Типологии нило-сахарских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по сахарским и шари-нильским языкам
Главная > Словари праязыков > Типы сахаро-нильских праязыков
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Нило-сахарской макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых систем нило-сахарской филы (происходящей из " target="_blank">пранило-сахарского языка, распределённых по 9 семьям (и с неклассифицированным языком древнего царства Мероэ):

  1. Сонгайская (Songhai)
  2. Сахарская (Saharan)
  3. Маба (Maban)
  4. Фур (Fur)
  5. Восточно-суданская (East Sudanic)
  6. Центрально-суданская (Central Sudanic)
  7. Берта (Berta)
  8. Кунама (Kunama)
  9. Комуз (Komuz)
  10. Меротский язык (Meroitic)


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Сонгайской семьи

Number: 1171
Language: Songhai Dialect: Zarma
Location: SW Niger (Niamey)
Population: 600,000 (175,000)
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Songhai Dictionary: Marie, E. 1914. Vocabulaire français-djerma et djerma-français. Paris: Leroux. Grammar: Tersis, Nicole. 1972. Le Zarma. Paris: SELAF.
TextBooks: Cooper, Paul V. and Oliver Rice. 1966. Djerma Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: English Language Services.
Consonant system: p t c k kʷ b d ɟ ɡ ɡʷ f s x z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f s z x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ b t d k ɡ m n l r j Nc (p t c k s z) b d ɟ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ã (ı̃ ẽ õ) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall ris-fall fall-ris
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1172
Language: Songhai Dialect: Gao
Location: Mali (Gao)
Population: 600,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Songhai Dictionary: Williamson, Kay. 1967. Songhai Word List. Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 1.3. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan. Zimmerman, D. W. 1968. Dictionaire français-sonrai. n.p. Grammar: GD: Prost, A. 1956. La langue sonay et ses dialects. Dakar: IFAN.
Other Sources: Nicolaı̈, Robert. 1978. "Les parlers songhay occidentaux (Tombouctou-Jenne-Ngorku)," SAL 9, 1-34.
Consonant system: (p) t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p b t d k ɡ m n l r Nc (p) b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Diphthongs: aj aw ew
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1173
Language: Songhai Dialect: Dendi
Location: SW Niger
Population: 600,000 (15,000)
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Songhai Dictionary: Tersis, Nicole. 1968. Le dendi (Niger): phonologie, lexique dendi-français. BSELAF 10.
Consonant system: (p) t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b t d k ɡ m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄ all) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1174
Language: Songhai Dialect: West
Location: Mali
Population: 600,000 (15,000)
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Songhai
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: (p) t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b t d k ɡ m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄ all) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SVO

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Сахарской семьи

Number: 1175
Language: Kanuri
Location: NE Nigeria (North Eastern)
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Western Dictionary: Benton, Philip A. 1911. Kanuri Readings. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 in The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol. 2, London, Frank Cass] Grammar: Benton, Philip A. 1917. Primer of Kanuri Grammar. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1968 in The Languages and Peoples of Bornu, vol 2, London. GD: Lukas, Johannes. 1937. A Study of the Kanuri Language. London: Oxford Univ Press. [Reprinted 1967 by Dawsons of Pall Mall, London.]
TextBooks: Awobuluyi, Oladele. 1969. Introductory Kanuri. Washington D.C.: CAL.
Other Sources: Ward, Ida C. 1926. "Some Notes on the Pronunciation of the Kanuri Language of West Africa," BSOAS 4, 139-46. Awobuluyi, Oladele. 1971. "The Phonology of Yerwa Kanuri," Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 4.1, 1-21. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan. STAL LA
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n n ̃ ŋ l ľ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ľ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai ei oi ui au ea ǝi ǝu io iu ou
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/(GN) ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1176
Language: Kanembu
Location: Chad
Population: 2,250
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Western
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1177
Language: Tubu Alternate Name: Tebu, Kashirda
Location: N Chad
Population: 200,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Western Grammar: GD: Jourdan, P. 1935. Notes grammaticales et vocabulaire de la langue daza. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. Le Coeur, Charles and M. Le Coeur. 1955. Grammaire et textes teda-daza. Dakar: IFAN.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s š h z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1178
Language: Zagawa
Location: E Chad
Population: 60,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Eastern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (I) e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (ʋ) o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1179
Language: Berti
Location: N Sudan
Population: extinct
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Eastern
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Мабанской семьи

Number: 1180
Language: Mimi1 Dialect: Gaudefroy-Demombynes
Location: Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Other Sources: Gaudefroy-Demombynes, M. 1905. "Documents sur les langues de l'Oubangui-Chari," Actes du XVI Congrès International des Orientalistes."
