moroccan. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Grammar: Harrell, Richard S. 1962. A Short Reference Grammar of Moroccan Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Marçais, P. 1977. Esquisse grammaticale de l'arabe maghrébin. Paris: Maisonneuve.
TextBooks: Harrell, Richard S. 1965. A Basic Course in Moroccan Arabic. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press. Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. 1973. An Introduction to Moroccan Arabic. Ann Arbor: Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: (p) b t̪̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z cɒ t d s ɾ (b z m l) cʷ b k ɡ q f χ ʁ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Diphthongs: aj aw ej ew Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO/(VSO) NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1576
Language: Western Arabic Dialect: Mauritanian
Location: Mauritania
Population: 50 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Grammar: Cohen, David. 1963. Le dialecte arabe hassaniya de Mauritanie. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Leriche, A. 1952. Cours de langue maure. Saint Louis: IFAN.
Consonant system: t̪ c k qɒ ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ qɒ ʔ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cɒ t d q ð s z l r (b ɡ f m n) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 1577
Language: Maltese
Location: Malta
Population: 50 million (325,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: Central: Canaanite Dictionary: Busuttil, Edgar D. 1941. Kalepin (dizjunarju) malti-ingliz. Valletta, Malta: St. Joseph Institute. Grammar: Aquilina, Joseph. 1959. The Structure of Maltese. Malta: Royal Univ of Malta.
TextBooks: Aquilina, Joseph. 1965. Teach Yourself Maltese. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Borg, Alexander. 1973. "The Segmental Phonemes of Maltese," Linguistics 109, 5-11. Fenech, Edward. 1978. Contemporary Journalistic Maltese. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie ew iw ej aj aw Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1578
Language: Epigraphic South Arabian
Location: Yemen
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South
Consonant system:
Number: 1579
Language: South Arabian Dialect: Shahari
Location: S Oman
Population: 426,000 (5,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South
Other Sources: Johnstone, T. M. 1975. " The Modern South Arabian Languages," AFL 1, 93-121.
Consonant system: t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ f θ s̪ s̪ʔ š sʔ ð ðʔ z̪ m n l ʔl ɬ ɮ r ʔr Stops: b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð ʔð s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š sʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ʔl ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all ?
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1580
Language: South Arabian Dialect: Harsusi
Location: South Yemen
Population: 426,000 (400,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South Dictionary: Johnstone, T. M. 1977. Harsusi Lexicon. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Johnstone, T. M. 1975. "The Modern South Arabian Languages," AFL 1, 93-121.
Consonant system: t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡ̌ f θ s̪ s̪ʔ š šʔ ð ʔð z̪ m n l ʔl ɬ ɮ r ʔr Stops: b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð ʔð s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š šʔ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ʔl ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w Central Vowels: ǝ a Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aj aw ej ew ēw īw ōj ūj
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2mf 5d 5mf 3mf 6d 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1581
Language: Geez
Location: N Ethiopia
Population: extinct
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L. 1976. "Two Ethio-Semitic Languages," in LE. LA
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d̪ d̪ʔ ɡ ɡʷ f s̪ s̪ʔ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ d̪ʔ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but cʔ ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Geez is still used as a liturgical language by the Orthodox church.
Number: 1582
Language: Tigre Dialect: Mensa
Location: NW Eritrea
Population: 117,000
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North Dictionary: Da Milano, Prospero Maria. 1936. Vocabulario pratico: italiano-tigray-amarico. Milan: Genio. Littman, Enno and Maria Höfner. 1962 Wörterbuch der Tigrè-Sprache: Tigrè-Deutsch-Englisch. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1945. "Grammatical Sketches in Tigré (North Ethiopic), Dialect of Mensa," JAOS 65, 164-203.
TextBooks: Camperio, Manfredo. 1936. Manuale pratico della lingua tigrè con due dizionarietti. Milan: V. Hoepli.
Other Sources: Palmer, Frank R. 1962. The Morphology of the Tigre Noun. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Consonant system: pʔ t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s sʔ m n ñ l r Stops: pʔ b t tʔ d k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s sʔ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG DN/ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1583
Language: Tigrinya
Location: N Ethiopia (W Tigre)
Population: 5.1 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: North Dictionary: Bassano, Francesco de. 1918. Vocabolario tigray-italiano e repertorio italiano-tigray. Rome: C. de Luigi. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1941. Documents tigrigna. Paris: Klincksieck.
TextBooks: Conti Rossini, Carlo. 1940. Lingua tigrina. Milan: Mondadori.
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L., et al. 1976. "Two Ethio-Semitic Languages," in LE, 99-199.
Consonant system: (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ (č) (čʔ) (ɡ̌) f s̪ s̪ʔ m n̪ (ñ) l̪ r Stops: (pʔ) b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: (č) (čʔ) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ ħ ʕ h cʷ k kʔ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: æj ɑj aj æw ɑw oj
Noun
Number: s d
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN/(ND) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1584
Language: Amharic
Location: NC Ethiopia
Population: 8 million
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal Dictionary: Leslau, Wolf. 1976. Concise Amharic Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1969. An Amharic Reference Grammar. Los Angeles: Dept. of Near Eastern and African Languages, UCLA. Cohen, Marcel. 1970. Traité de langue amharique. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
TextBooks: Leslau, Wolf. 1968. Amharic Textbook. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Consonant system: (p) (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ (s̪ʔ) š h z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l ɾ Stops: (p) (pʔ) b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ (s̪ʔ) z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h cʷ all (k kʔ ɡ most common) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (sg only) Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def ( indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 pol & 3 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1585
Language: Argobba
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Number: 1586
Language: Harari
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1587
Language: East Gurage Alternate Name: Silt'e Dialect: Harari
Location: EC Ethiopia (NW Harerge)
Population: 35,000 (13,000)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Transversal Grammar: Cohen, Marcel. 1931. Études d'éthiopien méridional. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Cerulli, Enrico. 1936. La lingua e la storia di Harar. Rome: Istituto per l'Oriente.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t tʔ k qʔ ʔ b d ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s š χ h z m n ñ l r Stops: b t tʔ d k ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š χ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ie uo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1588
Language: Gafat
Location: NW Ethiopia
Population: extinct (c. 1950)
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group Grammar: GD: Leslau, Wolf. 1945. Gafat Documents. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: (pʔ) t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ b bʷ d̪ ɡ ɡʷ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ s̪ʔ š x h hʷ z̪ ž m n ñ l r Stops: (pʔ) b bʷ t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ s̪ʔ z̪ š ž x h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: æj aj ǝj oj æw aw
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1589
Language: Soddo Alternate Name: Kistane
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1590
Language: Goggot
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: N-Group
Consonant system:
Number: 1591
Language: Muher
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group Grammar: Cohen, Marcel. 1931. Études d'éthiopien méridional. Paris: Paul Geuthner.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪ʔ k qʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k ɡ qʔ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž ç Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p (pl rarely used)
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1592
Language: Masqan
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group
Consonant system:
Number: 1593
Language: Central West Gurage Alternate Name: Sebat Bet Gurage Dialect: Chaha
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group Grammar: Leslau, Wolf. 1950. Ethiopic Documents: Gurage. New York: Viking Fund.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ č čʔ ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç x z̪ ž m n̪ (l̪) r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž ç x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: (l̪) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ p b k kʔ ɡ f x m cj k kʔ ɡ (t) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def (indef)
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1594
Language: Peripheral West Gurage
Location: C Ethiopia
Classification: Afro-Asiatic: Semitic: West: South: Ethiopic: South: Outer: TT-Group
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Картвельской семьи

Number: 1595
Language: Proto-Kartvelian
Location: Georgia
Classification: Kartvelian
Other Sources: Gamkrelidze, Thomas V. 1966. "A Typology of Common Kartvelian," Lg 42, 69-83.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ b d ɡ tsh tsʔ ćh ćʔ čh čʔ dz ɡ́ ɡ̌ s ś š x h z ź ɣ m n l r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz ćh ćʔ ɡ́ čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ś ź š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 1596
Language: Georgian
Location: Georgia
Population: 3.3 million
Classification: Kartvelian Grammar: Tschenkéli, Kita. 1958. Einführung in die georgische Sprache, 2 vols. Zürich: Amirani. Chikobava, A. S. 1967. "Gruzinskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 22-61. Vogt, Hans. 1971. Grammaire de la langue géorgienne. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
TextBooks: Tsibaxashvili, G. I. 1973. Elementarnyj kurs gruzinskogo jazyka. Tbilisi: Tbilisi Univ.
Other Sources: Robins, R. H. 1952. "Notes on the Phonetics of the Georgian Word," BSOAS 14, 55-72. Chikobáva. Arnol'd. 1971. Gruzinskij jazyk. Tbilisi: Ganatleba. AL 6:8.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ s̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (c)(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)v(c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+Num+A+N Ergative: Erg Comments: yes
Number: 1597
Language: Svan
Location: NW Georgia
Population: 35,000
Classification: Kartvelian Grammar: Topuria, V. T. 1967. "Svanskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 77-94.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ s̪ š x h (v) z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: (v) s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative: Erg
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1598
Language: Mingrelian Alternate Name: Zan
Location: W Georgia
Population: 300,000
Classification: Kartvelian: Zan Grammar: Kiziria, A. I. 1967. "Zanskij jazyk," in JNS 4, 62-76.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪sh t̪sʔ čh čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative: Erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1599
Language: Laz
Location: SW Georgia
Population: 50,000
Classification: Kartvelian: Zan
Other Sources: Dumézil, Georges. 1937. Contes lazes. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: indef
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N

Обзоры типов языков, возможно, входящих в Евразийскую макросемью

Number: 1646
Language: Etruscan
Location: N Italy
Population: (+)c. 400 AD
Classification: ?Eurasiatic Grammar: Bonfante, Larissa. 1990. Etruscan: Univ of California Press. Pfiffig, Ambros Josef. 1969. Die etruskische Sprache. Graz: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt. Pallottino, M. 1936. Elementi di lingua etrusca. Florence.
Other Sources: Fowler, Murray. 1974. "Etruscan Language," EB 6, 1018-9. Pallottino, M. 1955. The Etruscans. Baltimore: Penguin. Pallottino, M. 1977. "La lingua degli Etruschi," Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica 6.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh tsh f s š h v m n l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: tsh Fricatives: f v s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai au ei eu ui Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM
Prep/Post: PREP/POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Индо-хеттской семьи