Consonant system:
Number: 1181
Language: Mimi2 Dialect: Nachtigal
Location: Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Other Sources: Nachtigal, G. 1939. "Aufzeichnungen über die Mimi-Sprache," Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 29: 145-54.
Consonant system:
Number: 1182
Language: Mabang Alternate Name: Maba
Location: E Chad
Population: 56,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t ṭ k ʔ b d ḍ ɡ ɡ̌ f s š z m n n ̃ ŋ l r Stops: b t d ṭ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b t l Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1183
Language: Mesalit Alternate Name: Masalit
Location: Chad
Population: 100,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV N-POSS
Number: 1184
Language: Runga
Location: Chad
Population: 43,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1185
Language: Kibet
Location: E Chad
Population: 19,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Maban
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Фурской семьи

Number: 1186
Language: Fur
Location: W Sudan (Darfur)
Population: 170,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Fur Grammar: Beaton, A.C. 1968. A Grammar of the Fur Language. Khartoum: Univ of Khartoum.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ɡ̌ f s (h) z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai aw ei ou
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1187
Language: Biltine Alternate Name: Amdang
Location: Chad
Population: 15,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Fur
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Восточно-суданской семьи

Number: 1188
Language: Meidob Dialect: Urrti
Location: NW Sudan (NE Darfur)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nubian
Other Sources: Thelwall, Robin. 1983. "Medob Nubian: Phonology, Grammatical Notes and Basic Vocabulary," in Sahelian Linguistic Studies, ed. by M. L. Bender, East Lansing, Michigan State Univ. LA
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s š h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but h j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǝ̄ ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V(N,L) L= l r
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1189
Language: Birgid Alternate Name: Birked
Location: W Sudan
Population: extinct
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nubian
Other Sources: Thelwall, Robin. 1977. "A Birgid Vocabulary List and Its Links with Daju," in Gedenkschrift Gustav Nachtigal, Bremen, Übersee-Museum. LA
Consonant system: t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ɸ f s š h z m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ f s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ s š ñ t w ɡ n z j d l k r m b ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ ɒ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɑ̄
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA GN
Number: 1190
Language: Debri Alternate Name: Kordofanian Nubian, Dilling, Kadaru
Location: Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nubian
Other Sources: Ayoub, Abd al-Rahman. 1968. The Verbal System in a Dialect of Nubian. Khartoum: Univ of Khartoum. LA
Consonant system: (p) t̪ ṭ k kʷ b bʷ d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f š (h) m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: (p) b bʷ t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k kʷ ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f š (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1191
Language: Dongolawi Alternate Name: Dongola, Nubian
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nubian Dictionary: Armbruster, Charles Hubert. 1965. Dongolese Nubian: A Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Grammar: Armbruster, Charles Hubert. 1960. Dongolese Nubian: A Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š (x) h z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž (x) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syllable: (C)V(C)(N)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1192
Language: Mahas Alternate Name: Nobiin
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nubian
Other Sources: Bell, Herman. 1968. "The Tone System of Mahas Nubian," JAL 7, 26-32. Bell, Herman. 1971. "The Phonology of Nobı́in Nubian," ALR 9, 115-39. LA
Consonant system: b t̪ k d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h m n̪ ñ l̪ r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ɡ ɡ̌ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1193
Language: Murle Alternate Name: Didinga
Location: Sudan
Population: 8,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ (t) (ṭ) k ʔ b ɓ d̪ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ s h v ð z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ (t) d ɗ (ṭ) k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v ð s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɛ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1194
Language: Murle Dialect: Longarim
Location: Sudan
Population: 4,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N [1]) N-POSS
Number: 1195
Language: Murle
Location: SW Ethiopia
Population: 40,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma Grammar: GD: Lyth, R. E. 1971. The Murle Language: Grammar and Vocabulary. Khartoum: Univ of Khartoum.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ s h v ð z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v ð s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei ɛi oi ɔi ju
Tones: ?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N [1]) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1196
Language: Bale
Location: Sudan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Consonant system:
Number: 1197
Language: Zilmamu
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Consonant system:
Number: 1198
Language: Majang Alternate Name: Masongo
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 28,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1199
Language: Shabo
Location: Ethiopia
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 1200
Language: Kwegu Alternate Name: Koegu
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 600
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1201
Language: Suri Alternate Name: Murzu, Mursi
Location: SW Ethiopia
Population: 9,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma Grammar: Turton, David and M. L. Bender. 1976. "Mursi," in NSLE, 533-61.
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ θ š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV [negative]) NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 1202
Language: Suri Dialect: Tirma, Tirmaga
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 9,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1203
Language: Me'en Alternate Name: Mekan
Location: SW Ethiopia
Population: 38,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Surma
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1204
Language: Nera Alternate Name: Nara
Location: Eritrea
Population: 63,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Nera Grammar: Reinisch, L. 1874. Die Barea-Sprache. Vienna. Thompson, E. David. 1976. "Nera," in NSLE, 484-94.
Other Sources: Bender, Marvin L. 1968. "Analysis of a Barya Word List," AL 10:9, 1-24. LA
Consonant system: t k (kʔ) (ʔ) b d ɡ (č) ɡ̌ f s š (x) h (z) m n ŋ l r Stops: b t d k (kʔ) ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) š (x) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ f m n l Nc b d ɡ ɡʷ cʷ k ɡ ŋɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND NUM-N [>1]/(N-NUM [1]) POSS-N/(N-POSS) N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1205
Language: Gaam Alternate Name: Ingassana
Location: E Sudan
Population: 60,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Eastern Jebel Grammar: Verri, S. 1955. "Il linguaggio degli Ingassana nell'Africa orientale," Anthropos ??.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ s š h ð z (ɣ) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: ai au ei
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1206
Language: Aka
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Eastern Jebel
Consonant system:
Number: 1207
Language: Kelo
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Eastern Jebel
Consonant system:
Number: 1208
Language: Molo
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Eastern: Eastern Jebel
Consonant system:
Number: 1209
Language: Nyimang
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 31,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Nyimang
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ ṭ k kʷ b bʷ d̪ ḍ ɡ ɡʷ ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: b bʷ t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ḍ ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthongs
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: phonemic?