Number: 1647
Language: Hittite
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct (c. 1300 B.C.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian Grammar: Sturtevant, Edgar H. 1951. A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts s x h ɣ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common(=m+f) neuter
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1648
Language: Palaic
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1649
Language: Lydian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1650
Language: Luwian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian Dictionary: Laroche, Emmanuel. 1959. Dictionnaire de la langue louvite. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Number: 1651
Language: Lycian
Location: Turkey
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Anatolian
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1652
Language: Proto-Indo-European
Location: Ukraine
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European Grammar: Meillet, A. 1937. Introduction à l'étude des langues indo-européennes. Paris. Hudson-Williams, T. 1935. A Short Introduction to the Study of çomparative Grammar (Indo-European). Cardiff: Univ of Wales Press.
Other Sources: CTIL 9, 122.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ (b) b̤ d̪ d̪̣ ɡ ɡ̤ ɡʷ ɡ̤ʷ s h m n̪ l r Stops: p (b) b̤ t̪ d̪ d̪̤ k ɡ ɡ̤ kʷ ɡʷ ɡ̤ʷ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ ɡ̤ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ei oi ai eu ou au
Syllable: mˈ nˈ lˈ rˈ
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1653
Language: Classical Armenian Alternate Name: Grabar
Location: Armenia
Population: extinct (c. 1300 B.C.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian Dictionary: Meillet, A. 1936. Esquisse d'une grammaire comparée de l'arménien classique. Vienna: Mekhitharistes. Grammar: Jensen, Hans. 1959. Altarmenische Grammatik. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Tumanjan, E. G. 1971. Drevnearmjanskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Damme, Dirk van. 1974. A Short Classical Armenian Grammar. Fribourg: Univ Press. Mann, Stuart E. 1968. An Armenian Historical Grammar in Latin Characters. London: Luzac.
Other Sources: Mann, Stuart E. 1963. Armerian and Indo-European. London: Luzac.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ ts tsh č čh dz ɡ̌ (f) s š x h v z ž (ɣ) m n̪ l lɯ ɾ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: aj aw ea ew iw oj ja eaj iaj
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1654
Language: Armenian Dialect: East
Location: Armenia
Population: 6 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian Grammar: Tumanjan, E. G. 1966. "Armjanskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 562-98.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h tʔ kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ tsh tsʔ čh čʔ dz ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l ɾ r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h tʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsh tsʔ dz čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (d) p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1655
Language: Armenian Dialect: West
Location: E Turkey
Population: 6 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Armenian
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1656
Language: Tocharian A
Location: NW China (Turkestan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Tocharian Dictionary: Windekens, A. J. van. 1941. Lexique étymologique des dialectes tokhariens. Louvain: Muséon. Grammar: Sieg, Emil and Wilhelm Siegling. 1931. Tocharische Grammatik. Gøttingen: Dandenhoe.
Other Sources: Windekens, A. J. van. 1944. Morphologie comparée du tokharien. Louvain: Muséon. Zimmer, Stefan. 1976. Tocharische Bibliographie, 1959-1975. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Adams, Douglas Q. 1978. "Ablaut and Umlaut in the Tocharian Vowel System, " JAOS 98, 446-50.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k ts č s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1657
Language: Tocharian B
Location: NW China (Turkestan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Tocharian Grammar: GD: Krause, Wolfgang and Werner Thomas. 1960, 1964. Tocharisches Elementarbuch, 2 vols. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
Other Sources: Windekens, A. J. van. 1976. Le tocharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européenes, 2 vols. Louvain: Centre International de Dialectologie Générale.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k ts č s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p k ts m Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: ai oi au āu
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1658
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Classical
Location: N India
Population: c. 400 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Dictionary: Monier-Williams, Monier. 1976. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Apte, Vaman Shivram. 1974. The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Grammar: Gonda, Jan. 1966. A Concise Elementary Grammar of the Sanskrit Language. University, Alabama: Univ of Alabama Press. Renou, Louis. 1968. Grammaire sanskrite. Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.
TextBooks: Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. 1966. First Book of Sanskrit. Bombay: Karnatak. Allen, W. S. 1953. Phonetics in Ancient India. London: Oxford Univ Press. Emeneau, M. B. and B. A. van Nooten. 1968. Sanskrit Sandhi and Exercises. Berkeley: Univ of Califonia Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ d̤̣ ɟ ɟ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ s̪ ṣ š h v ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ c ch ɟ ɟ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6dmfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1659
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Vedic
Location: N India
Population: c. 1,000 BC
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Grammar: Macdonell, A. A. 1910. Vedic Grammar. Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ṣ š h v m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h l r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: mˈ lˈ rˈ
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6dmfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1660
Language: Sanskrit Dialect: Pali
Location: India (Bihar)
Population: c. 400 B. C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic Grammar: Higashimoto, Keiki, 1967. An Elementary Grammar of the Pali Language. Tokyo: Research Institute of the Pali Literature, Komazawa Univ.
TextBooks: Warder, A. K. 1974. Introduction to Pali. London: Pali Text Society.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ v ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ ḷ̤ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ ḷ̤ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1661
Language: Romany Dialect: Iranian
Location: NW Iran
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Windfuhr, Gernot L. 1970. "European Gypsy in Iran: A First Report," AL 12, 271-92.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f s š x h v z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1662
Language: Romany Dialect: Czechoslovakian
Location: Czechoslovakia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Miltner, Vladimı́r. 1965. "The Morphologic Strutcure of a New Indo-Aryan Language of Czechoslovakia," IL 26, 106-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th c ch k kh b d ɟ ɡ ts č čh dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p ph b t th d c ch ɟ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā ō Stress: penult Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 1663
Language: Romany Dialect: Baltic
Location: Estonia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany Grammar: Venttsel', T. V. 1966. "Tsyganskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 630-51.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č (d̪z) ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) (d̪z) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but ph ts dz č ɡ̌ f z š ž Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ǝ o ɑ Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO AN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1664
Language: Romany Dialect: Wales
Location: Wales
Population: 1 million (extinct)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Romany
Other Sources: Lockwood, W. B. 1975. Languages of the British Isles Past and Present. London: Andre Duetsch.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ r Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all?
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1665
Language: Maldivian
Location: Maldive Islands
Population: 130,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Sinhalese-Maldivian
Other Sources: De Silva, M. W. Sugathapala. 1969. "The Phonological Efficiency of the Maldivian Writing system," AL 11, 199-208.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b mb d nd ḍ nḍ ɡ ŋɡ f s š h v z m n (ñ) l ḷ r Stops: p b mb t d nd ṭ d nḍ k ɡ ŋɡ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɐ̄ ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ei eu ui ou oi
Number: 1666
Language: Sinhalese
Location: Sri Lanka
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Singhalese-Maldivian Dictionary: Malalasekera, G. P. 1967. English-Sinhalese Dictionary. Colombo, Ceylon: M. D. Gunasena.
TextBooks: Garusinghe, Dayaratne. 1962. Sinhalese: The Spoken Idiom. Munich: Max Hueber.
Other Sources: Coates, William A. and M. W. S. de Silva. 1960. "The Segemental Phonemes of Sinhalese," Univ of Ceylon Review 18, 163-75. Gair, James W. 1966. "Colloquial Sinhalese Inflectional Categories and Parts of Speech," IL 27, 31-45. Gair, James W. 1970. Colloquial Sinhalese Clause Structures. The Hague: Mouton. Karunatilake, W. S. and S. Suseendirarajah. 1973. "Phonology of Sinhalese and Sri Lanka Tamil," IL 34, 180-90.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k b mb d̪ nd̪ ḍ nḍ ɡ ŋɡ č ɡ̌ s (š) h v m n ñ l r Stops: p b mb t̪ d̪ nd̪ ṭ ḍ nḍ k ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s (š) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3hmfi *6hai 3: hum, masc anim, fem anim, inan; 6: hum, an, inan politeness: numerous second person pronouns implying various degrees of respect and differential status.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N (1)/N-NUM (2,3,...) POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1667
Language: Bashkarik
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1940. "Notes on Bashkarik," Acta Orientalia 18, 206-57.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ s ṣ š x h z ž ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l ʎ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai
Tones: ris fall Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN DN POSS-N
Number: 1668
Language: Maiya
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 1669
Language: Tirahi
Location: E Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1934. "Notes on Tirahi, " Acta Orientalia 12, 161-89.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1670
Language: Torwali
Location: Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1930. "Notes on Torwali," Acta orientalia 8, 294-310.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ s š x h z ž ɣ m n l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1671
Language: Wotapuri
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Central Grammar: DG: Buddruss, Georg. 1960. Die Sprache von Wotˈapur und Katˈarqala. Bonn: Orientalischen Seminars, Univ Bonn.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh dz ɡ̌ (f) s (ṣ) š x h z ɣ m n ṇ l ɬ̣ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z (ṣ) š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ɬ̣ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: aī au āē aū āī āu āū eā ēu īu ui ūī ūē uō ūo nasal diphthongs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1672
Language: Kalasha
Location: N Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Chitral
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1673
Language: Khowar
Location: N Pakistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Chitral
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1674
Language: Dameli
Location: N Pakistan (S Chitral)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: GD: Morgenstierne, G. 1942. "Notes on Dameli," Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 12, 115-98.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh (q) b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh s ṣ š x (χ) (h) z (ẓ) ž (ɣ) m n ṇ (ŋ) l r ɹ́ ɹ́ is a palatal fricative. Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ (q) Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: s z ṣ (ẓ) š ž x (ɣ) (χ) (h) Nasals: m n ṇ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɹ́ (palatal fricative) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: u ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Tones: lo-ris hi-fall
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 1=4
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1675
Language: Gawar-bati
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1950. Notes on Gawar-bati. Oslo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č ɡ̌ s ṣ š (x) h z ž (ɣ) m n ṇ l ɬ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž (x) (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ ṭ ḍ l ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl restricted to animate beings and relatives) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1676
Language: Shumashti
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar
Consonant system:
Number: 1677
Language: Nangalami
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar
Consonant system:
Number: 1678
Language: Pashai Dialect: Southwest
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Other Sources: AL 7:8.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh q b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ (t̪s) ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ ẓ ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ (ŋ) l̪ r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ q Affricates: (t̪s) ṭs ṭsh č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ ṣ ẓ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ (ŋ) Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) (æ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai āi oi ui ūi au āu ōu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1679
Language: Pashai Dialect: Southeast
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ ɣ m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ š x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ǣ ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: GN N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1680
Language: Pashai Dialect: Northwest
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ ṭh k kh q b d̪ ḍ (d̪̤) č čh ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ (ẓ) ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ (d̪̤) ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ (ẓ) š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: (m f) (gender is present in only some NW dialects.) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1681
Language: Pashai Dialect: Northeast
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Kunar Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 3.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k b d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s ṭs (ṭsh) č čh ɡ̌ s̪ ṣ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ k ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s ṭs (ṭsh) č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ ṣ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: diphthongs
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1682
Language: Dumaki
Location: N Pakistan (Hunza)
Population: 300
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina Grammar: DG: Lorimer, D. L. R. 1939. The Dumaki Language. Nijmegen: Dekker & van de Vegt.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k q b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh č̣ č̣h č čh ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š (x) z ẓ̌ (ɣ) m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts tsh č̣ č̣h ɡ̣̌ č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š (x) (ɣ) Nasals: m n (ṇ) ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Diphthongs: æi æI au ɔi
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1683
Language: Phalura
Location: N Pakistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina Dictionary: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1941. Notes on Phalura. Oslo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh dz ḍz ɡ̌ s ṣ š x h z ž (ɣ) m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai Stress: on first long syllable from end of word
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 6: 3 + that very distant, that above, that below
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1684
Language: Shina Alternate Name: Brokskat, Savi
Location: N Pakistan (Jammu)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ ṭs ṭsh č čh ḍz ɡ̌ f s ṣ š h v z ẓ ž m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: ṭs ṭsh ḍz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ ẓ š ž h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Tones: lev lo-ris
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1685
Language: Kashmiri
Location: N India (Kashmir)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Dardic: Shina
Other Sources: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1941. "The Phonology of Kashmiri," Acta Orientalia 19, 79-99. Kelkar, Ashok R. and Pran Nath Trisal. 1964. "Kashmiri Word Phonology: A First Sketch," AL 6:1, 13-22. Handoo, Jawaharlal. 1973. Kashmiri Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. AL 7:8 CTIL 5, 293. WPF
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s t̪sh č čh ɡ̌ s š h v z m n l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but č čh ɡ̌ š j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all (ɔ̄ marɡinal) Nasal Vowels: ẽ ǝ̃ ã ũ õ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ɨ̃̄ ǝ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1686
Language: Marathi
Location: W India (Maharashtra)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Dictionary: Deshpande, Madhav K. 1968. Marathi-English Dictionary. Poona: Suvichar Prakashan Mandal. Grammar: Apte, Mahadeo Laxman. 1962. A Sketch of Marathi Transformational Grammar. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Diss.
Other Sources: James, A. Lloyd and S. G. Kanhere. 1928. "The Pronunciation of Marathi," BSOAS 4, 791-801. Kelkar, Ashok Ramchandra. 1958. The Phonology and Morphology of Marathi. Ithaca: Cornell Univ Diss.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh č čh dz d̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s ṣ š h v m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ l̪ ḷ ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s ṣ š h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ǝ̄ ū Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn politeness: + 2 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1687
Language: Marathi Dialect: Kasargod
Location: S India ( N Kerala)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South
Other Sources: Ghatage, A. M. 1970. "Marathi of Kasargod," IL 31, 138-44. E
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s (š) (h) v m n ṇ l ṛ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s (š) (h) Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ṛ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1688
Language: Marathi Dialect: Kunabi
Location: India ( W Maharashtra)
Population: 45 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Grammar: Ghatage, A. M. 1966. Kunabi of Mahad. Bombay: State Board of Literature and Culture.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s č čh d̪z d̪̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ š h v v̤ m m̤ n n̤ ŋ l̪ l̪̤ r r̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s d̪z d̪̤z č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v v̤ s š h Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ Vibrants: r r̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ɛ̄ ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3fF *6fF F=m+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1689
Language: Konkani
Location: W India (Mysore)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: South Grammar: Ghatage, A. M. 1963. Konkani of South Kanara. Bombay: State Board for Literature and Culture. Ghatage, A. M. 1968. Konkani of Kankon. Bombay: State Board for Literature and Culture.
Other Sources: Katre, Lalita S. 1970. "Konkani Kinship Terms," IL 31, 149-61.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ t̪s č čh d̪z d̪̤z ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s̪ š h v v̤ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ l̪ l̪̤ ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: t̪s d̪z d̪̤z č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v v̤ s̪ š h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1690
Language: Sindhi
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 7 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest Grammar: Jegorova, R. P. 1966. Jazyk sindxi. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Bordie, John G. 1958. A Descriptive Sindhi Phonology. Austin: Univ of Texas Diss. Rohra, S. K. 1971. "Sindhi, Kacchi, and Emigrant Sindhi," IL 32, 123-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ ɓ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɗ̣ ʄ ɡ ɡ̤ ɠ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ ɓ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ ɗ̣ ʄ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ɠ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1691
Language: Sindhi Dialect: Katchi
Location: W India (Gujarat)
Population: 7 million (400,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest
Other Sources: Rohra, S. K. 1971. "Sindhi, Kacchi, and Emigrant Sindhi," IL 32, 123-31.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b ɓ d ḍ ɗ̣ ɟ ʄ ɡ ɠ s h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ ɗ̣ c ch ɟ ʄ k kh ɡ ɠ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Number: 1692
Language: Lahnda
Location: NE Pakistan
Population: 15 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Western: Northwest
Other Sources: Bahri, Hardev. 1963. Lahndi Phonetics. Allahabad: Bharati Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x v z ɣ ɦ m n ṇ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ ĩ̄ ẽ̄ ũ̄ ȭ ɑ̃̄ Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syntax: SOV NUM-N
Number: 1693
Language: Parya
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1694
Language: Baluj Alternate Name: Jatt
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1695
Language: Punjabi Alternate Name: Panjabi
Location: NW India (Panjab)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Gill, Harjeet Singh and Henry A. Gleason, Jr. 1963. A Reference Grammar of Panjabi. HSL 3.
TextBooks: Gill, H. S. and H. A. Gleason, Jr. 1963. A Start in Panjabi. HSL 11.
Other Sources: Gill Harjeet Singh. 1960. "Panjabi Tonemics," AL 2:6, 11-8. Arun, Vidya Bhaskar. 1961. A Comparative Phonology of Hindi and Panjabi. Ludhiana, India: Panjabi Sahitya Akademi.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š v (z̪) ɦ m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ (z̪) š ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l v s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: Iǝ Io Iɔ Ia ʋa ǝi ǝe ǝu
Tones: hi-ris mid lo-fall Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 [*6] 6 only in oblique cases; in nominative case 3=6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1696
Language: Marwari Alternate Name: Shekhawati
Location: Pakistan
Population: 220,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1697
Language: Banjari Alternate Name: Lamani, Lambadi
Location: NW India
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: PCSD IV, 4-5. WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1698
Language: Malvi Alternate Name: Rajasthani
Location: NW India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 22 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Bhattacharya, Shefali. 1974. "Malvi Kinship Terms," IL 35, 119-28. E
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s v m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1699
Language: Gujarati
Location: WC India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 23 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Dictionary: Mazmudar, M. A., ed. 1969. Gala's Advanced Dictionary (English-Gujarati ). Gomtipur, India: Gala. Grammar: Cardona, George. 1965. A Gujarati Reference Grammar. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
TextBooks: Lambert, H. M. 1971. Gujarati Language Course. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Pandit, P. B. 1957. "Nasalization, Aspiration and Murmur in Gujarati," IL 17, 165-72. Paudit, Prabodh Bechardas. 1965. Phonemic and Morphemic Frequencies of the Gujarati Language. Poona: Deccan College. Dave, Radhekant. 1967. "A Formant Analysis of the Clear, Nasalized, and Murmured Vowels in Gujarati," IL 28, 1-30. CJIL 5, 117.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s š v ɦ m n̪ ṇ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s š ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: v̤ all ṽ̤ all but e o Diphthongs: aI aʋ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 3 forms of 2: (1) fam, (2) pol, (3) formal.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1700
Language: Bhili Alternate Name: Wagdi Dialect: Bahelia
Location: WC India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 2.7 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Srivastava, G. P. 1968. "Bahelia Phonology," IL 29, 67-79. E WPF
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ h v m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ŋ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ŋ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1701
Language: Gade Lohar
Location: India (Rajasthan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Sharma, Jagdish Chander. 1973. "Nominal and Verbal Inflection in the Dialect of the Gade Lohars," IL 34, 200-10.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ṇ̤ l̪ l̪̤ ḷ ḷ̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s̪ ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ ṇ̤ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ ḷ ḷ̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: S P
Noun Classes: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 1702
Language: Khandeshi
Location: N India (Maharashtra)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 1703
Language: Hindi Dialect: Bundeli
Location: N India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Jaiswal M. P. 1962. A Linguistic Study of Bundeli. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s̪ v ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ɵ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6 politeness: various honorifics for 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1704
Language: Hindi
Location: NC India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: McGregor, R. S. 1977. Outline of Hindi Grammar. Delhi: Oxford Univ Press.
TextBooks: Bender, Ernest. 1967. Hindi Grammar and Reader. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
Other Sources: Mehrotra, Ramesh Chandra. 1964. "Hindi Phonemes," IL 25, 234-46. Arun, Vidya Bhaskar. 1961. A Comparative Phonology of Hindi and Panjabi. Ludhiana, India: Panjabi Sahitya Akademi.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh (q) b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ (f) s (ṣ) š (x) v (z) (ɣ) ɦ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ l l̤ ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ (q) Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: (f) v s (z) (ṣ) š (x) (ɣ) ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ai au ãi ãu Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) pol, (2) fam, (3) intim.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1705
Language: Hindi Dialect: Bangru
Location: N India (Haryana)
Population: 200 Million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Singh, Jag Deva. 1970. A Descriptive Grammar of Bangru. Kurukshetra, India: Kurukshetra Univ.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s ɦ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ṇ ŋ ɾ̣ ḷ h j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɨ ʉ ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1706
Language: Urdu
Location: Pakistan
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Dictionary: Ferozsons Urdu-English Dictionary. n.d. Karachi: Ferozsons. DT: Bender, Ernest. 1967. Urdu Grammar and Reader. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press.
TextBooks: Bailey, T. Grahame. 1967. Teach Yourself Urdu. London: English Universities Press. Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman, et al. 1967. A Course in Urdu, 3 vols. Montreal: Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill Univ.
Other Sources: Bright, William and Saeed A. Khan. 1958. The Urdu Writing System. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s š x h v z (ž) ɣ m n̪ l ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̤̪ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ai au ãi ãu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 3 forms of 2
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1707
Language: Dogri
Location: India Jammu)
Population: 2.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1708
Language: Western Pahari
Location: N India (Jammu)
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Varma, Siddheshwar. 1936. "The Rudhari Dialect," IL 6, 128-96.
Consonant system: Modified Consonants: c̄
Tones: hi falling
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 4: this very near/this/that visible/that invisible Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5mf *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1709
Language: Garhwali
Location: N India ( N Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central
Other Sources: Chandrasekhar, A. 1970. "The Phonemes of Garhwali," IL 31, 80-5. E
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh c ch k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɟ ɟ̣ ɡ ɡ̤ s h m n l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ d̤̣ c ch ɟ ɟ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1710
Language: Kumauni Alternate Name: Johari
Location: N India (Uttar Pradesh)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Central Grammar: Apte, Mahadeo L. and D. P. Pattanayak. 1967. An Outline of Kumauni Grammar. Durham: Duke Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ h m n̪ ṇ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ǝ̃ ã ʋ̃ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Syntax: SOV AN
Number: 1711
Language: Nepali
Location: Nepal
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
TextBooks: Clark, T. W. 1963. Introduction to Nepali. Cambridge, Eng.: W. Heffer & Sons.
Other Sources: Southworth, Franklin C. 1967. Nepali Transformational Structure: A Sketch. Poona: Deccan College. Bandhu, C. M., et al. 1971. Nepali Segmental Phonology. Kirtipur, Nepal: SIL. Hari, Maria. 1973. "Tentative Systematic Organization of Nepali Sentences," in CSDP I, 203-58. Bandhu, Churamani. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Nepali," in CSDP II, 1-79.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh dz d̤z s h m n̪ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw ǝ̃j ǝ̃w
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 has 3 forms.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1712
Language: Awadhi
Location: NC India ( NW Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 55 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Saksena, Baburam. 1971. Evolution of Awadhi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h ɦ m m̤ n n̤ l l̤ r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č ɡ̌ čh ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h ɦ Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ɾ̣ ɾ̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic (final/penult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1713
Language: Bhojpuri Dialect: Tharu
Location: S Nepal
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Hugoniot, Richard D. and Austin Hale. 1973. "Contra-Expectancy Particles in Tharu Bhojpuri," in CSDP I, 377-87. PCSD, 6-7.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ṇ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1714
Language: Bhojpuri Alternate Name: Bihari
Location: NE India (Bihar)
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Tiwary, K. M. 1968. "The Echo-word Construction in Bhojpuri," AL 10:4, 32-8. Trammel, Robert L. 1971. "The Phonology of the Northern Standard Dialect of Bhojpuri," AL 13, 126-41. Singh, Kripa Shankar. 1972. "A Sketch of the Hierarchical Structure of Bhojpuri," IL 33, 42-58.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r r̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r r̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N
Number: 1715
Language: Maithili
Location: SE Nepal
Population: 30 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: Jha, Subhadra. 1944. "Maithili Phonetics," IL 8,435-59. Davis, Alice I. 1973. "Maithili Sentences," in CSDP I, 259-319. Williams, Jennifer. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Maithili, " in PCSD II, 345-452.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m m̤ n n̤ ŋ l l̤ ɾ ɾ̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̤ n n̤ ŋ Laterals: l l̤ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̤ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: ǝi ǝu Stress: non-phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 2 & 5 have 3 forms: (1) honorific, (2) mid-honorific, (3) non-honorific. 3 & 6 have 2 forms: (1) honorific, (2) non-honorific.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1716
Language: Magahi
Location: India (S Bihar)
Population: 11 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: East-Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1717
Language: Oriya
Location: E India (Orissa)
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern Grammar: Karpushkin, B. M. 1964. Jazyk orija. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1966. A Controlled Historical Reconstruction of Oniya, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. The Hague: Mouton. Majumdar, Paresh Chandra. 1970. A Historical Phonology of Oriya. Calcutta: Sanskrit College.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ v s ɦ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: v s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ ɾ̣̤ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ ẽ ã ũ (õ) ɔ̃ Diphthongs: ǝi ou
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1718
Language: Oriya Dialect: Halbi
Location: E India (Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (300,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Woods, Fran. 1973. "Sentence Patterns in Halbi," in PCSD I, 35-123.
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d d̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s h m n l r ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1719
Language: Oriya Dialect: Kupia
Location: E India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (6,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Christmas, R. B. and J. E. Christmas. 1973a. "Sentence Patterns in Kupia," in PCSD I, 125-95. Christmas, R. B. and J. E. Christmas. 1973b. "Clause Patterns in Kupia," in PCSD II, 257-343.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ d ɡ ts dz s m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1720
Language: Oriya Dialect: Kotia
Location: India (Andra Pradesh)
Population: 20 million (12,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Gustafsson, Uwe. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Kotia Oriya," in PCSD II, 191-256.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts dz s (h) m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s (h) Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1721
Language: Bengali Dialect: Calcutta
Location: NE India (West Bengal)
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern Dictionary: Mitra, Subal C. 1967. Century Dictionary (Bengali to English). Calcutta: K. C. Mazumder. Dabbs, Jack A. 1965. A Short Bengali-English, English-Bengali Dictionary. College Station: Texas A & M Univ.
TextBooks: Hudson, D. F. 1965. Teach Yourself Bengali. London: English Universities Press. Dimock, Edward, Somdev Bhattacharji and Suhas Chatterjee. 1976. Introduction to Bengali, part I. New Delhi: Manohar.
Other Sources: Ferguson, Charles A. and Munier Chowdhury. 1960. "The Phonemes of Bengali," Lg 36, 22-59.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ḍ̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ (s̪) š h m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: (s̪) š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h ŋ ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 & 5 have 3 forms: (1) honorific, (2) neutral, (3) inferior. 3 & 6 have 2 forms: (1) honorific, (2) plain.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1722
Language: Bengali Dialect: Dacca
Location: Bangladesh
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Sen, Nilmadhav. 1972. "Some Dialects of Bangla Desh," IL 33, 143-52.
Consonant system: p t th ṭ ṭh k kh ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ḍ ɗ̣ ɡ ɠ f s̪ s š (x) h z zʔ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t th d ɗ ṭ ṭh ḍ ɗ̣ k kh ɡ ɠ ʔ Fricatives: f s̪ s z zʔ š (x) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1723
Language: Assamese
Location: NE India (Assam)
Population: 140 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Indic: Eastern
Other Sources: Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna. 1966. A Controlled Historical Reconstruction of Oriya, Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. The Hague: Mouton. WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b b̤ d d̤ ɡ ɡ̤ s x h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Fricatives: s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k m n ŋ l s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1724
Language: Ashkun
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Other Sources: Strand, Richard F. 1973. "Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic Languages," JAOS 93, 297-305.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts ṭs č dz ɡ̌ s ṣ š v z ẓ ž m n ṇ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz ṭs č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z ṣ ẓ š ž Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Number: 1725
Language: Kalasha-ala
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Consonant system:
Number: 1726
Language: Kati
Location: NE Afghanistan (Kunarha)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
TextBooks: Morgenstierne, Georg. 1951. "Some Kati Myths and Hymns," Acta Orintalia 21, 161-89.
Other Sources: Strand, Richard F. 1973. "Notes on the Nuristani and Dardic Languages," JAOS 93, 297-305.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k (q) (ʔ) b d ḍ ɡ (G) ts ṭs č dz ḍz ɡ̌ m n ṇ ŋ l r ɾ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ (q) (G) (ʔ) Affricates: ts dz ṭs ḍz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Stress: phonemic Articles: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1727
Language: Tregami
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Consonant system:
Number: 1728
Language: Wasi-weri Alternate Name: Prasuni
Location: NE Afghanistan
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Nuristani
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1729
Language: Scythian
Location: S Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian
Consonant system:
Number: 1730
Language: Ossetic Dialect: Eastern
Location: Georgia
Population: 593,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian Dictionary: Abaev, V. I. 1950. Russko-osetinskij slovar'. Moscow. Osetinsko-russkij slovar'. 1970. Ordzhonikidze: Ir. Grammar: Abaev, V. I. 1964. A Grammatical Sketch of Ossetic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Isaev, M. I. 1966. "Osetinskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 237-56.
Other Sources: Benveniste, E. 1959. Études sur la langue ossète. Paris. AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ d̪z ɡ̌ f s χ v z ʁ m n̪ l r Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ qh Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial if syllable contains a strong vowel (i e a o u); otherwise second
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: (def)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1731
Language: Ossetic Dialect: Western
Location: Georgia