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl for kinship terms) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1210
Language: Dinik Alternate Name: Afitti
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Nyimang
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ d ɡ č ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1211
Language: Ronge Alternate Name: Temein
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Temein
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t k kʷ b d̪ d ɡ ɡ̌ s m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k kʷ ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: antepenult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1212
Language: Doni Alternate Name: Keiga Jirru
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 1,400
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Temein
Consonant system:
Number: 1213
Language: Dese Alternate Name: Teisei Umm Danab
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Temein
Consonant system:
Number: 1214
Language: Merarit Alternate Name: Mararit
Location: Sudan
Population: 42,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Tama
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1215
Language: Tama
Location: E Chad
Population: 60,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Tama
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ ɡ ɡ̌ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: r̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1216
Language: Sungor
Location: E Chad
Population: 39,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Tama
Other Sources: Guinet, Xavier. 1973. "Esquisse d'une phonologie du sungor," in Problèmes de phonologie, Paris, SELAF, 73-100. LA
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s ç h m n n ̃ ŋ l ɾ r ɾ̣ Stops: b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s ç h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/(NG) N-POSS
Number: 1217
Language: Shatt
Location: C Sudan
Population: 9,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Eastern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k kʷ b ɓ d ɗ ʄ ɡ ɡʷ č ɡ̌ s z m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ ʄ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b ɓ d ɗ ʄ ɡ z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: u o (ɔ) Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1218
Language: Liguri
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Eastern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3hH 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1219
Language: Mongo Alternate Name: Dar Dajo
Location: Chad (Wadai)
Population: 23,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 1220
Language: Sila Alternate Name: Dar Sila Daju
Location: Chad
Population: 33,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Western
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG N-POSS
Number: 1221
Language: Nyala Alternate Name: Dar Fur Daju
Location: Sudan
Population: 80,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 1222
Language: Lagawa
Location: N Sudan
Population: 80,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 1223
Language: Nyalgulgule
Location: Sudan
Population: 900
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Western: Daju: Western
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA NG N-POSS
Number: 1224
Language: Shilluk
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 110,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern Dictionary: Heasty, J. A. 1937. English-Shilluk, Shilluk-English Dictionary. Dolieb Hill, Sudan: The American Mission. Grammar: Westermann, Diedrich. 1912a. A Short Grammar of the Shilluk Language. Philadelphia: Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America. GD: Kohnen, B. 1933. Shilluk Grammar. Verona: Missioni Africane.
Other Sources: Westermann, Diedrich. 1912b. THe Shilluk People: Their Language and Folklore. Philadelphia: Board of Foreign Missions of the United Presbyterian Church of North America. [Reprinted 1971 by Negro Universities Press, Westport, Connecticut]
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ ð ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð ɣ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all? Modified Vowels: i̤ e̤ ǝ̤ a̤ ṳ o̤ v̤̄ all? Diphthongs: ai au ɔi ei
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1225
Language: Anuak Alternate Name: Päri
Location: SW Ethiopia
Population: 56,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern Grammar: Lusted, Marie. 1976. "Anywa," in NSLE, 495-512.
Other Sources: Ohman, Walter A. et al. 1976. "Three Other Ethiopian Languages," in LE. WALS
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ tθ č dð ɡ̌ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: tθ dð č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: i̤ a̤ o̤ (breathy) ī̤ ɛ̤̄ ā̤ ō̤
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: on stem syllable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: OVS/(SOV [in non-present tenses of the applicative aspect]) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1226
Language: Anuak Dialect: Pari
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 56,000 (8,000)
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern Grammar: GD: Simeoni, Antonio. 1978. Päri: A Luo Language of Southern Sudan. Bologna: Editrice Missionaria Italiana.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č θ ð m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ ð Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e e> ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o o< ɔ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1227
Language: Jur
Location: SW Sudan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 1228
Language: Thuri
Location: Sudan
Population: 154,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 1229
Language: Bor1
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 6,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ ʁ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: ʁ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Number: 1230
Language: Maban
Location: Sudan
Population: 20,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 1231
Language: Burun
Location: Sudan
Population: 18,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 1232
Language: Labwor
Location: Uganda
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 1233
Language: Lwo
Location: Uganda
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 1234
Language: Adhola
Location: Uganda
Population: 160,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 1235
Language: Luo
Location: SW Kenya
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern Grammar: Gregersen, Edgar. 1961. Luo: A Grammar. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
TextBooks: Stafford, R. L. 1967. An Elementary Luo Grammar. Nairobi: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) b d ɡ tθ č dð ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: tθ dð č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony i̤ e̤ ɐ̤ ṳ o̤ v̤̄ all ?
Tones: hi-ris lo-fall downstep Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1236
Language: Alur
Location: NW Uganda
Population: 200,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern Dictionary: Vanneste, M. 1940. Woordenboek van de Alur-taal. Mahagi, Zaire. Ukoko, Joseph, Jan Knappert and Marcel van Spaandonck. 1964. Essai de dictionnaire dho alur. Ghent: Univ of Ghent. Grammar: GD: Ringe, P. C. n.d. A Simple Alur Grammar and Alur-English-Alur Vocabularies. Kampala: Eagle Language Studies.
Other Sources: Knappert, J. 1963. "The Verb in Dhó-Álúr," JAL 2, 101-27. LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t k (kp) (ʔ) b ɓ d̪ d ɗ ɡ (ɡɓ) č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ t d ɗ k ɡ (kp) (ɡɓ) (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Ḭ ɛ̰ ʋ̰ ɔ̰ (creaky)
Syllable: Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1237
Language: Lango
Location: N Uganda (Lango)
Population: 560,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Modified Vowels: i̤ e̤ ɐ̤ ṳ o̤
Tones: hi low fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1238
Language: Acholi Alternate Name: Akoli
Location: N Uganda
Population: 440,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Luo: Southern Dictionary: Savage, G. A. R. 1955. A Short Acoli-English and English-Acoli Vocabulary. Kampala: The Eagle Press. Malandra, Alfred. 1957. English-Lwoo Dictionary. Verona: Nigrizia. Grammar: GD: Crazzolara, J. P. 1955. A Study of the Acooli Language. London: Oxford Univ Press. Malandra, Alfred. 1955. A New Acholi Grammar. Kamapala: The Eagle Press.
TextBooks: Savage, G. A. R. 1956. The Essentials of Lwo (Acoli). Kampala: East African Literature Bureau.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d (ḍ) ɡ pf tr č bv ɡ̌ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d (ḍ) k ɡ ʔ Affricates: pf bv tr č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all? Modified Vowels: i̤ e̤ ɐ̤ ṳ o̤ Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi lo downstep
Noun
Number: s (p) (a few plurals for kinship terms) Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1239
Language: Nuer Dialect: Western
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 350,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer Dictionary: Huffman, Ray. 1929. Nuer-English Dictionary. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Huffman, Ray. 1931. English-Nuer Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Grammar: Crazzolara, J. P. 1933. Outlines of a Nuer Grammar. Vienna: Anthropos.
Other Sources: Westermann, Diedrich. 1912. "The Nuer Language," Sonderabdruck aus den Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen 15:3, 48-141. LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ ʁ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: ʁ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j j̤ w w̤
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all? Modified Vowels: v̤ all + ǝ v̤̄ all? Vowels show a contrast between hard voice (v) and breathy, hollow voice v̤). Diphthongs: ɛa ɔa
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 (4di) 4ie 2 5 3 6 4di does not occur in independent pronouns
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1240
Language: Atuot
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 25,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer
Consonant system:
Number: 1241
Language: Agar
Location: S Sudan
Population: 16,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer
Consonant system:
Number: 1242
Language: Bor2
Location: S Sudan
Population: 24,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ ʁ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: ʁ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j j̤ w w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̤ all v̤̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV [with aux]) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1243
Language: Padang
Location: S Sudan
Population: 52,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer
Consonant system:
Number: 1244
Language: Rek Dialect: Malual
Location: S Sudan
Population: 40,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer Dictionary: Nebel, A. 1936. Dinka Dictionary. Verona: Missioni Africane. Grammar: Nebel, A. 1948. Dinka Grammar. Verona: Missioni Africane.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɣ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɣ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̤ (breathy) all?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1245
Language: Kumam
Location: Uganda
Population: 100,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Western: Dinka-Nuer
Consonant system:
Number: 1246
Language: Bari
Location: N Uganda
Population: 226,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Bari Dictionary: Muratori, F. C., ed. 1948. English-Bari-Lotuxo-Acoli Vocabulary. Okaru: Catholic Mission Printing Press. Grammar: Spagnolo, L. M. 1933. Bari Grammar. Verona: Missioni Africane.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ʄ ɡ ɠ ɡʷ č ɡ̌ f s š m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ ʄ k ɡ ɠ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony i̤ e̤ ɐ̤ ṳ o̤ (hard voice (v) vs. hollow breathy voice v̤)
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3cf 6 3 has 2 forms: 3(masc or fem) & 3f
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1247
Language: Kakwa
Location: NW Ugunda
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Bari
Consonant system:
Number: 1248
Language: Lotuxo
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 66,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Lotuxo-Maa Dictionary: Muratori, F. C., ed. 1948. English-Bari-Lotuxo-Acoli Vocabulary. Okaru: Catholic Mission Printing Press. Grammar: Muratori, Carlo. 1938. Grammatica Lotuxo. Verona: Missioni Africane.