Population: 400,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: West Scythian Grammar: Isaev, M. I. 1966. Digorskij dialekt osetinskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Henderson, Eugénie J. A. 1949. "A Phonetic Study of Western Ossetic (Digoron), " BSOAS 13, 36-79.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ q b d̪ ɡ t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z f s̪ χ v z̪ ʁ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ k kʔ ɡ q Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ d̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1732
Language: Avestan
Location: Iran
Population: 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian Grammar: Jackson, A. V. Williams. 1892. An Avesta Grammar. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h ṭ k kh b d̪ d̪̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š h h̃ v z ž m n n ̣ ñ ŋ r Stops: p b t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ̌ š ž h h̃ Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ao ǝu āi āu ōi aē
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1733
Language: Avestan Dialect: Sasanid
Location: Iran
Population: 400 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian Grammar: Sokolov, S.N. 1967. The Avestan Language. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s ṣ̌ š x h v (ð) z ž (ɣ) m n (ñ) ŋ r ɹ̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ (ð) s z ṣ̌ š ž x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ Vibrants: r ɹ̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū ɒ̄ Diphthongs: aē ao ōi ǝ̄u āi āu
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/GN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1734
Language: Khwarezmian
Location: S Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Khwarezmian
Consonant system:
Number: 1735
Language: Sogdian
Location: SW Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Sogdian
Consonant system:
Number: 1736
Language: Yaghnobi
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Sogdian Grammar: Bogoljubov, M. N. 1966. "Jagnobskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 342-61.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ū ō Diphthongs: aj
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult or final in noun
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1737
Language: Bactrian
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: Bactrian
Consonant system:
Number: 1738
Language: Saka
Location: China (Sinkiang)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian
Consonant system:
Number: 1739
Language: Pashto
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 13 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian Grammar: Penzl, Herbert. 1955. Grammar of Pashto. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Learned Societies. Shafeev, D. A. 1964. A Short Grammatical Outline of Pashto. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
TextBooks: Chavarria-Aguilar, O. L. 1962. Pashto Basic Course. Ann Arbor: Dept of Near Eastern Studies, Univ. of Michigan. Enevoldsen, Jens. 1968. An Introduction to Pashto. Copenhagen: Dansk Pathan Mission.
Other Sources: Morgenstierne, G. and A. Lloyd-James. 1928. "Notes on the Pronunciation of Pashto (Dialect of the Hazara District)," BSOAS 5, 53-62.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ (ts) č (dz) ɡ̌ f s ṣ š x h z ẓ ž ɣ m n̪ ṇ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z ṣ ẓ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: (ī) ē (ū) ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: aj ǝj au ou āj āu oj Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1740
Language: Pashto Dialect: Eastern
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 13 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h z ž ɣ m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ x ɣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Number: 1741
Language: Wakhi
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 15,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: Paxalina, T. N. 1975. Vaxanskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. DG: IIFL, vol 2. Paxalina, T. N. 1966. "Vaxanskij jzayk," in JNS 1, 398-418. Lorimer, L. R. 1958. The Wakhi Language. London.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ ts č̣ č dz ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f θ s ṣ̌ š x χ v ð z ẓ̌ ž ɣ ʁ m n l (ḷ) r (ṛ) Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č̣ ɡ̣̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r (ṛ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1742
Language: Munji
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 2. DG: Grjunberg, A. L. 1972. Jazyk vostochnogo gindukusha: mundzhanskij jazyk. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (q) b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č̣ č d̪z ɡ̣̌ ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ ç š x h v z̪ ẓ̌ ž ɣ m n̪ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ (q) Affricates: t̪s d̪z č̣ ɡ̣̌ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ ẓ̌ ç š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1743
Language: Yidgha
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ ts č̣ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ̌ š x v z ẓ̌ ž ɣ m n ṇ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: ts č̣ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: cʷ x Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ū Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1744
Language: Sanglechi
Location: Afghaniston
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir
Consonant system:
Number: 1745
Language: Ishkashmi
Location: NE Afghanistan
Population: 2,500
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 2. Paxalina, T. N. 1959. Ishkashimaskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Paxalina, T. N. 1966. "Ishkashimaskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 419-35.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s č̣ č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ š χ v z̪ ẓ̌ ž ʁ m n̪ l̪ (ḷ) r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: t̪s d̪z č̣ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š ž χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ (ḷ) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ou oi ai
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1746
Language: Shughni
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Zarubin, I. I. 1960. Shuganskie teksty: slovar'. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Grammar: Sokolova, V. S. 1966. "Shugnano-rushanskaja jazykovaja gruppa," in JNS 1, 362-97.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ʋ̄ ō
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1747
Language: Shughni Dialect: Sarikoli
Location: SW China (Sinkiang)
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Paxalina, T. N. 1971. Sarykol'sko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x χ v z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū Stress: final
Number: 1748
Language: Shughni Dialect: Bartang
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Grammar: Karamxudoev, N. 1973. Bartangskij jazyk. Dushanbe: Donish.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ā ū ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1749
Language: Yazgulami
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 70,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northeast: East Scythian: Pamir Dictionary: Edel'man, D. I. 1971. Jazguliamsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Nauka. Grammar: Edel'man, D. I. 1966a. Jazguliamsko jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Edel'man, D. I. 1966b. "Jazguliamsko-jazyk," in JNS 1, 436-54.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t c k q b d ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x χ (h) v ð z ž ɣ ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ q x χ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: (ā)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1750
Language: Parachi
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southeast Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 1.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h ṭ ṭh k kh q b b̤ d̪ d̪̤ ḍ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h z̪ ž ɣ m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ l̪ l̪̤ r r̤ ṛ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h d̪ d̪̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m m̤ n̪ n̪̤ ṇ Laterals: l̪ l̪̤ Vibrants: r r̤ ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e (ɛ) Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: o ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: aI aʋ āʋ āo āI āe Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA NG/GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1751
Language: Ormuri
Location: Afghanistan
Population: 4,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southeast Grammar: DG: IIFL, vol 1.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k q b d̪ ḍ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ ṣ̌ š x h z̪ ž ɣ ʕ m n̪ ṇ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ z̪ ṣ̌ š ž x ɣ ʕ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1752
Language: Median
Location: NW Iran
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1753
Language: Parthian
Location: Iran (Khorasan)
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 1754
Language: Yazdi Alternate Name: Gabri (pejorative)
Location: Iran
Population: 8,000 (1940)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran Grammar: DG: Ivanow, W. 1940. The Gabri Dialect. Rome: G. Bardi.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f (θ) s š x h v (ð) z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) (ð) s z š x ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: All bilingual in Farsi.
Number: 1755
Language: Nayini
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1756
Language: Natanzi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1757
Language: Soi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1758
Language: Khunsari
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1759
Language: Gazi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1760
Language: Sivandi
Location: C Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1761
Language: Vafsi
Location: C Iran (Central)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Central Iran
Consonant system:
Number: 1762
Language: Semnani
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Semnani
Consonant system:
Number: 1763
Language: Sangisari
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Semnani
Consonant system:
Number: 1764
Language: Gilaki
Location: Iran
Population: 3.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Caspian
Other Sources: CTIL 6, 111. OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ī ū
Number: 1765
Language: Mazanderani
Location: N Iran
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Caspian
Other Sources: CTIL 6, 111. OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 1766
Language: Talysh
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Talysh Grammar: Miller, B. V. 1953. Talyshskij jazyk. Moscow. Pirejko, L. A. 1966. "Talyshskij jazyk," in JNS 1 302-22.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š χ h v z ž ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1767
Language: Harzani
Location: Iran (W Azerbaijan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Talysh
Consonant system:
Number: 1768
Language: Zaza Alternate Name: Kirmanjki
Location: Turkey (Tunceli)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Zaza-Gorani
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1769
Language: Gorani
Location: Iran (W Kordestan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Zaza-Gorani
Consonant system:
Number: 1770
Language: Baluchi Dialect: Eastern
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t th ṭ ṭh k kh b d ḍ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f θ s š x h ð z ž ɣ m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d ṭ ṭh ḍ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I æ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄
Number: 1771
Language: Baluchi Dialect: Western
Location: S Pakistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi Dictionary: Gilbertson, G. W. 1925. English-Baluchi Colloquial Dictionary, 2 vols. Hertford. Grammar: Rastorgueva, V. S. 1960. Beludzhskij jazyk. Moscow. Rastorgueva, V. S. 1966. "Beludzhskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 323-41.
TextBooks: Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman and Aqil Khan Mengal. 1969. A Course in Baluchi. Montreal: McGill University, Institute of Islamic Studies.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 OPYT
Consonant system: p t ṭ k b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō (ı̃̄) ẽ̄ ã̄ (ũ̄) ȭ Diphthongs: ǝj ǝw
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5)/N-POSS(3,6) D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1772
Language: Bashkardi
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Baluchi
Consonant system:
Number: 1773
Language: Kirmanji
Location: Syria
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Grammar: Bedir Khan, Emir Djeladet and Roger Lescot. 1970. Grammaire kurde. Paris: Maisonneuve.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3(mf) (6) 3m, 3f, 6 in oblique case only
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1774
Language: Kirmanji Alternate Name: Kurdish
Location: Armenia
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Dictionary: Kurdoev, K. K. 1960. Kurdsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Farizov, I. O. 1957. Russko-kurdskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Kurdov, K. K. 1957. Grammatika kurdskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Bakaev, C. X. 1962. Govor kuidov Turkmenii. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Bakaev, C. X. 1965. Jazyk azerbajdzhanskix kurdov. Moscow: Nauka. Bakaev, C. X. 1966. " Kurdskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 257-80.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ m n l ɾ r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɒ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1mf 4 2mf 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1775
Language: Kurdi
Location: Iraq
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Dictionary: McCarus, Ernest N. 1967. A Kurdish-English Dictionary. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press.
TextBooks: Abdulla, Jamal Jalal and Ernest N. McCarus. 1967. Kurdish Basic Course. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ (sɯ) (v) z̪ m n̪ ŋ l̪ lɯ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s̪ z̪ (sɯ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS D+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1776
Language: Kurdi Dialect: Mukri
Location: NW Iran
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish Grammar: Ejjubi, K. R. and I. A. Smirnova. 1968. Kurdskij dialect mukri. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n l lɯ r rɯ Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r rɯ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: øe ua yi Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1777
Language: Kermanshahi
Location: NW Iran (Kermanshahan)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Northwest: Kurdish
Consonant system:
Number: 1778
Language: Old Persian
Location: Iran
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Kent, Roland G. 1953. Old Persian. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s̪ ṣ š x h z̪ m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ ṣ š x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au āi āu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) rˈ
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: (def)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1779
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Tehran
Location: Iran
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Mehan, M. n.d. Persian Grammar. Stockholm: Skriptor. Rubinchik, Y. A. 1971. The Modern Persian Language. Moscow: Nauka.
TextBooks: Obolensky, Serge, Kambiz Yazdan Panah and Fereidoun Khaje Nouri. 1963. Persian Basic Course. Washington D.C.: CAL. Lambton, Ann K. S. 1967. Persian Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Mace, John. 1969. Teach Yourself Modern Persian. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Scott, Charles T. 1964. "Syllable Structure in Tehran Persian," AL 6:1, 27-30. OPYT
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x (h) v z ž ɣ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ (h) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: e æ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ū ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ei ai ui ou
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 politeness: honorific pronouns (< nouns) for 1 2 3
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1780
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Dari
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Farhadi, A. G. 1955. Le persan parlé en Afghanistan. Paris: Klincksieck.
Other Sources: Henderson, Michael M. T. 1975. "Diglossia in Kabul Persian Phonology," JAOS 95, 651-4. Henderson, Michael M. T. 1978. "Modern Persian Verb Morphology,," JAOS 98, 375-88.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: aj aw
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1781
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Hazaras
Location: N Afghanistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Grammar: Efimov, V. A. 1965. Jazyk afganskix xazara. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k q b d ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š (h) z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ɛ̄ ʋ̄ ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1782
Language: Farsi Alternate Name: Persian Dialect: Shahrudi
Location: Iran
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian
Other Sources: Yarshater, E. 1959. "The Dialect of Shahrud (Khalkhal), " BSOAS 22, 52-68.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (o) ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ei ou āi āu
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1783
Language: Tajiki Alternate Name: Tajik
Location: Tajikistan
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Persian Dictionary: Arzumanov, D. and X. K. Karimov. 1957. Russko-tadzhikskij slovar'. Moscow. Raxim, M. V. and L. V. Uspenskaja. 1954. Tadzhiksko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Kerimova, A. A. 1959. Govor tadzhikov buxary. Moscow. Rastorgueva, V. S. 1963. A Short Sketch of Tajik Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Kerimova, A. A. 1966. "Tadzhikskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 212-36.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: ph th kh qh b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ f s š χ h v z (ž) ʁ m n l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ qh Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: 5 is also used as a polite form for 2
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1784
Language: Tati
Location: SW Russia (S Dagestan ASSR)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Tati Grammar: Grjunberg, A. L. 1966. "Tatskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 281-301.
Other Sources: OPYT
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ G č ɡ̌ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ G Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y æ Back Vowels: u ɑ Diphthongs: ei ɔu øy
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final in noun; variable in verb
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1785
Language: Fars
Location: Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Fars
Consonant system:
Number: 1786
Language: Lari
Location: SW Iran
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Fars
Consonant system:
Number: 1787
Language: Luri
Location: SW Iran
Population: 4.3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Luri
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1788
Language: Kumzari
Location: N Oman
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Indo-Iranian: Iranian: Southwest: Luri
Consonant system:
Number: 1789
Language: Albanian Dialect: Tosk
Location: S Albania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Albanian Dictionary: Drizari, Nelo. 1957. Albanian-English and English-Albanian Dictionary. New York: Frederic Ungar. Grammar: Newmark, Leonard. 1957. Structural Grammar of Albanian. IJAL 23:4, Part II.
TextBooks: Drizari, Nelo. 1959. Spoken and Written Albanian. New York: Frederick Ungar. Camaj, Martin. 1969. Lehrbuch der albanischen Sprache. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ñ l lɯ ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei oi ui yi ie ye ua (ue) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (n) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf *6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: The national language is based on the Tosk dialect.
Number: 1790
Language: Albanian Dialect: Gheg
Location: N Albania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Albanian
Other Sources: Lowman, G. S. 1932. "The Phonetics of Albanian," Lg 8, 271-93. Byron, Janet. 1976. Selecton among Alternates in Language Standardization. The Hague: Mouton, AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž ɣ m n ñ l lɯ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ỹ ɛ̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ie yi ei ai ui ue ɔi Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1791
Language: Classical Greek Alternate Name: Linear B Dialect: Mycenaean
Location: Greece (Knossos)
Population: c. 1,000 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Other Sources: Chadwick, John. 1970. The Decipherent of Linear B. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ s z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k kh ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au eu oi ou ei ui
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1792
Language: Classical Greek Dialect: Cyprian
Location: Cyprus
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Other Sources: Chadwick, John. 1970. The Decipherent of Linear B. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɡ s x z m n l r Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ Fricatives: s z x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1793
Language: Classical Greek
Location: Greece
Population: c. 500 B.C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Goodwin, William Watson. 1930. Greek Grammar. Boston: Ginn and Company. McKay, K. L. 1974. Greek Grammar for Students. Canberra: Dept of Classics, Australian National University.
TextBooks: Ruck, Carl A. P. 1972. Ancient Greek: A New Approach. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Other Sources: Allen, W. Sidney. 1968. Vox Graeca. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ s h m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Front Vowels: i y ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai au eu oi
Tones: hi low fall
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1794
Language: Greek
Location: Greece
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Mirambel, André. 1959. La langue grecque moderne. Paris: Klincksieck. Householder, Fred W., Kostas Kazazis and Andreas Koutsoudas. 1964. Reference Grammar of Literary Dhimotiki. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Thomson, George. 1967. A Manual of Modern Greek. London: Collets.
TextBooks: Kahane, Henry, Renée Kahane and Ralph L. Ward. 1945. Spoken Greek. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts dz f θ s x v ð z ɣ m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v θ ð s z x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1795
Language: Greek Dialect: Cypriot
Location: Cyprus
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek Grammar: Newton, Brian. 1972. Cypriot Greek. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k č f θ š x v ð z ž ɣ m n̪ l r Stops: p t̪ c k Affricates: č Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ð z ž ɣ Glides: j Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: DN NUM-N
Number: 1796
Language: Tsakonian
Location: S Greece (E Peloponnesos)
Population: 30O
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Greek
Consonant system: Comments: All bilingual in Greek
Number: 1797
Language: Oscan
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian Grammar: Budk, Carl Darling. 1904. A Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian. Boston: Ginn.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h v z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ai ei oi au ou
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1798
Language: Umbrian
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian Grammar: Buck, Carl Darling. 1904. A Grammar of Oscan and Umbrian. Boston: Ginn.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s ç h v z m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z ç h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1799
Language: Sabellian
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Osco-Umbrian
Consonant system:
Number: 1800
Language: Faliscan
Location: Italy
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic Grammar: Giacomelli, Gabriella. 1963. La Lingua falisca. Florence: Leo S. Olschki.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai oi au ou
Number: 1801
Language: Proto-Romance
Location: Italy
Population: c. 500 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance
Other Sources: Hall, Robert A., Jr. 1976. Proto-Romance Phonology. New York: Elsevier.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s̪ m n̪ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1802
Language: Latin Dialect: Classical
Location: C Italy
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic Dictionary: Simpson, D. P. 1960. Cassell's New Latin Dictionary. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Grammar: Serbat, Guy. 1975. Les structures du latin. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
TextBooks: Moreland, Floyd L. and Rita M. Fleischer. 1974. Latin: An Intensive Course. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Other Sources: Palmer, L. R. 1954. The Latin Language. London: Faber & Faber. Allen, W. Sidney. 1965. Vox Latina. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ f s h m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ae au ui (oe) (eu) Stress: non-phonemic (penult/antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 1803
Language: Sardinian
Location: Italy (Sardinia)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance Grammar: Wagner, M. L. 1951. La lingua sarda. Berne: Francke.
Other Sources: Mazzola, Michael Lee. 1976. Proto-Romance and Sicilian. Lisse: Peter de Ridder. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts dz f s v m n̪ ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: v̄ Glides: j Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1804
Language: Rumanian Alternate Name: Daco-Rumanian
Location: Rumania
Population: 22 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Levitchi, Leon. 1960. Dictionar romin-englez. Bucharest: Editura Stiintifica. Levitchi, Leon, ed. 1974. Dictionar englez-roman. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Grammar: Guillermou, Alain. 1953. Manuel de langue roumaine. Paris: Klincksieck. Agard, Frederick B. 1958. Structural Sketch of Rumanian. Supplement to Lg 34:3. Repina, T. A. 1968. Rumynskij jazyk. Moscow: Moscow Univ Press.
TextBooks: Augerot, James E. and Florin D. Popescu. 1971. Modern Romanian. Seattle: Univ of Washington Press. Cazacu, B., et al. 1978. Cours de langue roumaine. Bucharest: Editura Didactica.
Other Sources: Ruhlen, Merritt. 1973. Rumanian Phonology. Stanford: Stanford Univ Diss. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ij ea oa uw ou eau ieu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f [the so called neuter nouns in Rumanian behave like masc nouns in the singular, and fem nouns in the plural] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) formal, (2) familiar, (3)intimate 3mf & 6mf have polite and plain forms.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1805
Language: Istro-Rumanian
Location: Croatia (Istrian Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Maiorescu, Ioan. 1900. Itinerar in Istria si vocabularul istriano-roman. Bucharest: Socecu. Grammar: Kovačec, August. 1971. Descrierea istroromanei actuale. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Puscariu, Sextil. 1926. Studii istroromane, vol 2. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ts č (ɡ̌) f s š h v z ž ɣ m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c k Affricates: ts č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ (a) Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1806
Language: Megleno-Rumanian
Location: N Greece
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Capidan, T. 1935. Meglenoromanii, vol 3: Dictionarul Meglenoroman. Bucharest: Academia Romana. Grammar: Capidan, T. 1925. Meglenoromanii, vol 1: Istoria si graiul lor. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts č̌ dz ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ l lɯ ʎ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l lɯ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ea oa au eu iu ou ia ie io iu
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1807
Language: Arumanian
Location: N Greece
Population: 250,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Eastern Dictionary: Papahagi, Tache. 1974. Dictionarul dialectului aroman. Bucharest: Editura Academiei. Grammar: Capidan, T. 1932. Aromanii: Dialectul aroman. Bucharest: Academia Romana.
Other Sources: Caragiu-Marioteanu, Matilda.1968. Fono-morfologie aromana. Bucharest: Editura Academiei.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f (θ) s š h v (ð) z ž (ɣ) m n̪ ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) (ð) s z š ž (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ea ia ie io iu oa wa
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f (+ pseudo-neuter, cf. Rumanian) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 3mf & 6mf have polite and plain forms.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND/(DN) NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1808
Language: Dalmatian
Location: Yugoslavia
Population: extinct (c.1898)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance
Consonant system:
Number: 1809
Language: Italian
Location: Italy
Population: 60 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance Grammar: Hall, Robert A., Jr. 1971. La struttura dell'italiano. Rome: Armando Armando.
TextBooks: Speight, Kathleen. 1962. Italian. London: English Universities Press. Traversa, Vincenzo. 1967. Parola e pensiero. New York: Harper & Row.
Other Sources: Agard, Frederick B. and Robert J. Di Pietro 1965. The Sounds of English and Italian. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. Migliorini, Bruno B. and T. Gwynfor Griffith. 1966. The Italian Language. New York: Barnes & Noble. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š v m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ š Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but š ñ ǝ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ja jo je jɛ ju wɔ wa we wi ɛj aj ɔj uj ɛw aw
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 3 forms: (1) intimate, (2) plain, (3) polite 5 has 2 forms:(1) initimate-plain, (2) polite
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1810
Language: Italian Dialect: Sicilian
Location: Italy (Sicily)
Population: 60 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Italo-Romance
Other Sources: Fodale, Peter. 1964. The Sicilian Dialects as a Diasystem: A Study in Structural Dialectology. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Diss. Mazzola, Michael Lee. 1976. Proto-Romance and Sicilian. Lisse: Peter de Ridder.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ḍ̄ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š v m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ḍ̄ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s š Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v j w (ḍ is always lonɡ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) mˈ nˈ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1811
Language: Friulian
Location: Rumania
Population: 400,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Iliescu, Maria. 1972. Le frioulan à partir des dialectes parlés en Roumanie. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k b d g č ɡ̌ f s v z m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1812
Language: Friulian
Location: Italy
Population: 600,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1813
Language: Ladin
Location: N Italy (S Tyrol)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance
Consonant system:
Number: 1814
Language: Romansch Dialect: Engadin
Location: S Switzerland
Population: 50,000 (9,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Borodina, M. A. 1969. Sovremennyj literaturnyj retoromanskij jazyk shvejtsarii. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š ç h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ ć Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ç h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai au ea ɛi īǝ ou yǝ yi ui uǝ iǝ iē iø uɛ̄ uē uɛ uī Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1815
Language: Romansch Dialect: Surselva
Location: S Switzerland
Population: 50,000 (26,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Rhaeto-Romance Grammar: Borodina, M. A. 1969. Sovremennyj literaturnyj retoromanskij jazyk Shvejtsarii. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z f s̪ š ç h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ć Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ç h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Diphthongs: ai au iu ɛu ie uǝ ia iu ieu Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1816
Language: Franco-Provençal
Location: SE France
Population: 332,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance
Other Sources: Martinet, André. 1956. La description phonologique avec application au parler franco-provençal d'Hautiville ( Savoie). Geneva: Droz.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f θ s š v ð z ž m n ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ɛ̆ ă ɔ̆ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ɔ̃
Syllable: (C) (C)V [ɾ] Stress: phonemic (final or penult)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1817
Language: Franco-Provençal Dialect: Gascon
Location: SW France (Gascony)
Population: 332,000 (255,000)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Palay, Simin. 1974. Dictionnaire du béarnais et du gascon modernes. Paris: CNRS. Grammar: Kelly, Reine Cardaillac. 1973. A Descriptive Analysis of Gascon. The Hague: Mouton. Darrigrand, R. and M. Grosclaude. 1971. Abrégé de grammaire béarnaise et gasconne. Bordeaux.
Other Sources: Kelly, Reine Cardaillac. 1971. "The Sound System of a Gascon Dialect," Linguistics 68, 5-12.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ɡ̌ f s š z ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ t m n l Glides: j (ɥ) w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: au eu ɛu iu ou triph
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1818
Language: French Dialect: Parisian
Location: France
Population: 66 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Dubois, Marguerite-Marie. 1960. Larousse Modern French-English, English-French Dictionary. New York: McGraw Hill. Grammar: Chevalier, Jean-Claude, et al. 1964. Grammaire Larousse du français contemporain. Paris: Larousse.
TextBooks: Harris, Julian and André Léveque. 1973. Basic Conversational French. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Other Sources: Armstrong, Lilias E. 1964. The Phonetics of French. London: G. Bell and Sons. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š v z ž ʁ m n̪ ñ l Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ (ɑ) Nasal Vowels: (œ̃) æ̃ õ ɑ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf + indef politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol (2pol = 5)
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1819
Language: French Dialect: Canadian
Location: Canada
Population: 66 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Grammar: Morgan, Raleigh, Jr. 1975. The Regional French of County Beauce, Quebec. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: Ellis, Patricia M. 1965. "Les phonèmes du français maillardvillois," Canadian Journal of Linguistics 11, 7-30.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ø̃ ã ɔ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf + indef politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol (2pol = 5)
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1820
Language: Provençal
Location: S France
Population: 355,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Gallo-Romance Dictionary: Piat, L. 1970. Dictionnaire français-occitanien. Aix-en-Provence: Ramoun Berenguié. Alibert, Louis. 1965. Dictionnaire occitan-français. Toulouse: Institut d'Études Occitanes. Grammar: Journot, Jean. 1967. Elements de gramatica occitana. Toulouse: Institut d'Études Occitanes.
Other Sources: Coustenoble, Hélène N. 1945. La phonétique du provençal moderne. Hertford: Stephen Austin and Sons. Bec, Pierre. 1973. Manuel pratique d'occitan moderne. Paris: A. & J. Picard.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s d̪z f s v z ʁ m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r R Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ei ɛi eu ɛu ai ɑu ɔi ɔu ou ui øi œi je jɛ ja jɔ jo ju jø jei jɛi jeu jɛu jai jɑu jɔu jou jœi Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1821
Language: Catalan Dialect: Eastern
Location: NE Spain
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Wheeler, Max W. 1972. "Distinctive Features and Natural Classes in Phonological Theory," JL 8, 87-102.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ f s š v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1822
Language: Catalan
Location: NE Spain
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Grammar: GD: Gili, Joan. 1967. Introducory Catalan Grammar. Oxford: The Dolphin Book Co. Badia Margarit, Antonio M. 1962. Gramatica catalana, 2 vols. Madrid: Gredos.
Other Sources: Badia Margarit, Antonio Straka and Georges Straka, eds. 1973. La linguistique catalane. Paris: Klincksieck. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ l ʎ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei oi ui au eu iu ou Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 [reduced to 2 in most modern dialectos] Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: familiar/politeness distinction for 2 and 5.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN/(ND) NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS [optional for 6])
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1823
Language: Spanish Dialect: Castilian
Location: Spain
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Velázquez de la Cadena, Mariano, Edward Gray and Juan L. Iribas. 1974. Velázquez Spanish and English Dictionary. Chicago: Follett. Grammar: Pottier, Bernard. 1970. Gramática del español. Madrid: Alcala.
TextBooks: Wilson, N. Scarlyn. 1970. Spanish. London: Teach Yourself Books.
Other Sources: Llorach, Emilio Alarcos. 1968. Fonologı́a española. Madrid: Gredos. Dalbor, John B. 1969. Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Macpherson, I. R. n.d. Spanish Phonology: Descriptive and Historical. New York: Barnes & Noble. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f θ s x m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ie ia io iu ei ai oi ui ue ua uo eu au ou Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politness: intim/polite distinction for 2 & 5
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1824
Language: Spanish Dialect: Andalusian
Location: S Spain
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1825
Language: Spanish Dialect: Judeo-Spanish
Location: Rumania
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Sala, Marius. 1971. Phonétique et phonologie du judéo-espagnol de Bucharest: The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1826
Language: Spanish Dialect: Mexican
Location: Mexico
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
TextBooks: Bolinger, Dwight, et al, eds. 1960. Modern Spanish. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Other Sources: Stockwell, Robert P. and J. Donald Bowen. 1965. The Sounds of English and Spanish. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s x m n̪ ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ej aj oj aw ew uj iw
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 3 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1827
Language: Spanish Dialect: Cuban
Location: Cuba
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Isbăsescu, Cristina. 1968. El español en Cuba. Bucharest: Sociedad Rumana de Lingüı́stica Románica.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1828