Other Sources: LA WPF
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ɓ ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s x β m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ɓ t ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony i̤ e̤ ɐ̤ ṳ o̤ (hard voice (v) vs. hollow breathy voice (n̤))
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1249
Language: Ongamo Alternate Name: Ngasa
Location: Tanzania
Population: 1,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Lotuxo-Maa
Consonant system:
Number: 1250
Language: Maasai
Location: SW Kenya
Population: 210,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Lotuxo-Maa Grammar: GD: Tucker, A. N. and J. Tompo Ole Mpaayei. A Maasai Grammar (with Vocabulary). London: Longmans, Green & Co.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ č f s š m n ñ ŋ l ɾ r̥ Stops: p ɓ t ɗ ʄ k ɠ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ all Nc p ɓ t ɗ ʄ k ɠ č Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: i̤ e̤ ṳ o̤ v̤̄ all Vowels have a contrast between hard voice (v) and hollow breathy voice (v̤).
Tones: hi mid lo fall downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1251
Language: Karamojong
Location: NE Uganda
Population: 200,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Teso-Turkana
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1252
Language: Topotha Alternate Name: Toposo
Location: SE Sudan
Population: 40,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Teso-Turkana
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 4 ( 3 + near both speaker and hearer)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1253
Language: Turkana
Location: NW Kenya
Population: 200,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Teso-Turkana
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1254
Language: Teso
Location: EC Uganda (Teso)
Population: 830,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Eastern: Lotuxo-Teso: Teso-Turkana Dictionary: Hilders, J. H. and J. C. D. Lawrence. 1958. An English-Ateso and Ateso-English Vocabulary. Kampala: The Eagle Press.
TextBooks: Hilders, J. H. and J. C. D. Lawrence. 1957. An Introduction to the Ateso Language. Kampala: The Eagle Press.
Consonant system: p t k ɓ ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ɓ t ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all? Modified Vowels: i̤ e̤ ṳ o̤ v̤̄ all? Vowels have a contrast between hard voice (v) and hollow breathy voice (v̤). Diphthongs: ai oi
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/(SVO [negative]) NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1255
Language: Nandi Alternate Name: Kalenjin
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Nandi-Markweta
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1256
Language: Kipsikiis Alternate Name: Kipsigis
Location: SW Kenya
Population: 160,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Nandi-Markweta
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. and M. A. Bryan. 1964. "Noun Classification in Kalenjin: Nandi-Kipsigis," ALS 5, 192-247. LA
Consonant system: p t̪ k č s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: č Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony i̤ e̤ ṳ o̤ ɑ̤ v̤̄ all Vowels have a contrast between hard voice (v) and hollow breathy voice (v̤).