Language: Spanish Dialect: Costa Rican
Location: Costa Rica
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Chavarria-Aguilar, O. L. 1951. "The Phonemes of Costa Rican Spanish," Lg 27, 248-53.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1829
Language: Spanish Dialect: Panamanian
Location: Panama
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Alvarado de Ricord, Elsie. 1971. El español de Panamá. Panama: Editorial Universitaria.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č f s h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1830
Language: Spanish Dialect: Colombian
Location: Colombia
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: Florez, Luis. 1965. El español hablado en Santander. Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1831
Language: Spanish Dialect: Ecuadorean
Location: Ecuador
Population: 200 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s š x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1832
Language: Galician
Location: NW Spain
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Franco Grande, X. L. 1968. Diccionario galego-castelan. Colón: Galaxia. Grammar: Carballo Calero, Ricardo. 1970. Gramática elemental del gallego común. Colón: Galaxia.
Other Sources: Veiga Arias, Amable. 1976. Fonologia gallega. Valencia: Bello.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f θ s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ia ie io iu ua ue ui uo ai au ei eu oi ou
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1833
Language: Portuguese Dialect: Lisbon
Location: Portugal
Population: 130 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
TextBooks: Willis, R. Clive. 1971. An Essential Course in Modern Portuguese. London: Goerge G. Harrap.
Other Sources: Head, Brian. 1964. A Comparison of the Segmental Phonology of Lisbon and Rio de Janieiro. Austin: Univ of Texas Diss.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š v z̪ ž ʁ m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v z̪ s š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ɐ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ɐ̃ ũ õ Diphthongs: ɐ̃w ɐ̃j õj
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 has 4 forms: (1) very familiar, (2) fairly familiar, (3) pol masc, (4) pol fem. 5 has 3 forms: (1) fam, (2) pol masc, (3) pol fem.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1834
Language: Portuguese Dialect: Brazilian
Location: Brazil
Population: 130 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance Dictionary: Michaelis, H. 1958. The New Michaelis Illustrated Dictionary, 2 vols. Sao Paulo: Melhorametos.
TextBooks: Ellison, Fred P. and Francisco Gomes de Matos. 1971. Modern Portuguese. New York : Alfred A. Knopf. Thomas, Earl W. 1974. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese. Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ Press.
Other Sources: Head, Brian Franklin. 1964. A Comparison of the Segmental Phonology of Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. Austin: Univ. of Texas Diss. Camara, Joaquin Mattoso, Jr. 1972. The Portuguese Language. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ f s š x v z̪ ž m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: f v z̪ s š ž x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ɐ̃ ũ õ Diphthongs: au ai eu ei ɛu ɛi iu ou oi ɔi ui ão ãe ẽi õi Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf politeness: 2 & 5 each have 3 forms: (1) intim, (2) pol masc, (3) pol fem.
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1835
Language: Mozarabic
Location: Spain
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Italic: Romance: Western: Ibero-Romance
Consonant system:
Number: 1836
Language: Gaulish
Location: S France
Population: extinct (c. 500 A.D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Continental
Other Sources: Fowkes, Robert A. 1940. "The Phonology of Gaulish," Lg 16, 285-99. Watkins, Calvert. 1955. "The Phonemics of Gualish: The Dialect of Narbonensis," Lg 31, 9-19.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts s m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au oi ou ūi (eu)
Number: 1837
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Dictionary: Dinneen, Patrick S. 1904. An Irish-English Dictionary. London: David Nutt. Grammar: Calder, George. 1923. A Gaelic Grammar. Glasgow: Gairn.
TextBooks: Dillon, Myles and Donncha Ó Cróinı́n. 1961. Irish. London: English Universities Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ f s x h v m n̪ l̪ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ou iǝ uǝ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1838
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Waterford
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: Breatnach, Risteard B. 1947. The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h ch kh b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɸ s š ç x h β ɣ ɣʷ m n̪ ŋ lj ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ch ɟ kh ɡ Fricatives: ɸ β s š ç x ɣ ɣʷ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: lj Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b t d f v h m n ŋ r (l is always palatalized; non-palatalized consonants are velarized.)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: iǝ ia uǝ ai au ǝi ǝu Stress: initial
Number: 1839
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Galway
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: de Bhaldraithe, Tomás. 1966. The Irish of Cois Fhairrge, Co. Galway. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h th kh b d̪ d ɡ ts tr č dr ɡ̌ ɸ s š x h β ɣ m n n̥ ñ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ ʎ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d kh ɡ Affricates: ts tr dr č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š x ɣ h Nasals: m n n̥ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Modified Consonants: cj p b t d k ɡ ɸ β x m n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ ei uǝ ai au uǝi uǝu Stress: initial
Number: 1840
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Cork
Location: S Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: Ó Cuiv, Brian. 1968. The Irish of West Muskerry, Co. Cork. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɸ s š x h β z ž ɣ m n̪ n̪̥ ŋ l̪ l̪̥ ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ β s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n̪̥ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l̪̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Modified Consonants: cj all but s z š ž j ɣ h č Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ ia uǝ ǝi ai au ou Stress: initial
Number: 1841
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Mayo, Erris
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Grammar: Fhailigh, Éamonn Mhac an. 1968. The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h th kh b d̪ d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s š ç x h βj ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ l ʎ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ βj s š ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b k ɡ ɸ m n ŋ l ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ (õ) ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ũ̄ ȭ ɑ̃̄ Stress: initial
Number: 1842
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Mayo, Tourmakeady
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: de Búrca, Seán. 1970. The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (t) c kh b d̪ (d) ɟ ɡ (č) (ɡ̌) ɸ s ç x h ̤β (z) ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ l ʎ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (t) (d) c ɟ kh ɡ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: ɸ β s (z) ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj all but ɣ h k ɡ c ɟ x ŋ l̪ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: iǝ uǝ ǝi ǝu
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Number: 1843
Language: Irish Alternate Name: Gaelic Dialect: Aran
Location: Ireland
Population: 500,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s x h v ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ʌ Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ū ō ɔ̄ Stress: non-phonemic
Number: 1844
Language: Scottish Gaelic
Location: Scotland
Population: 100,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic Grammar: Holmer, Nils M. 1938. Studies on Argyllshire Gaelic. Uppsala: Almgvist & Wiksells. Holmer, Nils M. 1957. The Gaelic of Arran. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Holmer, Nils M. 1962. The Gaelic of Kintyre. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
Other Sources: Dorian, Nancy C. 1978. "The Fate of Morphological Complexity in Language Death: Evidence from East Sutherland Gaelic," Lg 54, 590-609.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (th) ch kh (ʔ) b d̪ (d ) ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š ç x h v (z) ɣ m n̪ n̪̥ (n) ñ ñ̥ ŋ l l̥ lɯ ʎ (ʎ̥) r r̥ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (th) (d) ch ɟ kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s (z) š ç x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ n̪̥ (n) ñ ñ̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ lɯ ʎ (ʎ̥) Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ nasals and liquids Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Y e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1845
Language: Manx
Location: England (Isle of Man
Population: extinct (20th century)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Goidelic
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Vowel system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1846
Language: Breton
Location: NW France
Population: 1.2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Grammar: Ternes, Elmar. 1970. Grammaire structurale du breton de l'Ile de Groix. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
TextBooks: Hemon, Roparz. 1972. Cours élémentaire de breton. n.p.: Al Liamm.
Other Sources: Hemon, Roparz. 1975. A Historical Morphology and Syntax of Breton. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ čh ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j ɥ w w̃
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ā ū ō ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: (ɛ̃) Diphthongs: (ea) (eo) eā eō ei øy ou ae
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS) Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1847
Language: Welsh
Location: Great Britain (Wales)
Population: 660,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Dictionary: Evans, H. Meurig and W. O. Thomas. 1953. The New Welsh Dictionary. Llandebie: Christopher Davies. Grammar: James, Dan L. 1966. Modern Welsh Course. Cardiff: Univ of Wales Press.
TextBooks: Bowen, John T. 1960. Welsh. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Hamp. Eric P. 1951. "Morphophonemes of the Keltic Mutations," Lg 27, 230-47.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ɡ̌) f θ s š x h v ð m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v θ ð s š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɨ̄ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ae ai au ei eu aw ew iw wi oe oi ou ow Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 politeness: 2 intim, 2 pol [2 pol=5]
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1848
Language: Cornish
Location: England (Cornwall)
Population: extinct (c. 1800)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Celtic: Brythonic Grammar: Smith, A. S. D. 1965. Cornish Simplified. Cornwall: An Lef Kernewek.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: aw ow aj ej ew oj Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(POSS-N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1849
Language: Proto-Germanic
Location: N Germany
Population: c. 500 B. C.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic Grammar: Coetsem, Frans van and Herbert L. Kufner, eds. 1972. Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Other Sources: Antonsen, Elmer M. 1975. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ f θ s̪ h hʷ z̪ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ h hʷ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ei ai eu au
Syllable: nˈ lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1850
Language: Gothic Dialect: Crimean
Location: SW Russia (Crimea)
Population: extinct (c. 1700 A.D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East Grammar: Stearns, MacDonald, Jr. 1978. Crimean Gothic. Saratoga, CA: Anma Libri.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ f θ s̪ š x v ɣ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k Fricatives: f v θ s̪ š x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN
Number: 1851
Language: Gothic
Location: E Bulgaria
Population: c. 350 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East Dictionary: Regan, Brian T. 1974. Dictionary of the Biblical Gothic Language. Phoenix: Wellspring Books. Grammar: Mossé, Fernand. 1956. Manuel de la langue gotique. Paris: Aubier. Krause, Wolfgang. 1968. Handbuch des Gotischen. Munich: C. H. Beck'sche.
Other Sources: Moulton, William G. 1948. "The Phonemics of Gothic," Lg 24, 76-86. Marchand, James W. 1973. The Sounds and Phonemes of Wulfila's Gothic. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ b d̪ ɡ f θ s xʷ h z m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kʷ Fricatives: f θ s z xʷ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: iu Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Except for Runic inscriptions, Wulfila's translation of the Bible in Gothic is the earliest Germanic Text.
Number: 1852
Language: Vandalic
Location: Germany
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1853
Language: Burgundian
Location: Germany
Population: extinct
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: East
Consonant system:
Number: 1854
Language: Runic
Location: Norway
Population: c. 500 A.D.
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Grammar: Antonsen, Elmer H. 1975. A Concise Grammar of the Older Runic Inscriptions. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f θ s h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f θ s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai iu ɵu au
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA GN(inan)/NG(anim) ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Earliest attestation of a Germanic language.
Number: 1855
Language: Danish
Location: Denmark
Population: 5 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Nielsen, B. Kjaerulff. 1964. Engelsk-Dansk Ordbog. Copenhagen: Nordisk. Vinterberg, Hermann and C. A. Bodelsen: 1954,1956. Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog, 2 vols. Copenhagen: Nordisk. Grammar: Bredsdorff, Elias, 1970. Danish: An Elementary Grammar and Reader. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Diderichsen, Paul. 1972. Essentials of Danish Grammar. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
TextBooks: Koefoed, H. A. 1964. Teach Yourself Danish. London: English Universities Press. Norlev, Erling and H. A. Koefoed. 1973. The Way to Danish. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ f s š h v ð ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p ph t th k kh ʔ Fricatives: f v ð s š ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ai ɔi au ɔu ɛu œu eu iu yu øu Stress: usually initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common masc and fem are semantically determined by sex; common and neuter are grammatically determined by noun class. politeness: 2 & 5 each have polite and intimate forms; however 2 pol=5 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1856
Language: Swedish
Location: Sweden
Population: 9 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Wessely, Ignaz Emanuel. 1941. Wessely's Swedish-English Dictionary. Philadelphia: David McKay.
TextBooks: McClean, R. J. 1969. Teach Yourself Swedish. London : English Universities Press. Borland, Harold H. 1970. Swedish for Students. London: George G. Harrap.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph t̪h ṭh kh b d̪ ḍ ɡ f s̪ ṣ̌ ç h v m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ ḷ ɹ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ṭh ḍ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s̪ ṣ̌ ç h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: ɹ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: y I ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ Ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ʋ̄ ō ɑ̄
Tones: fall fall-fall (falling tone accurs on monosyllabic words, fall-fall on polysyllabic words.) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN(NG) DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1857
Language: Norwegian
Location: Norway
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Gleditsch, T. 1948. Engelsk-Norsk Ordbok. Oslo: H. Aschehoug. Haugen, Einar, ed. 1965. Norwegian-English Dictionary. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
TextBooks: Haugen, Einar. 1964. Spoken Norwegian. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Marm, Ingvald. 1967. Teach Yourself Norwegian. New York: David McKay.
Other Sources: Vanvik, Arne. 1972. "A Phonetic-Phonemic Analysis of Standard Eastern Norwegian," Norwegian Journal of Linguistics 25:2, 119-64.
Consonant system: p t̪ (ṭ) k b d̪ (ḍ) ɡ f s̪ (ṣ̌) š ç h v m n̪ (ṇ) ŋ l̪ (ḷ) ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ (ṭ) (ḍ) k ɡ Fricatives: f v s̪ (ṣ̌) š ç h Nasals: m n̪ (ṇ) ŋ Laterals: l̪ (ḷ) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: y I ø ɛ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ǣ ʉ̄ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai æʉ ɛi ɔi ʉi øy øu æi æu
Tones: lo-ris hi-fall-ris Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfnc 6 c=common politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS/(POSS-N) D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Modern Norwegian has two different standards. Bokmål reflects the heavy Danish influence during the Middle Ages, while Nynorsk represents an attempt to preserve a 'purer' older form of Norwegian, denuded of Danish borrowings. There is some hostility between the two gruops, but the two varieties of speech are easily mutually intellegible.
Number: 1858
Language: Norwegian Dialect: Trondheim
Location: Norway
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North
Other Sources: Vanvik, Arne. 1966. "A Phonetic-Phonemic Analysis of the Dialect of Trondheim. Oslo: Universititsforlaget.
Consonant system: ph t̪h ṭh ch kh b d̪ ḍ ɟ ɡ f s š ç h v m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ ʎ ʎ̥ ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ṭh ḍ ch ɟ kh ɡ Fricatives: f v s š ç h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ ʎ ʎ̥ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ʉ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ǣ ʉ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ei øy øʉ (ɑi) (ɔy)
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) nˈ lˈ
Tones: lo-level hi-fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1859
Language: Icelandic
Location: Iceland
Population: 210,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Arngrı́mur, Sigurdsson. 1970. Íslenzk-ensk orðabók. Reykjavik: Prentsmiðjan Leiftur. Bogason, Sigurður Örn. 1966. English-Icelandic Dictionary. Reykjavik: Isafoldarprentsmiðja. Grammar: Einarsson, Stefán. 1967. Icelandic: Grammar, Texts, Glossary. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Univ Press.
TextBooks: Glendening, P. J. T. 1961. Teach Yourself Icelandic. London: English Universities Press. TD: Jónsson, Snoebjörn. 1966. A Primer of Modern Icelandic. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Haugen, Einar. 1958. "The Phonemes of Modern Icelandic," Lg 34, 55-88. Malone, Kemp. 1970. "The Phonemes of Modern Icelandic," in Studies in Honor of Albert Morey Sturtevant, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 5-21. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh f θ s h v ð m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: f v θ ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I Y ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ui ei oi ou ai øi au Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6mfn politeness: 2 forms of 2: (1) intim [2 pol=5] (2) pol
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1860
Language: Faroese
Location: Netherlands (Faroe Islands)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: North Dictionary: Svabo, J. C. 1966, 1970. Dictionarium Færoense. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Grammar: Lockwood, W. G. 1955. An Introduction to Modern Faroese. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s ṣ š h v m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k ɡ f s m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ↔ō ā ū ō Diphthongs: ɛa ɔa ʋY ɔu ʉu ai ɛi ɔi Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn politeness: 2 forms of 2: 2 intim/2 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1861
Language: German
Location: Germany
Population: 100 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Betteridge, Harold T., ed. 1958. The New Cassell's German Dictionary. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Grammar: Lederer, Herbert. 1969. Reference Grammar of the German Language. New York: Charles Scribner's.
TextBooks: Lohnes, Walter F. W. and F. W. Strothmann. 1967. German: A Structural Approach. New York: Norton.
Other Sources: Moulton, William G. 1962. The Sounds of English and German. Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ pf t̪s f s š x h v z ž ʁ m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: pf t̪s Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ ū ō ɑ̄ Diphthongs: ai oi au Stress: generally initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 + indef politeness: 2 & 5 each have familiar & polite forms; however 2 pol = 5 pol
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1862
Language: Yiddish
Location: W Russia
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Bergman, Aaron. 1968. Student's Dictionary: English-Yiddish, Yiddish-English. New York: Kinderbuch. Grammar: Fal'kovich, E. M. 1966. "Evrejskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 599-629.
TextBooks: Weinreich, Uriel. 1967. College Yiddish. New York: Yivo Institute for Jewish Research.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č f s š x h v z ž ʁ m n l lɯ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Diphthongs: aj ej oj
Syllable: nˈ lˈ Stress: phonemic, but mostly penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: In 1939 there were an estimated twelve million speakers of Yiddish, Hitler's massacre of the Jews during WWII, and the subsequent dispersal of East European Jews around the world (with consequent assimilation to various cultures and languages) has reduced the number to perhaps four million.
Number: 1863
Language: Luxembourgeois
Location: Luxembourg
Population: 390,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1864
Language: Dutch
Location: Netherlands
Population: 20 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Prick Van Wely, F. P. H. 1951. Cassell's English-Dutch, Dutch-English Dictionary. London: Cassell.
TextBooks: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1944. Spoken Dutch. New York: Holt. Shetter, Wiiliam Z. 1958. Introduction to Dutch. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Koolhoven, H. 1961. Dutch. New York: David McKay.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d (č) f s š x h v z (ɣ) ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k Affricates: (č) Fricatives: f v s z š x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ʁ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ā ū ō Diphthongs: ɛi œi yu ɔu āi ōi ūi īu ēu Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: common (m+f) neuter Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 politeness: 2 = 2fam; 5 = 2 pol & 5
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1865
Language: Afrikaans
Location: South Africa
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
TextBooks: Burgers, M. P. O. 1957. Teach Yourself Afrikaans. London: The English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Pienaar, P. de V. and A. G. Hooper. 1948. An Afrikaans-English Phonetic Reader. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ. Press. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d (ɡ) č f s š x v (z) ɦ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s (z) š x ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī ȳ ē ↔ō ɛ̄ (↔ē) (ǝ̄) ā ū ō ɔ̄ Diphthongs: ai āi ǝi ɔi ɔ̄i ui ōi ēu ou œy
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 politeness: + 2 polite
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1866
Language: Frisian
Location: Netherlands (Frisian Islands)
Population: 730,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s x h z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Comments: Frisian, the language most closely related to English, has for some time been on the decline. All speakers are bilingual in Dutch or German.
Number: 1867
Language: English Dialect: British
Location: England
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Grammar: Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. 1973. A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English. New York : Harcount Brace Jovanovich.
Other Sources: Jones, Daniel. 1950. An Outline of English Phonetics. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons. Gimson, A. C. 1962. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ŋ l ɹ̣ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɒ Long Vowels: ī ǝ̄ ū ɔ̄ ɑ̄ Diphthongs: eI aI ɔI oʋ ɑʋ Iǝ ɛǝ ʋa
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 2=5 politeness: a few varieties of British English preserve a polite/intimate distinction for the 2 pronoun (i.e thou/you)
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1868
Language: English Dialect: Scottish
Location: Scotland
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ʌ
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1869
Language: English Dialect: West Canadian
Location: W Canada
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h v ð z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1870
Language: English Dialect: American
Location: USA
Population: 300 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Germanic: West Dictionary: Guralnik, David B., ed. 1970. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Grammar: Stageberg, Norman C. 1971. An Introductory English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Other Sources: Kenyon, John Samuel. 1943. American Pronunciation. Ann Arbar: George Wahr. Thomas, Charles Kenneth. 1958. An Introduction to the Phonetics of American English. New York: The Ronald Press. King, Harold V. 1961. English Phonology. Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Publishers. Bronstein, Arthur J. 1960. The Pronunciation of American English. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. AL 7:8
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h hʷ v ð z ž m n ŋ lɯ ɹ̣ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž h hʷ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: (ɨ̄) ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: Ii eI aI ɔI oʋ ʋu aʋ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1871
Language: Old Prussian
Location: NE Poland
Population: extinct (c. 1700)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: West Dictionary: Toporov, V. N. 1975. Prusskij jazyk. Moscow: Nauka. Grammar: Schmalstieg, William R. 1974. An Old Prussian Grammar. University Park: Pennsyvania State Univ Press.
Other Sources: Levin, Jules F. 1974. The Slavic Element in the Old Prussian Elbing Vocabulary. UCPL 77.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (f) s̪ š (h) v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š (ž) (h) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mf
Syntax: NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1872
Language: Latvian
Location: Latvia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East Grammar: Grabis, R. 1966. "Latyshskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 466-99.
TextBooks: Lazdina, Tereza Budina. 1966. Teach Yourself Latvian. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Grava, Arnolds. 1970. "Phonemic Inventory of Vowels and Diphthongs in Latvian," Linguistics 56, 31-51. Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ts (č) dz ɡ̌ (f) s š x (h) v z ž m n ñ l ʎ r rj Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x (h) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r rj Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ñ l ʎ r j v Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū Diphthongs: ai au ei ie ui uo (oi)
Tones: long-level falling ris-ʔ-fall Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf 2=intim; 5=2 polite & 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1873
Language: Latvian Dialect: Lagalian
Location: Latvia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East
Other Sources: Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š (x) (h) v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž (x) (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1874
Language: Lithuanian
Location: Lithuania
Population: 3 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Baltic: East Dictionary: Laučka, A., B. Piesarskas and E. Stasiulevičiute. 1978. English Lithuanian Dictionary. Vilnius: Mokslas. Grammar: Ambrazas, V. 1966. "Litovskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 501-27. Peterson, M. N. 1955. Ocherk litovskogo jazyka. Moscow.
TextBooks: Dambriunas, Leonardas, Antanas Klimas and William R. Schmalstieg. 1966. Introdution to Modern Lithuanian. Brooklyn: Franciscan Fathers Press.
Other Sources: Klimas, Antanas. 1970. "Some Attempts to Inventory Lithuanian Phonames," in Baltic Linguistics, ed. by Thomas F. Magner and William R. Schmalstieg, University Park, Penneylvania State Univ Press, 93-102.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž (x) h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ei ie ui uo
Syllable: (C) (C)V(N,L)
Tones: rls fall short
Noun
Number: s (d) p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6mf 2=intim; 5=2 polite & 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1875
Language: Russian
Location: Russia
Population: 150 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Smirnitsky, A. I. 1959. Russian-English Dictionary. New York: E. P. Dutton. Müller, V. K. 1959. English-Russian Dictionary. New York: E. P. Dutton. Grammar: Forbes, Nevill. 1964. Russian Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Panov, M. V. 1966. "Russkij jazyk," in JNS 1, 55-122. Bidwell, Charles E. 1969. The Structure of Russian in Outline. Pittsburgh: Univ of Pittsburgh Press .
TextBooks: Stilman, Galina, Leon Stilman and William E. Harkins. 1972. Introductory Russian Grammar. Lexington, Mass: Xerox.
Other Sources: Jones, Daniel and Dennis Ward. 1969. The Phonetics of Russian. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Auty, Robert and Dimitri Obolensky. 1977. An Introduction to Russian Language and Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č f s š x v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d k f v s z m n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ij ɨj ej aj oj uj
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6 2=intim, 5= 2pol + 2 pl
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1876
Language: Byelorussian
Location: Belarus
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Krapivy, K. K., ed. 1962. Belorussko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Russko-belorusskij slovar'. 1953. Moscow Birillo, N. Y., M. G. Bulaxov and M. R. Sudnik. 1966. "Belorusskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 154-93.
TextBooks: Pashkievich, V. 1974, 1978. Fundamental Byelorussian, 2 vols. Toronto.
Other Sources: Bidwell, Charles E. 1967. Outline of Bielorussian Morphology. Pittsburgh. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ (ɡ) t̪s č (dz) ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š x h v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) Affricates: t̪s (d̪z) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ts dz č s z š ž n l cj all but t d ts č ɡ̌ š ž r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1877
Language: Ukrainian
Location: Ukraine
Population: 40 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: East Dictionary: Podvezko, M. L. and M. I. Balla. 1974. English-Ukrainian Dictionary. Kiev: Radyanska Shkola. Andrusyshen, C. H. and J. N. Krett. 1957. Ukrainian-English Dictionary. Toronto: Univ of Toronto Press. Grammar: Beloded, I. K. and M. A. Zhovtobrjux. 1966. "Ukrainskij jazyk," in JNS 1, 123-53.
TextBooks: Slavutych, Yar. 1969. Conversational Ukrainian. Edmonton: Gateway.
Other Sources: Bidwell, Charles E. 1971. Outline of Ukrainian Morphology. Pittsburgh: Univ Center for International Studies, Univ of Pittsburgh. Chopyk, Dan B. 1973. "Variant Phonemic Systems of Contemporary Standard Ukrainian," Linguistics 98, 5-19. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (dz) ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n s z ts dz l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic, but largely predictable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1878
Language: Polish
Location: Poland
Population: 35 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: Stanislawski, Jan. 1964. The Great English-Polish Dictionary. Warsaw: State Publishing House. Grammar: Brooks, Maria Zagorska. 1975. Polish Referece Grammar. The Hague: Mouton.
TextBooks: Schenker, Alexander M. 1973. Beginning Polish, 2 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ć d̪z ɡ̌ ɟ́ f s̪ š ś x v z̪ ž ź m n̪ ñ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ ć ɟ́ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ś ź x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b k ɡ f v x m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: (ɛ̃) ɔ̃ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1879
Language: Kashubian
Location: N Poland
Population: 3,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Grammar: GD: Perkowski, Jan Louis. 1969. A Kashubian Idiolect in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Stokhof, W. A. L. 1973. The Extinct East-Slovencian Kluki-Dialect. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r ř ř is a voiced apical alveolar sibilant trill) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř (voiced apical alveolar sibilant trill) Modified Consonants: cj p b f v m n l t d Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: all bilingual in Polish
Number: 1880
Language: Polabian
Location: N Germany
Population: extinct (c. 1740)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: Polań́ski, Kazimierz and james Allen Sehnert. 1967. Polabian-English Dictionary. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts dz f s x v z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but f Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ã õ Diphthongs: ai ɑi oi au ɑu Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1881
Language: Upper Sorbian Alternate Name: Lusatian
Location: SE Germany
Population: 55,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: initial
Number: 1882
Language: Lower Sorbian
Location: E Germany
Population: 14,000
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1883
Language: Czech
Location: Czech Republic
Population: 10 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Grammar: Mazon, André. 1952. Grammaire de la langue tchèque. Paris: Institut d'Études Slaves. Harkins, William E. 1953. A Modern Czech Grammar. New York: King's Crown Press.
TextBooks: Schwarz, J. 1960. Colloquial Czech. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ (ɡ) t̪s č (f) s š x v z ž ɦ m n̪ l r ř (ř = rž < rj) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (ɡ) Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž x ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř (= rž < rj) Modified Consonants: cj t d n Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū (ō) Diphthongs: ou
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1884
Language: Slovak
Location: Slovakia
Population: 4 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: West Dictionary: šimko, Ján. 1968. English-Slovak Dictionary. Bratislava: Pedagogical Publishing House. Grammar: Bartoš, Jozef and Joseph Gagnaire. 1972. Grammaire de la langue slovaque. Paris: Institut d'Études Slaves.
TextBooks: Baláž, Peter, Jozef Bartoš and Miloslav Darovec. 1973. Manuel de slovaque à l'usage des slavisants. Bratislava: Slovenské Pedagogické Nakladatel'stvo.
Other Sources: AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ Diphthongs: ia ie iu uo
Syllable: lˈ rˈ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mM m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1885
Language: Old Church Slavonic
Location: Bulgaria
Population: extinct (c. 1,000 A. D.)
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Grammar: Lunt, Horace G. 1974. Old Church Slavonic Grammar. The Hague: Mouton. Schmalstieg, William T. 1976. An Introduction to Old Church Slavic. Cambridge, MA: Slavica.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č dz s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r rj Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: ts d̪z č Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r rj Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Ĭ ʋ̆ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ɔ̃
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1886
Language: Slovene Alternate Name: Slovenian
Location: Slovenia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Kotnik, Janko. 1962. Slovene-English Dictionary. Ljubljana: Državna Založba Slovenije. Grad, Anton. 1971. English-Slovene Dictionary. Ljubljana.
Other Sources: Lenček, Rado L. 1966. The Verb Pattern of Contemporary Standard Slovene. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Bidwell, Charles E. 1969. Outline of Slovenian Morphology. Pittsburgh: Univ Center for International Studies, Univ of Pittsburgh. AL 7:8
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable:
Tones: ris fall Stress: on v̄, final if no v̄
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmM 6mfn m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SVO NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1887
Language: Serbo-Croatian
Location: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia
Population: 17 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Drvodelić, Milan. 1970. Croato-Serbian English Dictionary. Zagreb: školska Knjiga. Rustić, Svetomir and živojin Simić. 1975. An English-Serbocroatian Dictionary. Belgrad: Prosveta. Grammar: Grozdić, Oton. 1969. Serbo-Croatian Grammar and Reader. New York: Hafner. Popović, Alexandre and Michel Popović. 1969. Manuel pratique de langue serbo-croate. Paris: Klinksieck. Dmitriev, P. A. and G. I. Safronov. 1975. Serboxorvatskij jazyk. Leningrad: Leningrad Univ. Press. Hamm, Josip. 1975. Grammatik der serbokroatischen Sprache. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Magner, Thomas F. 1972. Introduction to the Croatian and Serbian Language. State College, PA: Singidunum Press. Javarek, Vera and Miroslava Sudjić. 1969. Teach Yourself Serbo-Croat. London: English Universities Press.
Other Sources: Hodge, Carleton T. 1946. "Serbo-Croatian Phonemes," Lg 22, 112-20 Bidwell Charles E. 1964. "The Serbo-Croatian Verb," Lg 40, 532-50.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č ć ɡ̌ ɟ́ f s š h v z ž m n̪ ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s ć ɟ́ č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) rˈ
Tones: ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mfn
Syntax: SVO AN NG/(GN) DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1888
Language: Macedonian
Location: Macedonia
Population: 2 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Kitanovski, Dano. 1967. Frantsusko-makedonski rechnik. Skopje. Grammar: Lunt, Horace G. 1952. A Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language. Skopje.
Other Sources: AL 7:8 WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l lɯ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1889
Language: Bulgarian
Location: Bulgaria
Population: 8 million
Classification: Indo-Hittite: Indo-European: Slavic: South Dictionary: Atanasova, T., et al. 1975. Bulgarian-English Dictionary. Sofia: Nauka i Izkustvo. Atanasova, T., et al. 1973. English-Bulgarian Dictionary, 2 vols. Sofia: Academy of Sciences.
Other Sources: Van Campen, Joseph A. 1959. "Alternative Analyses of the Bulgarian Nonsyllabic Phonemes," Lg 35, 264-70. Aronson, Howard I. 1968. Bulgarian Inflectional Morphophonology. The Hague: Mouton. Scatton, Ernest A. 1975. Bulgarian Phonology. Cambrige, MA: Slavica. Al 7:8
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (dz) (ɡ̌) f s š x v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts (dz) č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but č ɡ̌ š ž x Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO AN POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP

Краткие типологические обзоры юкагирских языков

Number: 1890
Language: Yukaghir
Location: NE Russia (Jakut ASSR)
Population: 400
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir Grammar: Krejnovich, E.A. 1958. Jukagirskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Krejnovich, E.A. 1968. "Jukagirskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 435-52.
Other Sources: AL 7:1. CTIL 1, 366.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ø o a Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie uo
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly initial or second
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl rarely used] Demonstratives: 4: this, that , yonder, that very far or invisible + REF
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N (N-POSS) D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1891
Language: Chuvantsy
Location: NE Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1892
Language: Omok
Location: NE Russia
Population: extinct
Classification: Uralic: Yukaghir
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Уральской семьи

Number: 1893
Language: Nenets
Location: NC Russia (Nenets National Okrug)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Dictionary: Lehtisalo, T. 1956. Juraksamojedishes Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Pyrerka, A.P. and N.M. Tereshchenko. 1948. Russko-nenetskij slovar'. Moscow. Tereshchenko, N.M. 1965. Nenetsko-russkij slovar. Moscow. Grammar: Décsy, Gyula. 1966. Yurak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Nenetskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 376-95.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d (ɡ) ts s x β (z) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s (z) x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ j cj all but k ɡ ʔ j β x ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o a Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2+ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1894
Language: Enets Alternate Name: Yenets
Location: NC Russia
Population: 300
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Grammar: Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Enetskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 438-57.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ ʔ ̃ (nasalized ɡlottal stop) b d ɟ ɡ č s sʷ š šʷ (x) (β) ð m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ ʔ̃ (nasalized ɡlottal stop) Affricates: č Fricatives: (β) ð s sʷ š šʷ (x) Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t d ɡ n Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1895
Language: Nganasan Alternate Name: Tavgy
Location: NC Russia (Taymyr Peninsula)
Population: 750
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: North Grammar: Tereshchenko, N.M. 1966. "Nganasanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 416-37.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č s x ð m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: ð s x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ̄ d n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ie ia eu æu au yæ ya yo ǝu ɨǝ ua uo ou
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4?+REF
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1896
Language: Selkup Dialect: Taz
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 3,800
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South Dictionary: Erdélyi, István. 1970. Selkupisches Wörterverzeichnis. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Prokofjeva. E.D. 1966. "Sel'kupskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 396-415.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k q č s š β m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t k q Affricates: č Fricatives: β s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but č β ŋ r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɒ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 4? Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d* 4* 2 5d* 5* 3 6d 6 *[4d=4 & 5d=5 in some case forms (e.g. nom.), but not in others (e.g. dat.)]
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1897
Language: Selkup Dialect: Tym
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 3,800
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South Grammar: GD: Katz, Hartmut. 1975. Selcupica 1. Materialen vom Tym. Munich: Finno-Ugric Seminar, Univ of Munich.
Other Sources: Szabó, László. 1967. Selkup Texts. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) v ʁ m n̪ ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s š (x) ʁ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t s š m n l only cʷ t c k q č s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but æ Diphthongs: au ou Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1898
Language: Kamas Alternate Name: Sayan Samoyed
Location: Russia
Population: (+) 1970
Classification: Uralic: Samoyed: South
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz s š h β z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: β s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj s z Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɒ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ia iɛ ie yɛ yɤ uǝ yǝ iy Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s [d] p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1899
Language: Hungarian
Location: Hungary
Population: 14 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric Dictionary: Országh, László. 1953. Hungarian-English Dictionary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Országh, László. 1960. English-Hungarian Dictionary. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. Grammar: Benkő, Loránd and Samu Imre, eds. 1972. The Hungarian Language. The Hague: Mouton. Tompa, József. 1972. Kleine ungarische Grammatik. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie. Hall, Robert A. 1944. Hungarian Grammar. Lg Monograph No. 21.
TextBooks: Bánhidi, Z. Z. Jókay and D. Szabó. 1965. A Textbook of the Hungarian Language. London: Collet's.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ ø Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ i y e ø a u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1900
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak, Khanty Dialect: Northern
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric
Other Sources: Rédei, Károly. 1965. Northern Ostyak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. SUL
Consonant system: p t k ts č s š x m n ŋ l (ḷ) r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj t s n (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: e a ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1901
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak Dialect: Eastern
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Dictionary: Toivonen, Y.H. 1948. Ostjakkisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
Other Sources: Gulya, János. 1966. Eastern Ostyak Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t k č̣ s (š) ɣ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p t k Affricates: č̣ Fricatives: s (š) ɣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Modified Vowels: v̆(reduced) e ø ǝ o Stress: initial or second
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1902
Language: Xanty Alternate Name: Ostyak Dialect: Western
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Grammar: Tereshkin, N.I. 1966. "Xantyjskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 319-42.
Consonant system: p t̪ k s̪ š x m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: s̪ š x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t s n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: e u ɔ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1903
Language: Mansi Alternate Name: Vogul
Location: NW Russia (Xanty-Mansiysk)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Ugric: Ob-Ugric Dictionary: Rombandeeva, E.I. 1954. Russko-Mansijskij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Rombandeeva, E.I. 1966. "Mansijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 343-60 Rombandeeva, E.I. 1973. Mansijskij (vogul'skij) jazyk. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: Kálmán, Béla. 1965. Vogul Chrestomathy. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kʷ s̪ š x ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t̪ c k kʷ Fricatives: s̪ š x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1904
Language: Udmurt Alternate Name: Votyak
Location: NW Russia (Udmurt ASSR)
Population: 700,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Dictionary: Russko-udmurtskij slovar'. 1956. Moscow. Grammar: Tepljashina, T.I. 1966. "Udmurtskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 261-80. Tepljashina, T.I. 1970. Jazyk besermyan. Moscow: Nauka.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d s z č ɡ̌ s z n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1905
Language: Komi Dialect: Zyrian
Location: NW Russia (Komi ASSR)
Population: 430,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Dictionary: Timushev, D.A. and N.A. Kolegova. 1961. Komi-russkij slovar. Moscow. Russko-komi slovar'. 1966. Syktyvkar: Komi Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo. Grammar: Lytkin, V.I. 1966a. "Komi-zyrjanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 281-99. Lytkin, V.I. 1966b. "Komi-permjatskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 300-15.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cj ̄ t d č ɡ̌ s z n l Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1906
Language: Komi Dialect: Yazva
Location: NW Russia (Komi ASSR)
Population: 430,000 (4,000)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Permic Grammar: Lytkin, V.I. 1961. Komi-jaz'vinskij dialekt. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k d̪ ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ š v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ z̪ š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj̄ s z č ɡ̌ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1907
Language: Mari Alternate Name: Cheremis Dialect: Eastern
Location: W Russia (Mari ASSR)
Population: 546,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: D: Marijsko-russkij slovar'. 1956. Moscow. Grammar: G: Sebeok, Thomas A. and Frances J. Ingemann. 1961. An Eastern Cheremis Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Kovedjaeva, E.I. 1966. "Lugovo-vostochnyj marijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 221-40
Other Sources: O: Minn, Eeva K. 1956. Studies in Cheremis, vol 4: Derivation. IJAL 22:2. Part II. Ristinen, Elaine K. 1960. "An East Cheremis Phonology," in American Studies in Uralic Linguistics, Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (t̪s) č (f) s̪ š (x) β ð z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: (t̪s) č Fricatives: β (f) ð s̪ z̪ š ž (x) ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: num: s p Demonstratives: dem: 2 Articles: art: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1908
Language: Mari Alternate Name: Cheremis Dialect: Western
Location: W Russia (Mari ASSR)
Population: 546,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Ivanov, I.G. and G.M. Tuzharov. 1971. Slovar' severo-zapadnogo narechija marijskogo jazyka. Joshkar-Ola. Grammar: Kovedjaeva, E.I. 1966. "Gornomarijskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 241-54. Ivanov, I.G. and G.M. Tuzharov. 1970. Severo-zapadnoe narechie marijskogo jazyka. Joshkar-Ola: Marijskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Other Sources: Minn, Eeva K. 1956. Studies in Cheremis, Vol 4: Derivation. IJAL 22:2 Part II. SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (b) t̪s č (f) s̪ š (x) β ð z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p (b) t̪ c k Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: β (f) ð s̪ z̪ š ž (x) ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɤ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1909
Language: Mordvin Dialect: Erzja
Location: W Russia (W Mordvin ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Koljadenkov, M.N. and N.F. Tsyganov, eds. 1948. Russko-erzjanskij slovar'. Moscow. Koljadenkov, M.N. and N.F. Tsyganov, eds. 1949. Erzjansko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Feoktistov, A.P. 1966. "Erzjanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 177-98.
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (f) s̪ š (x) v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t s... cj t d ts s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+N+D/Num+D+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1910
Language: Mordvin Dialect: Moksha
Location: W Russia (W Mordvin ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: Volgaic Dictionary: Potapkin, S.G. and A.K. Imjarekov. 1949. Mokshansko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Potapkin, S.G. and A.K. Imjarekov. 1961. Russko-mokshanskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Foektisov, A.P. 1966. "Mokshanskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 199-220.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č f s̪ š x v z̪ ž m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ r r̥ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: cj ̄ t d ts s z n l ɬ r r̥ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1911
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Ruija: Finnmark
Location: Norway
Population: 20,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Other Sources: SUL
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ts tsh f θ s š h v ð m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Affricates: ts tsh Fricatives: f v θ ð s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all? Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: i æ a ʋ Diphthongs: uo oa ie... Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1912
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Kola
Location: NW Russia (Kola Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Grammar: Kert, G.M. 1966. "Saamskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 155-71. Kert, G.M. 1971. Sammskij jazyk. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: Kert, G.M. 1961. Obraztsy sammskoj rechi. Moscow: Academy of Sciences.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž m n n̥ ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x h Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z zj ž žj cj all but n̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ua uɛ ai ɛi ji o̜i ɒi, triph: uɛi uai
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1913
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Ruija: Jukkasjärvi
Location: N Sweden
Population: 20,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Grammar: Collinder, Björn. 1949. The Lappish Dialect of Jukkasjärvi. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h β v ð ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v ð s ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1914
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Lule
Location: Sweden
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1915
Language: Northern Saami Dialect: Pite
Location: Sweden (Pite River), Norway
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1916
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Inari
Location: Finland (Lake Inari)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1917
Language: Eastern Saami Dialect: Skolt
Location: Russia (Kola Peninsula)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1918
Language: Southern Saami
Location: Sweden
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic Dictionary: Lagercrantz, Eliel. 1939. Lappischer Wortschatz, 2 vols. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
Other Sources: Hasselbrink, Gustav. 1965. Alternate Analyses of the Phonemic System in Central South-Lappish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ie oa oe ue uo Stress: initial Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1919
Language: Southern Saami Dialect: Ume
Location: Sweden (Ume River)
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Saamic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1920
Language: Finnish
Location: Finland
Population: 5 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Vuolle, Aino. 1969. Finnish-English Dictionary. Porvoo, Finland: Werner Söderström. Vuolle, Aino. 1964. English-Finnish Dictionary. Porvoo, Finland: Werner Söderström. Grammar: Austerlitz, Robert P. 1963. Finnish Grammar. Cleverland: Bell & Howell. Atkinson, John. 1969. Finnish Grammar. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society. Hakulinen, Lauri. 1957, 1960. Handbuch der finnischen Sprache, 2 vols. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
TextBooks: Lehtinen, Meri. 1963. Basic Course in Finnish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Whitney, Arthur H. 1968. Teach Yourself Finnish. New York: David Mckay.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) (b) d̪ ɡ (f) s (š) h v m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p (b) t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: (f) v s (š) h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but d v h j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: uo ie yø au ou eu iu æy øy ai oi ui æi øi yi
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+REF
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH Politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol [2 pol = 5]
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1921
Language: Ingrian
Location: NW Russia
Population: 350
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Laanest, A. 1966. "Izhorskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 102-17.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č (f) s š h v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s m n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: ̄v̄ all Diphthongs: ai æi oi øi ui yi ei au ou eu iu æy øy
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1922
Language: Karelian
Location: NW Russia
Population: 128,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Makarov, G.N. 1966. "Karel'skij jazyk," in JNS 3, 61-80
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪j k b d̪ d̪j ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ s̪j š (x) h v z̪ z̪j ž m n̪ n̪j l̪ l̪j r rj Stops: p b t̪ t̪j d̪ d̪j k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s̪ s̪j z̪ z̪j š ž (x) h Nasals: m n̪ n̪j Laterals: l̪ l̪j Vibrants: r rj Modified Consonants: c̄ p t tj k č sj š m n nj l lj r rj Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs triphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: AN DN NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1923
Language: Olonets Alternate Name: Livvi
Location: NW Russia
Population: 80,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1924
Language: Ludic Alternate Name: Ludian
Location: NW Russia
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1925
Language: Vepsian
Location: NW Russia (Karelian ASSR)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Zajtseva, M.I. and M.I. Mullonen. 1972. Slovar' vepsskogo jazyka. Leningrad: Nauka. Grammar: Xjamjaljajnen, M.M. 1966. "Vepsskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 81-101.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (ɡ̌) f s̪ š v z̪ ž ɦ m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž ɦ Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s l m n cj all but č š ž Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Diphthongs: ai ei ij oi ui æi øi yi au ou uw æu øu yu
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie* 2 5ie* 3 6ie* *Vepsian has a special set of plural pronouns indicating membership in a group (e.g. family, home, village) (i.e. exclusive?) as opposed to the plain (inclusive?) forms.
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1926
Language: Votic
Location: NW Russia
Population: 100
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Grammar: Adler, E. 1966. "Vodskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 118-37. Ariste, Paul. 1968. A Grammar of the Votic Language. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ t̪s č (ɡ̌) (f) s̪ (š) (x) h v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) v s̪ z̪ (š) (ž) (x) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k ts č f v s z š ž m n l r j cj t d s z n l r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: (ɨ) ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai oi ui ǝi æi ei øi yi au ou ǝu eu iu iæ yæ æy ey øy ua ǝa ia æu iy
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) Ergative:
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1927
Language: Estonian
Location: Estonian
Population: 1 million
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Silvet, J. 1970. Eesti-inglise sõnaraamat. Tallinn: Kirjastus Eesti Raamat. Silvet, J. 1956. Inglise-eesti sõnaraamat. Toronto: Eesti Kirjastus Orto. Grammar: Harms, Robert T. 1962. Estonian Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Ruan, Alo and Andrus Saareste. 1965. Introduction to Estonian Linguistics. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Kask, A.X. 1966. "Estonskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 35-60.
TextBooks: Oinas, Felix J. 1966. Basic Course in Estonian. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t tj k (f) s sj (š) h v m n nj l lj r Stops: p t tj k Fricatives: (f) v s sj (š) h Nasals: m n nj Laterals: l lj Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ (lonɡ) all c̄̄ (overlonɡ) all Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Long Vowels: v̄ (lonɡ) all, v̄̄ (overlonɡ) all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 3 6 *Politeness: 2 intim & 2 pol [2 pol = 5]
Syntax: SVO [At an earlier period the basic word order was SOV] AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1928
Language: Livonian Alternate Name: Liv
Location: Latvia
Population: 500
Classification: Uralic: Finno-Ugric: Finnic: North Finnic: Baltic Finnic Dictionary: Kettunen, Lauri. 1938. Livisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Grammar: Vjaari, E.E. 1966. "Livskij jazyk," in JNS 3, 138-54.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ (f) s š v z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but dz ɡ̌ w Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but e o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Алтайской семьи

Number: 1929
Language: Proto-Altaic
Location: Asia
Classification: Altaic
Other Sources: Tsintsius, V.I. 1975. "On the Pre-Altaic System of Consonants," in Researches in Altaic Languages, ed. by Louis Ligeti, 299-306.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ The existance of v̄ in Altaic is a matter of dispute.
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1930
Language: Proto-Turkic
Location: C Asia
Classification: Altaic: Turkic Grammar: Menges, Karl H. 1968. The Turkic Languages and Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ š z̪ ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ lɯ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: AN GN Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1931
Language: Old Turkic
Location: Mongolia
Population: (+)c.700 A.D.
Classification: Altaic: Turkic Grammar: Tekin, Talaflt. 1968. A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č s̪ š z̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s̪ z̪ š Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y (e) ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: i y e ø u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: [pl is usually not indicated, though pl suffixes exist and are sometimes used for humans] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: Old Turkic (=Orkhon Turkic) was the official language of the second East Turkic Empire (c. 680-740 AD).
Number: 1932
Language: Chuvash
Location: W Russia (Chuvash SSR)
Population: 1.7 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Bolgar Dictionary: Ashmarin, N.I. 1928-50. Slovar' chuvashskogo jazyka. Kazan'. Egorov, V.G. 1972. Russko-chuvashkij slovar'. Cheboksary. Grammar: Krueger, John R. 1961. Chuvash Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Andreev, I.A. 1966. "Chuvashskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 43-65.
Other Sources: Krueger, John R. 1962. "Morphophonemic Change in Chuvash Verb Stems," in ASAL, 129-40.
Consonant system: p t k (b) (d) (ɡ) (ts) č (f) s š χ v (z) (ž) m n l r Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) Affricates: (ts) č Fricatives: (f) v s (z) š (ž) χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ? c̄ all Glides: j
Vowel system: i y ɯ u e ǝ ɤ (o) ɑ Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u ɯ (o) ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final (non-reduced) vowel
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1933
Language: Khalaj
Location: C Iran
Population: 20,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern
Other Sources: Doerfer, Gerhard. 1971. Khalaj Materials. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č (ɡ̌) (f) s š h v z (ž) m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) v s z š (ž) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y œ æ Back Vowels: u ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ œ u ɔ only Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1934
Language: Gagauz
Location: E Rumania
Population: 157,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Gajdarzhi, G.A. et al. 1973. Gagauzsko-russko-moldavskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Pokrovskaja, L.A. 1964. Grammatika gagauzskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka. Pokrovskaja, L.A. 1966. "Gagauzskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 112-38.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ f s̪ š (x) h v z̪ (ž) m n̪ l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š (ž) (x) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3* *6* *Politeness: a polite/plain distinction for 2 3 5 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1935
Language: Turkish
Location: Turkey
Population: 40 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Alderson, A.D. and Fahir Iz, eds. 1959. The Concise Oxford Turkish Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Grammar: Swift, Lloyd B. 1963. A Reference Grammar of Modern Turkish. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Lewis, G.L. 1967. Turkish Grammar. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
TextBooks: Underhill, Robert. 1976. Turkish Grammar. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Consonant system: ph t̪h (ch) kh (ʔ) b d̪ (ɟ) ɡ čh ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n̪ l lɯ ɾ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ (ch) (ɟ) kh ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š (ž) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: usually final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 Politeness: 2 pol&2 intim(5 = 2 pol)
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1936
Language: Crimean Turkish
Location: Uzbekistan
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Grammar: Sevortjan, E.V. 1966. "Krymsko-tatarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 234-59.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ʁ Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1937
Language: Turkmen
Location: Turkmenistan
Population: 2 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. and M.J. Xamzaev. 1956. Russko-turkmenskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Azimov, P., D. Amansaryev and K. Saryev. 1966. "Turkmenskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 91-111. Baskakov, N.A., M.J. Xamzaev and B. Charyjarov, eds. 1970. Grammatika turkmenskogo jazyka. Ashxaban: Ylym.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ ɸ s š h β z ž m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: i y ø æ ɨ u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1938
Language: Turkmen Dialect: Chagatay
Location: Turkmenistan
Population: extinct
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Grammar: GD: Eckmann, János. 1966. Chagatay Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n̪ N l̪ lɯ r̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals: l̪ lɯ Vibrants: r̪ r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1939
Language: Azerbaijani Alternate Name: Azari
Location: Azerbaijan
Population: 7 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern Dictionary: Dzhafarov, S. 1959. Leksika sovremenogo azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka, Baku. Grammar: Gadzhieva, N.Z. 1966. "Azerbajdzhanskij jazyk," JNS 2, 66-90. Shiraliev, M.S. and E.V. Sevortjan, eds. 1971. Grammatika azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka. Baku: Elm.
TextBooks: Householder, Fred W. 1965. Basic Course in Azerbaijani. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Alekperov, A.K. 1971. Fonematicheskaja sistema sovremennogo azerbajdzhanskogo jazyka. Baku: Elm.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s š χ h v z ž ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef?
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1940
Language: Qashqay
Location: SW Iran (Fars)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Southern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1941
Language: Uighur Alternate Name: Uyghur
Location: W China (Sinkiang)
Population: 4 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: Jarring, G. 1964. An Eastern Turki-English Dictionary. Lund. Nadzhip, E.N. 1968. Ujgursko-russkij slovar. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Kaidarov, A.T. 1966. "Ujgurskij (novoujgskij) jazyk," in JNS 2, 363-86.
Other Sources: Sadvakasov, G. 1970, 1976. Jazyk ujgurov ferganskoj doliny, 2 vols. Alma-Ata: Nauka. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s ̪ š χ h v z̪ ž ʁ m n N l̪ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: + 2 pol
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 1942
Language: Uzbek
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 10 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: Waterson, Natalie. 1980. Uzbek-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press. Russko-uzbekskij slovar'. 1954. Moscow. Uzbeksko-russkij slovar'. 1959. Moscow. Grammar: Sjöberg, A. F. 1963. Uzbek Structural Grammar. The Hague. Kononov, A.N. 1960. Grammatika sovremennogo uzbekskogo literaturnovo jazyka. Leningrad: Academy of Sciences. Reshetov, V.V. 1966. "Uzbekskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 340-62.
TextBooks: Raun, Alo. 1969. Basic Course in Uzbek. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Wurm, Stefan. 1947. "The Uzbek Dialect of Qı̈zı̈l Qujaš ," BSOAS 12, 86-105. Sjoberg, Andree F. 1962. "The Phonology of Standard Uzbek," in ASAL, 237-61.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ ɸ s š χ h z (ž) ʁ m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s z š (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɒ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1943
Language: Salar Alternate Name: Yellow Uighur
Location: WC China (Qinghai)
Population: 39,000(35,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Eastern Dictionary: GD: Tenishev, E.R. 1976. Stroj salarskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q qh (č̣) (č̣h) č čh f s sh (ṣ̌) š x χ h v m n ŋ l lɯ r Stops: p ph t th k kh q qh Affricates: (č̣) (č̣h) č čh Fricatives: f v s sh (ṣ̌) š x χ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l lɯ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: VH
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1944
Language: Bashkir
Location: EC Russia (Bashkir ASSR)
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Bashkirsko-russkij slovar'. 1958. Moscow. Karimova. G.R. 1954. Russko-bashkirskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Poppe, Nicholas. 1964. Bashkir Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Juldashev, A.A. 1966. " Bashkirskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 173-93.
Consonant system: ph th kh qh (ʔ) b d ɡ (ts) (č) (f) θ s š x h (v) ð z (ž) ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ qh (ʔ) Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) θ ð s z š (ž) x ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Back Vowels: ʋ o ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1945
Language: Karachay
Location: SW Russia (Kirghiz SSR)
Population: 173,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Xabichev, M.A. 1966. "Karachaevo-balkarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 213-33.
Other Sources: Hebert, Raymond J. 1962. "Karačay phonology,'' in ASAL, 97-113. Aliev, U.B. 1972. Sintaksis karachaevo-balkarskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ (f) s š x χ h (v) z ž ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž x χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1946
Language: Karaim Dialect: Trakaj
Location: Lithuania
Population: 600 (400)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Musaev, K.M. 1964. Grammatika karaimskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka. Musaev, K.M. 1966. "Karaimskij jazyka," in JNS 2, 260-79.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ̆̆(f) s s̄ χ h (v) z (ž) ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z s̄ (ž) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: The Karaim....are by religion (though not ethnically) Jews, a unique survival of the adoption of Judaism as the official religion of the Khazar Empire. LSU, 47.
Number: 1947
Language: Karaim Dialect: Galits
Location: S Ukraine
Population: 600 (200)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A., A. Zajonchkovskij and C.M. Shapshal, eds. 1974. Karaimsko-russko-pol'skij slovar'. Moscow: Russkij Jazyk.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts dz (f) s (š) χ h (v) z ʁ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: (f) (v) s z (š) χ ʁ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1948
Language: Kumyk
Location: SW Russia (Daghestan ASSR)
Population: 186,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Magomedov, A.G. 1966. "Kumykskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 194-212.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č (ɡ̌) f s̪ š x h v z̪ ž ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (t̪s) č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: (ǝ) Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1949
Language: Tatar Dialect: Central
Location: WC Russia (Tatar ASSR)
Population: 6 million(1.5 million)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Dictionary: Russko-tatarskij slovar'. 1955-58. Kazan'. Tatarsko-russkij slovar'. 1966. Moscow: Sovetsskaja Entsilopedija. Grammar: DG: Poppe, Nicholas. 1963. Tatar Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Zakiev, M.Z. 1966. "Tatarskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 139-54.
Consonant system: p t k (q) ʔ b d ɡ (G) (ts) č ɡ̌ f s š x h (v) z ž m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ (q) (G) ʔ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s z š ž x h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1950
Language: Baraba
Location: SC Russia (SW Siberia)
Population: 5 million (8,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western Grammar: Dmitrieva, L.V. 1966. "Jazyk barabinskix tatar," in JNS 2, 155-72.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ G ts (f) s š χ (h) (v) (z) (ž) m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q G Affricates: ts Fricatives: (f) (v) s (z) š (ž) χ (h) Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1951
Language: Crimean Tatar Alternate Name: Crimean Turkish
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 460,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Western
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1952
Language: Nogai Alternate Name: Noghay
Location: SW Russia (N Caucasus)
Population: 52,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1956. Russko-nogajskij slovar'. Moscow. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1962. Nogajsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Nogajskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 280-300. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1973. Grammatika nogajskogo jazyka. Cherkessk.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ (t̪s) (č) (f) s̪ š x (v) z̪ ž ɣ ʁ m n̪ N l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k q Affricates: (t̪s) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø (æ) Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1953
Language: Karakalpak
Location: Uzbekistan
Population: 230,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1947. Russko-karakalpakskij slovar'. Moscow. Baskakov, N.A. ed. 1958. Karakalpaksko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: GD: Baskakov, N.A. 1951, 1952. Karakalpakskij jazyk, 2 vols. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Karakalpakskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 301-19.
Other Sources: Wurm, S. 1951. "The Karakalpak Language," Anthropos 46.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (ts) (č) (f) s š χ h (v) z ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2+ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: +2 pol
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1954
Language: Kazakh
Location: Kazakhstan
Population: 5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Musabaev, G.G. and X.X. Maxmudov. 1954. Kazaxsko-russkij slovar'. Alma-Ata. Grammar: Sovremennyj kazaxskij jazyk. 1962. Alma-Ata. Kenesbaev, S.K. and N.B. Karasheva. 1966. "Kazaxskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 320-39.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q b d̪ ɡ (ts) (č) (f) s̪ š χ h (v) z̪ ž ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž χ ʁ h Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3 *6 *Politeness: +2 pol, 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1955
Language: Kirghiz
Location: Kyrgyzstan
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Central Dictionary: Jadaxin, K.K 1965. Kirgizsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. DG: Hebert, Raymond J. and Nicholas Poppe. 1963. Kirghiz Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Junusaliev, B.M. 1966. "Kirgizskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 482-505. Wurm, Stefan. 1949. "The (Rara-) Kirghiz Language," BSOAS 13, 97-120.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) β z (ž) ʁ m n N l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s z š (ž) (x) ʁ Nasals: m n N Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 [this visible/that visible/ this invisible/ that invisible]+ref Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* *3 *6 *Politeness: 2&5 each shows a polite/familiar distinction
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1956
Language: Yakut
Location: NE Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 285,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Yakut Dictionary: Afanatsev, P.S. and L.N. Xaritonov, eds. 1968. Russko-jakutskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Sleptsov, P.A., ed. 1972. Jakutsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Grammar: Krueger, John R. 1962. Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Ubrjatova, E.I. 1966. "Jakutskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 403-27.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: (ph) th kh b d ɡ čh ɡ̌ s (š) χ (h) ʁ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (ph) b th d kh ɡ Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: s (š) χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but b d ɡ ʁ r j j̃ Glides: j ȷ̃
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ɯɑ ie uo yø
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1957
Language: Dolgan
Location: NE Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Yakut
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1958
Language: Khakas
Location: SC Russia (Khakas A.O.)
Population: 56,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Chankova, D.I., ed. 1961. Russko-xakasskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Karpov, V.G. 1966. "Xakasskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 428-45.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s̪ (š) χ (v) z̪ (ž) ʁ m n̪ N l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ (š) (ž) χ ʁ Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y I e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but I
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1959
Language: Altai
Location: SC Russia (Altai Krai)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Baskakov, N.A., ed. 1964. Russko-altajskij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Baskakov, N.A. and T.M. Toshchakova. 1947. Ojrotsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1958. Altajskij jazyk. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Baskakov, N.A. 1966. "Altajskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 506-22.
Other Sources: Simpson, C.G. 1955. Some Features of the Morphology of the Oirot (Gorno-Altai) Language. London: Central Asian Research Centre.
Consonant system: p t k q b d ɡ (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) s š (x) (v) z ž ʁ m n ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž (x) ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1960
Language: Northern Altai Dialect: Kumandy
Location: SC Russia
Population: 16,000 (7,000)
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Grammar: Baskakov, N.A. 1972. Dialekt kumandintsev (Kumandy-Kizhi) Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k ɡ č s š m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1961
Language: Chulym
Location: SC Russia (Chulym River)
Population: 48,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Dul'zon, A.P. 1966. "Chulymsko-tjurkskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 446-66.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ ts dz β s z š ž ç x ɣ m m̥ n ŋ l l̥ lɯ l̥ɯ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: β s z š ž ç x ɣ Nasals: m m̥ n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ lɯ l̥ɯ Vibrants: r r̥ Modified Consonants: cj Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ ɵ ʋ Diphthongs: ɑj aj oj uj ɨj ʋj ɛj ou ua uɑ uʋ ye ie Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1962
Language: Shor
Location: SC Russia (Khakas A.O.)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Grammar: Babushkin, G.F. and G.I. Donidze. 1966. "Shorskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 467-81.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q G (t̪s) č ɡ̌ (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž (x) m n̪ ŋ l̪̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ q G Affricates: (t̪s) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž (x) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 [this/that there/that present/that absent]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1963
Language: Tuva Alternate Name: Tuvan
Location: SC Russia (Tuva ASSR)
Population: 137,000
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Pal'mbax, A.A., ed. 1953. Russko-tuvinskij slovar'. Moscow. Pal'mbax, A.A., ed. 1955. Tuvinsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: GD: Krueger, John R. 1977. Tuvan Manual. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Sat, S.C. 1966. "Tuvinskij jazyk," in JNS 2, 387-402. Isxakov, F.G. and A.A. Pal'mbax. 1961. Grammatika tuvinskogo jazyka.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k (Russian sources also give ph and th) (ts) č (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž ɣ χ ʁ (h) m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k (Russian sources also give ph and th) Affricates: (ts) č Fricatives: (f) (v) s̪ z̪ š ž ɣ χ ʁ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: v̰(pharynɡealized) all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1964
Language: Karagas Alternate Name: Tofa
Location: Russia
Population: 560
Classification: Altaic: Turkic: Common Turkic: Northern: Tuva-Altai Dictionary: Rassadin, V.I. 1971. Fonetika i leksika tofalarskogo jazyka. Ulan-Ude: Burjatskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q G ʔ č ɡ̌ v s z š ž ɣ ʁ h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q G ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z š ž ɣ ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ œ Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharynɡealized) all Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: AN GN Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1965
Language: Classical Mongolian
Location: Mongolia
Population: (+) c.1600 AD
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian Grammar: Poppe, Nicholas. 1964. Grammar of Written Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Grønbech, Kaare and John R. Krueger. 1976. An Introduction to Classical (Literary) Mongolian. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: (p) b t d k ɡ q č ɡ̌ (v) s š ɣ (h) m n l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ q Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (v) s š ɣ (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ʉ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p [pl not as comon as in other languages] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1966
Language: Moghol Alternate Name: Moghol Dialect: Herat
Location: Afghanistan (Herat)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Western Grammar: Weiers, Michael. 1972. Die Sprache der Moghol der Provinz Herat in Afghanistan. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) č ɡ̌ f s (z) š x ʁ (h) m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) š x ʁ (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1967
Language: Dagur Alternate Name: Daur
Location: NE China
Population: 50,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Dagur
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1968
Language: Monguor Alternate Name: Mangghuer, Tu
Location: China (W Kansu)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor Grammar: Smedt, A. de and A. Mostaert. 1945. Le dialecte monguor. Peking: The Catholic Univ. [Reprinted 1964 by Indiana Univ., Bloomington]
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh q ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh f s̪ ṣ ẓ š χ m n ŋ l r Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh q Affricates: ts tsh ṭs ṭsh č čh Fricatives: f s̪ ṣ ẓ š χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ʉ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ: æ a o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1969
Language: Yellow Uighur Alternate Name: West Yugur
Location: China (NW Gansu)
Population: 4,600
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1970
Language: Pao-an Alternate Name: Baonan Dialect: Tung-hsiang
Location: China (Kansu)
Population: 250,000 (160,000)
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor Grammar: Todaeva, B.X. 1961. Dunsjanskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Vostochnoj literatury.
Consonant system: ph b th d ch ɟ ɡ qh čh ɡ̌ f (v) s (z) š x h m n ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d ch ɟ ɡ qh Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s (z) š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1971
Language: Santa
Location: China (SW Gansu)
Population: 374,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Monguor
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1972
Language: Oirat
Location: China
Population: 518,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Oirat-Kalmyk
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1973
Language: Kalmyk
Location: SW Russia (Kalmyk ASSR)
Population: 253,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Oirat-Kalmyk Dictionary: Ramstedt, G.J. 1935. Kalmückisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. Ilishkin, I., ed. 1964. Russko-kalmyyskij slovar'. Moscow Grammar: Todaeva, B.X. 1968. "Kalmytskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 34-52.
Other Sources: Street, John C. 1962. "Kalmyk Shwa," in ASAL, 263-91. Badmaev, B.B. 1966. Grammatika Kalmytskogo jazyka: morfologija. Elista: Kalmytskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: (p) b t d k ɡ ts č ɡ̌ β (f) s z š (ž) x ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s z š (ž) x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1974
Language: Buriat
Location: SE Russia (Buryat ASSR)
Population: 350,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Cheremisov, K.M. 1973. Burjatsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow: Sovetskaja Entsiklopedija. Sanzheev, G.D. Grammatika burjatskogo jazyka'. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury. Grammar: Bosson, James E. 1962. Buriat Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Bertagaev, T.A. 1968. "Burjatskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 13-33.
Other Sources: Buraev, I.D., T.P. Bazheeva and E.S. Pavlova. 1975. Atlas zvukov burjatskogo jazyka. Ulan-Ude: Burjatskoe Knizhnoe Izdatel'stvo.
Consonant system: (p) b t d (k) ɡ (ts) (č) (f) (v) s z š ž x h m n ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d (k) ɡ Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: (f) (v) s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj ? Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I y ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: i y ø ɛ u ɔ ɑ Diphthongs: æɛ ɔɛ ʋI yi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial, or on first long vowel
Noun
Number: s [p] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1975
Language: Khalkha
Location: Mongolia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Lessing, F.D. et al. 1960. Mongolian-English Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Hangin, John G. 1970. A Concise English-Mongolian Dictionary. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Grammar: Street, John C. 1963. Khalkha Structure. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Bosson, James E. 1964. Modern Mongolian: A Primer and Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Poppe, Nicholas. 1970. Mongolian Language Handbook. Washington, D.C.: CAL.
TextBooks: Hangin, John G. 1968. Basic Course in Mongolian. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: (ph) t̪h (kh) b d̪ ɡ tsh čh dz ɡ̌ (ɸ) s š x β m n̪ ŋ l̪ (ɬ) r Stops: (ph) b t̪h d̪ (kh) ɡ Affricates: tsh dz čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: (ɸ) β s š x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ (ɬ) Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ʉ u e ǝ ɵ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄: all but ǝ Diphthongs: ae oe ʉi ia io iu ui
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p [pl used less than in Western languages] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4[ie] 2 5 *3 *6 *Politeness: pol/fam (2) [2 pol=5]
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1976
Language: Khorchin
Location: China
Population: 900,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat
Other Sources: Bosson, James and B. Unensečen. 1962. "Some Notes on the Dialect of the Khorchin Mongols," in ASAL, 23-44. E
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d̪ ɟ ɡ s̪ š h m n̪ ŋ l r Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ ɟ ɡ Fricatives: s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: i y e ø ǝ ɵ u o ɔ ɑ
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1977
Language: Ordos
Location: China (Sui Yang)
Population: 375,000
Classification: Altaic: Mongolian: Eastern: Oirat-Khalkha: Khalkha-Buriat Dictionary: Mostaert, Antoine 1941. Dictionnaire ordos. Peking: The Catholic Univ. [Reprinted 1968 by Johnson Reprinted, New York] Grammar: Soulié, G. 1903. Éléments de grammaire mongole (dialecte ordoss). Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Consonant system: p ph b t th k kh ɡ q G ts č čh kx f s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ m n ŋ l l̥ r r̥ Stops: p ph b t th k kh ɡ q G Affricates: ts č čh kx Fricatives: f s z š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø œ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1978
Language: Even
Location: NE Russia (NE Yakut ASSR)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Dictionary: Tsintsius, V.I. and L.D. Rishes. 1952. Russko-evenskij slovar'. Moscow. GD: Benzing, J. 1955. Lamutische Grammatik mit Bibliographie, Sprachproben und Glossar. Wiesbaden. Grammar: Novikova, K.A. 1960. Ocherki dialektov evenskogo jazyka. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Novikova K.A. 1968. "Evenskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 88-108. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Das Lamutische," in Altaistik, vol 3, 92-129.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s h v m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t d k č n ŋ r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ i e u o Modified Vowels: ḭ æ̰ ḭ̄ ā̰ ǣ̰ a̤ ṳ o̤ ṳ̄ ō̤ (v̰ = 'hard' vowel: all vowels belong to either the hard or soft series. Compared to soft vowels, hard vowels: (1) are drawn back, (2) more tense, (3) have a lower timbre and in some dialects (4) are pharyngealized) Diphthongs: ie iæ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: on last v̄, if no v̄, on last v
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1979
Language: Negidal
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 350
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Grammar: Kolesnikova, V.D. and O.A. Konstantinova. 1968. "Negidal'skij jazyk," in JNS 5, 109-28.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s x m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ǝ ɵ Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: i I e æ ɵ a u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1980
Language: Evenki Alternate Name: Khamnigan
Location: E Russia (Yakut ASSR)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern Dictionary: Vasilevich, G.M. 1958. Evenkijsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Kolesnikova, V.D. and O.A. Konstantinova. 1960. Russko-evenkijskij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Konstantinova. O.A. 1968. "Evenkijskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 68-87. Konstantinova, O.A. 1964. Evenkijskij jazyk. Moscow. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Das Ewenki," in Altaistik, vol 3, 42-92.
Other Sources: Kolesnikova, V.D. 1966. Sintaksis evenkijskogo jazyka. Moscow: Nauka.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ β (f) s (z) (š) (ž) x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β (f) s (z) (š) (ž) x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: i e æ ǝ u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1981
Language: Solon
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1982
Language: Manegir
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1983
Language: Orochon
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Northern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1984
Language: Ju-chen
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1985
Language: Manchu
Location: NW China (Sinkiang)
Population: 27,000 (50)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern Grammar: Pashkov, B.K. 1963. Manchzhurskij jazyk. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury. Sinor, Denis. 1968. "La langue mandjoue," in Altaistik, vol 3, 257-80.
Other Sources: Austin, William M. 1962. "The Phonemics and Morphophonemics of Manchu," in ASAL, 15-22.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh č čh f v s̪ (z̪) š (ž) x m n̪ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh Affricates: č čh Fricatives: f v s̪ (z̪) š (ž) x Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: aj oj ej uj
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p [pl suffix only used for humans, living things, kin terms, etc] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1986
Language: Manchu Alternate Name: Xibe Dialect: Sibe
Location: China (Xinjiang)
Population: 27,000 (27,000)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southwestern
Other Sources: Norman, Jerry. n.d. "Swadesh List in Manchu and Sibe," Unicorn 3, 89-98. Princeton: Chinese Linguistics Project. Norman, Jerry. 1974. "A Sketch of Sibe Morphology," Central Asiatic Journal 18, 159-74.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q č čh qχ f v s (š) x χ m n ŋ N l ɾ Stops: p ph t th k kh q Affricates: č čh qχ Fricatives: f v s (š) x χ Nasals: m n ŋ N Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ai au ia ua ǝi ǝu iɛ yɛ oi io ui Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl generally limited to humans] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1987
Language: Akani
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1988
Language: Birar
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1989
Language: Gold
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Dictionary: Onenko, S.N. 1959. Russko-nanajskij slovar'. Leningrad. Petrova, T.I. 1960. Nanajsko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Avrorin, V.A. 1959, 1961. Grammatika nanajskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Avrorin, V.A. 1968. "Nanajskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 129-48. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Die Sprache der Nānaj (Goldi)," in Altaistik, vol 3, 171-246.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ḛ Central Vowels: ǝ a̰ Back Vowels: u o̰ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: iǝ iu ia io ǝu ǝi ai ao ui uǝ oi oa iǝ̃ iũ iã iõ ǝũ ǝĩ aĩ aõ uĩ uǝ̃ oĩ oã
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1990
Language: Kile
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1991
Language: Olcha
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Grammar: Sunik, O.P. 1968. "Ul'chskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 149-71.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) v s x m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is not usually used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1992
Language: Orok
Location: SE Russia (Saxalin Is.)
Population: 400
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj Grammar: Petrova, T.I. 1967. Jazyk orokov (ul'ta). Leningrad: Nauka. Petrova, T.I. 1968. "Orokskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 172-90.
Other Sources: Ikegami, J. 1956. "The Substantive Inflection of Orok," Gengo Kenkyu 30.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s x m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t k m n l r w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: i e ɛ ǝ a u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is seldom used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1993
Language: Samagir
Location: E Russia (E Siberia)
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Nanaj
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1994
Language: Oroch
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Udihe Dictionary: Leontovich, S. 1896. Russko-orochenskij slovar'. Vladivostok. Grammar: Avrorin, V.A. and E.P. Lebedeva. 1968. "Orochskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 172-90.
Other Sources: Lopatin, I. 1957. Material on the Orochee Language. Fribourg.
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s x ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b k ɡ č m n ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: i æ ǝ a u ʋ o Diphthongs: iǝ ia iu æi æa æʋ ǝi ǝu ai aʋ ui uǝ ʋi ʋa oi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl forms used extremely rarely] Demonstratives: 4?
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1995
Language: Udihe
Location: SE Russia (Xabarovskij Krai)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Altaic: Tungus: Southern: Southeastern: Udihe Dictionary: Shnejder, E.R. 1936. Kratkij udegejsko-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Sunik, O.P. 1968. "Udegejskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 210-32. Menges, Karl H. 1968. "Die Sprache der Udihe," in Altaistik, vol 3, 129-71.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ č ɡ̌ f s x ɣ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s [p] [pl suffix exists, but is not normally used] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1996
Language: Korean
Location: Korea
Population: 55 million
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese Grammar: Rogers, M.C. 1956. Outline of Korean Grammar. n.p.:n.p.
Other Sources: Olmsted, D.L. 1963. Korean Folkore Reader. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Han, Mieko S. 1963. Acoustic Phonetics of Korean. Los Angles: Univ. of California. Cho, Seung-Bog. 1967. A Phonological Study of Korean. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells. Hwang, Shin Ja Joo. 1975. Korean Clause Structure. SIL 50. AL 7:1 Martin, Samuel E. 1951. "Korean Phonemics," Lg 27, 519-33.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ ʔ č čh čʔ s sʔ h m n̪ ŋ l Stops: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s sʔ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e ø æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 politeness: yes
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N/(N-NUM) POSS-N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: The glottalized series of consonants is variously described as (1) long, (2) tense, (3) accompanied by glottal tension, though the glottal catch is apparently nowhere near as pronounced as in typical Amerindian or Caucasian ejectives.
Number: 1997
Language: Japanese
Location: Japan
Population: 115 million
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese Dictionary: Okakura, Y., ed. 1945. New English-Japenese Dictionary. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Grammar: Martin, Samuel E. 1975. A Reference Grammar of Japanese. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
TextBooks: Jorden, Eleanor Harz. 1963. Beginning Japanese, 2 vols. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.
Other Sources: Harada, Tetsuo. 1966. Outlines of Modern Japanese Linguistics. Tokyo: Nihon Univ. Kuno, Susumu. 1973. The Structure of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h z m n̪ (ŋ) ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n̪ (ŋ) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č s š Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V, ŋ̟
Tones: pitch accent: hi lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6hH politeness: many honorific forms
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 1998
Language: Ryukyuan Dialect: Central
Location: Japan (Okinawa)
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese
Other Sources: AL 7:1
Consonant system: p b t d k ɡ ʔ ts s z h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable:
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 1999
Language: Ryukyuan Alternate Name: Shodon Dialect: Northern
Location: Japan (Ryukyu Islands)
Population: 900,000
Classification: Altaic: Korean-Japanese
Other Sources: Martin, Samuel E. 1970. "Shodon: A Dialect of the Northern Ryukyus," JAOS 90, 97-139.
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ ʔ ʔʷ b d̪ ɡ ɡʷ ɸ s̪ h (z̪) m n̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ kʷ khʷ ɡʷ ʔ ʔʷ Fricatives: ɸ s̪ (z̪) h Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid low Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2* 5* 3 6 politeness: honorific forms for 2 & 5
Syntax: SOV AN Ergative:
Prep/Post:

Краткие типологические обзоры айнских диалектов

Number: 2000
Language: Ainu Dialect: Hokkaido
Location: N Japan (Hokkaido)
Population: 15
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Hattori, Shirô, ed. 1964. An Ainu Dialect Dictionary. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. Grammar: Patrie, James. 1982. The Genetic Relationship of the Ainu Language. Honolulu: Univ Press of Hawaii.
Other Sources: Pilsudski, Bronislaw. 1912. Materials for the Study of the Ainu Language and Folklore. Cracow: Academy of Sciences. Simeon, George. 1969. "Hokkaido Ainu Phonemics," JAOS 89, 751-7 Simeon, George. 1976. "The Hokkaido Ainu Copula," Linguistics 169, 63-6. Peng, Fred C.C. and Peter Geiser. 1977. The Ainu: The Past in the Present. Hiroshima: Bunda Hyoron. AL 7:1
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) č s h m n ɾ Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k s m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony ? Diphthongs: wa wo we ja jo je aw ew uw iw aj oj ej uj jaj
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo (pitch accent) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p (usually not used) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 politeness: 2 pol, 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2001
Language: Ainu Dialect: Sakhalin
Location: SE Russia (Sakhalin Island)
Population: 15 ((+)1994)
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Hattori, Shirô, ed. 1964. An Ainu Dialect Dictionary. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Other Sources: Hattori, Shirô. 1967. "Personal Affixes in the Sakhalin Dialect of Ainu," Linguistics 29, 58-79.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 Politeness: 2 pol & 5 pol
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST

Краткий типологический обзор нивхского языка

Number: 2002
Language: Gilyak Alternate Name: Nivx, Nivkh
Location: SE Russia (Sakhalin Island)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Eurasiatic Dictionary: Saveleva, V.N. and C.M. Taksami. 1965. Russko-nivxskij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Panfilov, V.Z. 1962, 1965. Grammatika ivxskogo jazyka, 2 vols. Moscow. Panfilov, V.Z. 1968. "Nivxskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 408-34.
Other Sources: Jakobson, Roman. 1957. "Notes on Gilyak," in Studies Presented to Yuen Ren Chao on his Sixty-fifth Birthday, 255-81. AL 7:1
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh q qh b d ɡ G č čh ɡ̌ f s x χ h v z ɣ ʁ m n ñ ŋ l r ř(=rž) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ q qh G Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ř(=rž) Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: free, but often initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 5: this, that, that further away, that absent, that way yonder
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2* 5 3 6 Politeness: 2 fam & 2 respectful [2 respectful=5]
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Чукче-камчатской семьи

Number: 2003
Language: Chukchi
Location: NE Russia (Chukchi Peninsula)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern Dictionary: Moll, T.A. and P.I. Inenlikej. 1957. Chukotsko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Grammar: Skorik, P.J. 1961. Grammatika chukotskogo jazyka, Part I. Moscow. Sokrik, P.J. 1968. "Chukotskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 248-70.
Other Sources: Bogoras, W. 1922. "Chukchee," in Handbook of American Indian Lanugages, ed. by Franz Boas, Washington. CTIL 1, 359.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts (used only by women) č ɣ m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts (used only by women) č Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t k q m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult & final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO(ERG)/SOV(NOM) AN GN DN NUM-N Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2004
Language: Kerek
Location: NE Russia (Cape Navarin)
Population: 100
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Grammar: Skorik, P.J. 1968. "Kerekskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 310-33.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č̌ h (ɣ) m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO(ERG)/SOV(NOM) AN Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2005
Language: Koryak
Location: E Russia (N Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Dictionary: Korsakov, G.M. 1939. Nymykansko (korjaksko)-russkij slovar'. Moscow. Grammar: Zhukova, A.N. 1968. "Korjakskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 271-93. Zhukova, A.N. 1972. Grammatika korjakskogo jazyka. Leningrad: Nauka.
Other Sources: CTIL 1, 363.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č̌ (f) v ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v j ʁ cj t n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C), but no CCVCC Stress: tendency toward penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2006
Language: Alyutor
Location: E Russia (Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Northern: Koryak-Alyutor Grammar: Zhukova, A.N. 1968. "Aljutorskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 294-309.
Other Sources: Mel'č̌uk, Igor A. and Elena N. Savvina. 1978. "Toward a Formal Model of Alutor Surface Syntax: Predicative and Completive Constructions," Linguistics, Special Issue, 5-39.
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ č s v ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: mostly second, sometimes initial
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2007
Language: Kamchadal Alternate Name: Itelmen
Location: E Russia (W Kamchatkan Peninsula)
Population: 400
Classification: Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Southern Dictionary: Worth, Dean S. 1969. Dictionary of Western Kamchadal. UCPL 59. Grammar: Volodin, A.P. and A.N. Zhukova. 1968. "Itel'menskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 334-51.
Other Sources: Worth, Dean Stoddard. 1961. Kamchadal Texts Collected by W. Jochelson. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ č čʔ f s x χ v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ʎ r Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ k č s z ɣ m n ñ l w Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o a ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult (sometimes antepenult)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 (4d) 4 2 (5d) 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Noun Incorporation: NOUN INCORP
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: all bilingual in Russian

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Эскимо-алеутской семьи

Number: 2008
Language: Aleut
Location: SW Alaska (Aleutian Islands)
Population: 600
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Aleut Grammar: GD: Geoghegan, Richard Henry. 1944. The Aleut Language. Washington, D,C.: Dept of the Interior. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Aleutskij jazyk" in JNS 5, 386-406.
Consonant system: (p) t k q (b) s x χ h ð ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ r (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Stops: (p) (b) t k q (in some dialects p > m, b > w) Fricatives: ð s x ɣ χ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: >20, +e.g This, that near visible, that inside, that far visible, that invisible, that above, that outside, that far away, that underneath, that not far away, that going past, that invisible far in time or space, that above close, that lying nearby, that
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2009
Language: Proto-Eskimo
Location: Alaska
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1952. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo IV: Diachronic Notes," IJAL 18, 166-71.
Consonant system: p t k q v s ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2010
Language: Alaskan Inuit
Location: Alaska
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2011
Language: Canadian Inuit Dialect: Labrador Inuttut
Location: E Canada (Labrador)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit Grammar: Spalding, A.E. 1969. Salliq: An Eskimo Grammar. Ottawa: Education Branch, Dept. of Indian Affairs.
TextBooks: Webster, Donald H. 1968. Let's Learn Eskimo. Fairbanks: SIL.
Other Sources: Smith, L.R. 1975. "Labrador Inuttut Surface Phonology," IJAL 41, 97-105.
Consonant system: p t k s χ (h) v ɣ m n ŋ l ɬ (ɹ̣) Stops: p t k Fricatives: v s ɣ χ (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but v s ɣ Glides: j
Vowel system: I ʋ ɐ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV GN N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2012
Language: Greenlandic Dialect: West Greenlandic
Location: W Greenland
Population: 65,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Inuit
Other Sources: Mase, Hideo and Jørgen Rischel,1972. "A Study of Consonant Quantity in West Greenlandic," IJDL 1:2, 138-95. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q s š ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l Stops: p t k q Fricatives: s š ɣ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but j Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai only
Syllable: CV(C)
Syntax: SOV Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2013
Language: Alutiiq Alternate Name: Pacific Gulf Yupik
Location: Alaska (Kodiak Island)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2014
Language: Central Yupik Dialect: Yuk
Location: W Alaska
Population: 14,500
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Alaskan
Other Sources: Miyaoka, Osahito. 1971. "On Syllable Modification and Quantity in Yuk," IJAL 37, 219-26. Swedish, Morris. 1951-2. "Unaaliq and Proto Eskimo I-III," IJAL 17, 66-70; 18, 25-34, & 69-76.
Consonant system: p t k q č f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p t k q Affricates: č Fricatives: f v š ž x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NUM-N N-POSS Ergative:
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2015
Language: Sirenik
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 10
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Consonant system: Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2016
Language: Chaplino Dialect: St. Lawrence Island
Location: W Alaska (St. Lawrence Island)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian
Other Sources: Krauss, Michael E. 1976. "Eskimo-Aleut," in NLA 1, 191.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ l ɬ r r̥ Stops: p t k kʷ q qʷ Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ (h) Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋ ŋ̥ ŋʷ ŋ̥ʷ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: i a u Ergative:
Prep/Post:
Number: 2017
Language: Chaplino Dialect: Siberian
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian Grammar: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1954. Eskimossko-russkij slovar'. Leningrad. Menovshehikov, G.A. 1962,1967. Grammatika jazyka aziatskix eskimosov, 2 vols. Moscow. Menovshchikov, G.A. 1968. "Eskimosskij jazyk," in JNS 5, 366-85.
Consonant system: p t k q f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ m n n̥ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ χ ʁ Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: see the St. Lawrence Island dialect.
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST
Number: 2018
Language: Naukan
Location: NE Russia (Siberia)
Population: 1,700
Classification: Eskimo-Aleut: Eskimo: Yupik: Siberian Grammar: GD: Menovshchikov, G.A. 1975. Jazyk naukanskix eskimosov. Leningrad: Nauka.
Consonant system: p t k q v s x ɣ χ m n ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p t k q Fricatives: v s x ɣ χ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ʋi au ei iu eu ea ...
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 20: (1) this close, (2) that in front, (3) this nearby, (4) that in the water, (5) that behind above, (6) that below, (7) that above, (8) that invisible, (9) that outside, (10) that outside close by, (11) that inside, (12) that invisible far away, (13) that behind not far, (14) that unknown, (15) that way above, (16) that on the mountain, (17) that far away, (18) that going past, (19) that drawing near, (20) that to the side
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: /POST Comments: Spoken in Siberia and on St. Lawrence Island, this the only language native to bother hemispheres. The Russian and American groups have, however, been isolated from each other since the inception of the Cold War in 1947.

Краткий типологический обзор эламитского языка

Number: 2019
Language: Elamite Dialect: Achaemenid
Location: SW Iran
Population: extinct (c. 1,000 A.D.)
Classification: Elamo-Dravidian
Other Sources: McAlpin, David W. 1981. Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Blazek, Václav. 2002. "Elam: A Bridge between the Ancient Near East and Dravidian India?," Mother Tongue 7, 123-46. Starostin, George. 2002. "On the Genetic Affiliation of the Elamite Language," Mother Tongue 7, 147-70.
Consonant system: p t k s z š m n l r Stops: p t k Fricatives: s z š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p (normally used only with humans) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST Comments: McAlpin (1981), following earlier scholars, proposed that the extinct Elamite language was most closely related to the Dravidian family. Without denying this connection Blazek (2002) points out striking similarities with Afro-Asiatic. Starostin (2002) rejects a close connection with Dravidian and regards Elamite as in some sense intermediate between Nostratic and Afro-Asiatic. The precise position of Elamite is not yet clear.

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Дравидической семьи

Number: 2020
Language: Proto-Dravidian
Location: India
Classification: Dravidian
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1970. Dravidian Comparative Phonology: A Sketch. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ. Pfeiffer, Martin. 1972. Elements of Kurux Historical Phonology. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Zvelebil, Kamil V. 1974. "Dravidian Languages," EB 5, 989-92.
Consonant system: p t̪ t ṭ k č v m n ṇ ñ l ḷ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ ñ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: sing: masc, non-masc; pl: hum, non-hum
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2021
Language: Brahui
Location: SW Pakistan (N Baluchistan)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Dravidian: Northwest
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1962. Brahui and Dravidian Comparative Grammar. UCPL 27. De Armond, Richard C. 1971. "The Grammatical Morphemes of the Brahui Verb," IL 32, 91-106. De Armond, Richard C. 1975. "Some Rules of Brahui Conjugation," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 242-98.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k ʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō ū
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2022
Language: Kurux
Location: EC India (E Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 1.1 million
Classification: Dravidian: Northeast Grammar: Hahn, F. 1911. Kurukh Grammar. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press.
Other Sources: Pfeiffer, Martin. 1972. Elements of Kurux Historical Phonology. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Gordon, Kent H. and Kenneth L Pike. 1973. "Paired Semantic Components," in PCSD I, 313-43. Gorden, Kent H. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Dhangar-Kurux," in PCSD II, 37-121.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ s x h m n (ṇ) ŋ l r ṛ (ṛ̤) Stops: p ph b b̤ t th d d̤ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍ̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ ʔ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n (ṇ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ (ṛ̤) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ǝ Diphthongs: ai au
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc (fem gender=neuter in the sing, = masc in the plural) (N=fem+neut) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6hN m=masc M=non-masc h=human N=non-human
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2023
Language: Malto
Location: NE India (NE Bihar)
Population: 90,000
Classification: Dravidian: Northeast Grammar: Das, A. Sisir Kumar. 1973. Structure of Malto. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Mahapatra, Bijay P. 1973. "Malto Object Classifiers," IL 34, 191-9.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ c j k ɡ q G θ s̪ h m n̪ N l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ q G Fricatives: θ s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ N Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t ḍ c ɟ k q s ɾ̣ n l j Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on v̄)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc (= f+n) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM m=masc M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+NUM+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2024
Language: Kolami
Location: C India (N Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: GD: Emeneau, M. B. 1955. Kolami, A Dravidian Language. UCPL 12.
Other Sources: McNair, Norman and Helen McNair. 1973. "Clause Patterns in Kolami," in PCSD II, 123-90. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ts) č ɡ̌ v s z (h) m n̪ ŋ l (ḷ) r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z (h) Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l (ḷ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but z ŋ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)C(N)(C)(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM [M=non-masc = f+n]
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2025
Language: Naiki
Location: C India (NE Maharashtra)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2026
Language: Parji
Location: EC India (SE Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: GD: Burrow, T. and S. Bhattacharya. 1953. The Parji Language. Hertford: Stephen Austin & Sons.
Other Sources: Shanmugam, R. 1969. "Phonology and Noun Morphology of Parji," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 177-86. Khrishnamurti, B. 1978. "On Diachronic and Synchronic Rules in Phonology," IL 39, 252-76. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v (s) (h) m n̪ ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v (s) (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but b t s h ɾ̣ j Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) (v̄̃)
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc [=f+n] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc = f+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2027
Language: Gadaba Dialect: Ollari
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 8,800
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Kolami-Parji Grammar: Bhattacharya, Sudhibhushan. 1957. Ollari: A Dravidian Speech. Delhi: Government of India.
Other Sources: AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ v s z m n̪ ṇ (ñ) ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: (ts) (dz) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n̪ ṇ (ñ) ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mM 6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2028
Language: Gondi
Location: C India (SE Madhya Pradesh)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Gondi-Koya Grammar: GD: Subrahmanyam P. S. 1968. A Descriptive Grammar of Gondi. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Pandurangachar. 1975. "Pronouns in Gondi," IL 36, 203-11.
Consonant system: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h (t̪ʔ) ṭ ṭh ḍ d̪̤ k kh k (k̪̪̪ʔ) ɡ ɡ̤ ts tsh dz dz̤ β s h m n ṇ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ t̪ t̪h (t̪ʔ) ṭ ṭh ḍ d̪̤ k kh k (k̪ʔ) ɡ ɡ̤ Affricates: ts tsh dz d̤z Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but s ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mM *6mM [M=non-masc]
Syntax: SOV AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2029
Language: Koya
Location: C India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Gondi-Koya Grammar: Tyler, Stephen A. 1969. Koya: An Outline Grammar. UCPL 54.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ β s ɦ m n ṇ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ɦ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ɦ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic (on long syllables)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc, non-masc [= f+n] Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc = f+n
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2030
Language: Konda
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 13,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Other Sources: AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ts dz v s z m n ṇ ŋ l r̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r̪ r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃̄ ȭ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2031
Language: Manda
Location: EC India (Orissa)
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2032
Language: Pengo
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 1,300
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui Grammar: GD: Burrow, T. and S. Bhattacharya. 1970. The Pengo Language. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ t̪s d̪z s̪ z̪ h m n̪ ṇ ŋ l̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: t̪s d̪z Fricatives: s̪ z̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ "Long consonants are common in Pengo, but they always result from the combination of roots and affixes." p. 18 Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: All Bilingual in Oriya.
Number: 2033
Language: Kui
Location: EC India (NW Orissa)
Population: 510,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui Dictionary: Winfield, W. W. 1929. A Vocabulary of the Kui Language. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal. Grammar: Winfield, W. W. 1928. A Grammar of the Kui Language. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.
Other Sources: Watkin, K. L. 1975. "Some Phonological Rules for the Kui Verb," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 375-89.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ɡ̌ β s ṣ h m n ṇ l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ṣ h Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc, non-masc [=f+n] Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that over there) Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mM *6mM M=non-masc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2034
Language: Kuvi
Location: EC India (S Orissa)
Population: 190,000
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Konda-Kui
Other Sources: Ramakrishna Reddy, B., Susheela P. Upadhyaya and Joy Reddy. 1974. Kuvi Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ ts dz v s h m n ṇ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2035
Language: Telugu
Location: SC India (Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 50 million
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Telugu Grammar: DG: Polkam, D. B. 1971. Merolu Telugu. Poona: Deccan College.
TextBooks: Lisker, Leigh. 1963. Introduction to Spoken Telugu. Poona: Deccan College. Krishnamurti, B. and P. Sivananda Sarma. 1968. A Basic Course in Modern Telugu. Hyderabad. Subrahmanyam, P. S. 1974. An Introduction to Modern Telugu. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Kelley, Gerald. 1958. "Telugu Vowel Phonemes," IL 18, 146-58. Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju. 1961. Telugu Verbal Bases. UCPL 24. Murti, K. V. S. 1972. "Telugu Syntax: A Brief Description," Linguistics 81, 49-82. Venkateswara Sastry, J. 1972. Telugu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ d̪ (d̤̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) (f) v s ṣ š h m n̪ ṇ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ d̪ (d̤̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai au ao ia
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=m+f H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Number: 2036
Language: Savara
Location: S India (Andhra Pradesh)
Classification: Dravidian: Central: Telugu-Kui: Telugu
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2037
Language: Tulu
Location: SW India (W Mysore)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu Dictionary: Mariappa Bhat, M. and A. Shanker Kedilaya. 1967. Tulu-English Dictionary. Madras: Univ of Madras. Grammar: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1967. Descriptive Analysis of Tulu. Poona: Deccan College.
Other Sources: Ayyer, L. V. Ramaswami. 1932. "Tulu Prose Texts in Two Dialects," BSOAS 6, 897-931. Aiyar, L. V. Ramaswamy. 1936. "Materials for a Sketch of Tulu Phonology," IL 6, 84-127. Kölver, Bernhard. 1969. Tulu Texts. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. Bhatt, Sooda Lakshminarayana. 1975. "Inflection in the Tulu Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol E. Eastman, 180-96. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s̪ ṣ š h m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ l̪ ḷ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s̪ ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ṣ š h ñ ŋ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɯ Nasal Vowels: ã Diphthongs: ai
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: sing: m f; pl: hum, non-hum Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum politeness: 2 honorific & 3 honorific
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2038
Language: Bellari
Location: SW India (Maharashtra)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2039
Language: Koraga
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tulu Dictionary: Bhat, D. N. S. 1971. The Koraga Language. Poona: Deccan College.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ŋ v s Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɯ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: hum., non-hum Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2040
Language: Kannada
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 25 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Kannada Dictionary: Kittel, Ferdinand. 1894. Kannada-English Dictionary, 4 vols. Mangalore: Basel Massion Book and Tract Depository. [Reprinted 1968 by the Univ of Madras] Grammar: Bright, William. 1958. An Outline of Colloquial Kannada. Poona: Deccan College. Jensen, Hans. 1969. Grammatik der kanaresischen Schriftsprache. Leizig: VEB Verlag. Hiremath, R. C. 1961. THe Structure fo Kannada. Dharwar: Karnatak Univ. GD: Bhat, D. N. Shankara. 1971. An Outline Grammar of Havyaka. Poona. Deccan College.
TextBooks: McCormack, William. 1966. Kannada. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press.
Other Sources: Nayak, H. M. 1967. Kannada: Literary and Colloquial. Mysore: Rao & Raghavan. Upadhyaya, U. P. 1972. Kannada Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Chisum, Gary L. 1975. "Systematic Phonology of the Kannada Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M.Eastman, 197-205. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ (t̪h) d̪ (d̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Aspirated stops are found in literary, but not colloquial Kannada. č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) (f) v s ṣ š h m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ ɾ Stops: p (ph) b (b̤) t̪ (t̪h) d̪ (d̪) ṭ (ṭh) ḍ (ḍ̤) k (kh) ɡ (ɡ̤) Aspirated stops are found in literary, but not colloquial Kannada. Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ (ɡ̤̌) Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (æ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2041
Language: Badaga
Location: India (Tamil Nadu)
Population: 125,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Kannada
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2042
Language: Kodagu
Location: SW India (S Mysore)
Population: 80,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Kothandaraman, P. 1969. "Kodagu Vowels," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 233-47. Emeneau, M. B. 1970. "Kodagu Vowels," JAOS 90, 145-58. Garman, Michael. 1975. "Coorg Verbal Base Structure" in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 322-74. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ã ũ
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2043
Language: Kurumba
Location: SW India (Mysore)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Upadhyaya, U. P. 1972. "Kuruba - A Dravidian Language," in Third Seminar on Dravidian Linguistics, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and S. V. Shanmugam, 307-28.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2044
Language: Toda
Location: S India (W Tamil Nadu)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Emeneau, Murray B. 1983. Toda Grammar and Texts. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1957. "Toda, a Dravidian Language," Transactions of the Philological Society, 15-66. Agesthialingom, S. and S. Sakthivel. 1972. "Toda Nouns," IL 33, 153-7. AL 8:4 WPF
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ f θ s̪ z̪ s z ṣ ẓ š ž x m n ṇ (ŋ) l ɬ ḷ ɬ̣ ɾ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ s̪ z̪ s z ṣ ẓ š ž x Nasals: m n ṇ (ŋ) Laterals: l ɬ ḷ ɬ̣ Vibrants: ɾ r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: ī ȳ ǣ ↔ō ā ū ɯ̄ ō
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2045
Language: Kota
Location: S India (W Tamil Nadu)
Population: 900
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Emeneau, M. B. 1944-46. Kota Texts, 4 vols. UCPL 2-3. Eastman, Carol M. 1975. "Morphophonemics of the Positive and Negative Stems of the Kota Verb," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 299-321. AL 8:4
Consonant system: ph b t̪h d̪ th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ č ɡ̌ v ṣ m n ṇ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: ph b t̪h d̪ th d ṭh ḍ kh ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v ṣ Nasals: m n ṇ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p (pl not obligatory) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2046
Language: Irula
Location: S India (S Mysore)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Zvelebil, Kamil V. 1973. The Irula Language. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ v m n̪ ṇ l ḷ r̪ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v Nasals: m n̪ ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r̪ r ṛ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ʉ ǝ ɵ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6mn 3n=6n
Syntax: SOV GN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 2047
Language: Tamil Dialect: Yerukala
Location: SE India (S Andhra Pradesh)
Population: 40 million (75,000)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Srinivasavarma, G. 1969. "Phonology of Yerukala," in Dravidian Linguistics: Seminar Papers, ed. by S. Agesthialingom and N. Kumaraswami, 187-202.
Consonant system: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ v s ṣ m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s ṣ Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã ũ õ ẽ̄ ã̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ai au
Syntax: SOV Comments: Speakers of the Yerukala dialect are all bilingual in Telugu.
Number: 2048
Language: Tamil Dialect: Tirunelveli
Location: S India (S Tamil Nadu)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Grammar: Kamatchinathan, A. 1969. The Tirunelveli Tamil Dialect. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k č ɸ v ð š h m n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ r ɾ̣ Stops: p t̪ ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ v ð š h Nasals: m n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mf +2 honorific
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2049
Language: Tamil Dialect: Sri Lanka
Location: N Sri Lanka
Population: 40 million (2 million)
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu
Other Sources: Karunatilake, W. S. and S. Suseendirarajah. 1973. "Phonology of Sinhalese and Sri Lanka Tamil," IL 34, 180-90.
Consonant system: p t̪ t ṭ k č v m n ṇ l ḷ r Stops: p t̪ t ṭ k Affricates: č Fricatives: v Nasals: m n ṇ Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: (ɨ) (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV
Number: 2050
Language: Tamil
Location: SE India (Madras)
Population: 40 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Dictionary: Visvanatha Pillai, V. 1963. A Tamil-English Dictionary. Madras: Madras School Book and Literature Society. Grammar: Subramoniam, Vadasery Iyemperumal. 1958. A Descriptive Analysis of a Dialect of Tamil. Bloomington: India Univ Diss. Ganesan, S. N. 1975. A Contrastive Grammar of Hindi and Tamil. Madras: Univ of Madras.
TextBooks: Kumaraswami Raja, N. and K. Doraswamy. 1966. Conversational Tamil. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ. Shanmugam Pillai, M. 1965, 1968. Spoken Tamil, 2 vols. Annamalainagar: Annamalai Univ.
Other Sources: Rajaram, S. 1972. Tamil Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
Consonant system: p b t̪ d̪ t ṭ ḍ k ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) v s ṣ ẓ š h m n ṇ (ñ) (ŋ) l ḷ r ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ ẓ š h Nasals: m n ṇ (ñ) (ŋ) Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) (v̄̃) Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6hH h=hum=m+f H=non-hum honorifics for 3 & 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 2051
Language: Malayalam
Location: SW India (Kerela)
Population: 25 million
Classification: Dravidian: South: Tamil-Kannada: Tamil-Kodagu Dictionary: Ramunni, Kalladi Thyen. 1951. Malayalam and English Vocabulary. Mangalore: Basel Mission Book Depot.
TextBooks: Peter, K. C. 1967. Malayalam for Foreigners. Ernakulam, Kerela: C.I.C.C. Book House.
Other Sources: Subramoniam,V. I. 1962. "Phonemic Outline of a Dialect of Malayalam," IL 23, 99-116. Syamala Kumari, B. 1972. Malayalam Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. McAlpin, David. W. 1975. "The Morphophonology of the Malayalam Noun," in Dravidian Phonological Systems, ed. by Harold F. Schiffman and Carol M. Eastman, 206-223. Subramoniam, V. I. 1962. "Phonemic Outline of a Dialect of Malayalam," IL 23, 99-116. Sreedhar, M. V. 1972. "Phonology of the Cochin Dialect of Malayalam," IJDL 1:2, 100-25. AL 8:4
Consonant system: p (ph) b t̪ (t̪h) d̪ t ṭ (ṭh) ḍ k (kh) ɡ č (čh) ɡ̌ (f) v s ṣ š h m n̪ n ṇ ñ ŋ l ḷ ʎ̣ ɾ r Stops: p (ph) b t̪ (t̪h) d̪ t ṭ (ṭh) ḍ k (kh) ɡ Affricates: č (čh) ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) v s ṣ š h Nasals: m n̪ n ṇ ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ ʎ̣ Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfn *6mfn
Syntax: SOV AN GN
Prep/Post: POST

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