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1257
Language: Keiyo
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Nandi-Markweta
Consonant system:
Number: 1258
Language: Tuken
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Nandi-Markweta
Consonant system:
Number: 1259
Language: Markweta Alternate Name: Endo
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Nandi-Markweta
Consonant system:
Number: 1260
Language: Sapiny Alternate Name: Sebei
Location: Uganda
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Elgon
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1261
Language: Kony
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Elgon
Consonant system:
Number: 1262
Language: Pok
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Elgon
Consonant system:
Number: 1263
Language: Ng'oma
Location: SW Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Elgon
Consonant system:
Number: 1264
Language: Terik
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Elgon
Consonant system:
Number: 1265
Language: Okiek
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Okiek
Consonant system:
Number: 1266
Language: Pakot
Location: W Kenya
Population: 170,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Kalenjin: Pakot
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. and M. A. Bryan. 1962. "Noun Classification in Kalenjin: Päkot," ALS 3, 137-81. LA
Consonant system: p t̪ k ɗ č f s š m n ñ ŋ l ɾ r Stops: p t̪ ɗ k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc p t k č
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: ɔ Long Vowels: ī Ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ʋ̄ ō ɔ̄ ɑ̄
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that not far)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1267
Language: Omotik
Location: Kenya
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Tato
Consonant system:
Number: 1268
Language: Datooga Alternate Name: Tatog
Location: N Tanzania
Population: 64,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Nilotic: Southern: Tato
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1269
Language: Ik Alternate Name: Teuso
Location: N Uganda
Population: 1,500
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Kuliak
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO
Number: 1270
Language: Ngangea
Location: Uganda
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Kuliak
Consonant system:
Number: 1271
Language: So Alternate Name: Tepes
Location: NE Uganda
Population: 4,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Kuliak
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t k kʷ b ɓ d ɗ ʄ ɡ ɠ ɡʷ č ð m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ ʄ k ɡ ɠ kʷ ɡʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: ð Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Центрально-суданской семьи

Number: 1272
Language: Kresh
Location: SW Sudan
Population: 6,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Kresh
Consonant system: Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1273
Language: Aja
Location: Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Kresh
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1274
Language: Baka
Location: Zaire
Population: 2,600
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Bongo
Other Sources: LA WALS
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1275
Language: Beli
Location: Sudan
Population: 10,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Bongo Grammar: Santandea, Stefano. 1963. A Concise Grammar Outline of the Bongo Language. Rome: Sodality of St. Peter Claver.
Consonant system: ṭ k kp ɓ ḍ ɗ̣ ɡ ɡb (č) ɡ̌ ɠ̌ f s ç h m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: b ɓ ṭ ḍ ɗ̣ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ ɠ̌ Fricatives: f s ç h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b ḍ ɡ ɡb ɡ̌
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1276
Language: Bongo
Location: SW Sudan (Bahr At Ghazal)
Population: 2,400
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Bongo Grammar: Santandrea, Stefano. 1963. A Concise Grammar Outline of the Bongo Language. Rome: Sodality of St. Peter Claver.
Consonant system: ṭ k kp b ɓ ḍ ɗ̣ ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ ɠ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b ɓ ṭ ḍ ɗ̣ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ ɠ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b ḍ ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all?
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p (pl rare) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf(n) 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1277
Language: Morokodo Alternate Name: Jur Mödö
Location: Sudan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Bongo
Other Sources: LA WALS
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO ND N-NUM
Number: 1278
Language: Sinyar
Location: Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sinyar
Consonant system:
Number: 1279
Language: Vale
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 1,400
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara
Consonant system:
Number: 1280
Language: Gambai Alternate Name: Ngambay
Location: SW Chad
Population: 250,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara Grammar: Vandame, Charles. 1963. Le ngambay-moundou. Dakar: IFAN.
TextBooks: Thayer, Linda J. and James E. Thayer. 1971. 50 Lessons in Sara-Ngambay, 3 vols. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Thayer, James Edward. 1978. The Deep Structure of the Sentence in Sara-Ngambay Dialogues. SIL 57.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡ̌ s h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j ȷ̃ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ: all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1281
Language: Kaba
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 11,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara
Consonant system:
Number: 1282
Language: Kaba Dunjo
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 17,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara
Consonant system:
Number: 1283
Language: Mbai
Location: N Central African Republic
Population: 73,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara Dictionary: Fortier, Joseph. 1953-61. Dictionnaire mbay-français. Moı̈ssala: Misson Catholique. Caprile, Jean-Pierre. n.d. Lexique mbaı̈-français. Lyon: Afrique et Language. Grammar: Fortier, Joseph. 1971. Grammaire mbaye-moı̈ssala. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Other Sources: Caprile, Jean-Pierre. 1968. Essai de phonologie d'un parler mbay. BSELAF 8. Caprile, Jean-Pierre. 1971. La dénomination des couleurs chez les mbay de Moı̈ssala. Paris: SELAF. WPF
Consonant system: (p) t k b ɓ d ɗ̣ ɡ ɡ̌ s h m n l ɾ Stops: (p) b ɓ t d ɗ̣ k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ: all but ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi mid lo (+6 contour tones) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1284
Language: Sara
Location: SW Chad
Population: 47,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Sara Dictionary: Hallaire, J. and J.Robinne. 1955-59. Dictionaire sara-français. Koumra-Fourviere, Chad. Grammar: Palayer, Pierre. 1970. Éléments de grammaire sar (Tchad). Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Other Sources: Bouquiaux, L. 1964. "A propos de la phonologie du sara," JAL 3, 160-72.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d (ɗ) ɡ ɡ̌ s h m n ñ ŋ l v̊ r ʔr Stops: p b ɓ t d (ɗ) k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ r ʔr Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ õ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1285
Language: Babalia
Location: W Chad
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Consonant system:
Number: 1286
Language: Bagirmi
Location: SW Chad
Population: 35,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi Grammar: GD: Gaden, H. 1909. Essai de grammaire de la langue baguirmienne. Paris: Leroux. Stevenson, R. C. 1969. Bagirmi Grammar. Khartoum: Univ of Khartoum.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ c k (ʔ) b ɓ d̪ ḍ ɗ̣ ɟ ʄ ɡ (f) s (š) (h) (v) (z) m n̪ ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ ɗ̣ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: (f) (v) s (z) (š) (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai ei oi au ou ɨu
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1287
Language: Fongoro
Location: Chad
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Consonant system:
Number: 1288
Language: Disa
Location: Chad
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Consonant system:
Number: 1289
Language: Gele
Location: Chad
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Consonant system:
Number: 1290
Language: Gula
Location: Chad
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1291
Language: Kenga
Location: SC Chad
Population: 23,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi Grammar: Vandame, Charles. 1968. Grammaire kenga. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ (ʄ) ɡ s z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ (ʄ) k ɡ Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo (+ 6 ris/fall tones)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 1292
Language: Kuka
Location: SC Chad
Population: 38,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Sara-Bagirmi: Bagirmi
Consonant system:
Number: 1293
Language: Furu Alternate Name: Bagiro
Location: Zaire
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Kara
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1294
Language: Kara
Location: SW Sudan (NW Bahr al-Ghazal)
Population: 1,900
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Kara Grammar: Santandrea, Stefano. 1970. Brief Grammar Outlines of the Yulu and Kara Languages. Bologna: Nigrizia.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp b ʔb d̪ ʔd̪ d ḍ ɟ ɡ ɡb č dz ɡ̌ ʔɡ̌ f (θ) s š h v ʕ m n ñ ŋ l v̊ ɾ Stops: p b ʔb t̪ d̪ ʔd̪ d ḍ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: dz č ɡ̌ ʔɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) s š ʕ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ d k h l ... Nc b d̪ kp ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1295
Language: Yulu
Location: SW Sudan (NW Bahr al-Ghazal)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: West Central: Bongo-Bagirmi: Kara Grammar: Santandrea, Stefano. 1970. Brief Grammar Outlines of the Yulu and Kara Languages. Bologna: Nigrizia.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp ʔ b ʔb d̪ ḍ ʔɗ̣ ɡ ɡb č dz ɡ̌ ʔɡ̌ f s h v ʕ m n̪ ñ ŋ l v̊ ɾ r Stops: p b ʔb t̪ d̪ ḍ ʔɗ̣ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: dz č ɡ̌ ʔɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ʕ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (I) e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u (ʋ) o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1296
Language: Moru
Location: S Sudan
Population: 23,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi
Other Sources: Cowan, William. 1965. "Note on the Phonemes of /mɔ̀rɔ́/," JAL 4,114-7.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ v z r cʷ č ɡ̌ s z h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA GN/NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1297
Language: Avukaya
Location: Sudan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi
Consonant system:
Number: 1298
Language: Kaliko
Location: Zaire
Population: 18,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi
Consonant system:
Number: 1299
Language: Logo
Location: Zaire
Population: 54,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA ND N-NUM POSS-N N+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1300
Language: Logbara
Location: Uganda
Population: 144,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi
TextBooks: Barr, L. I. 1965. A Course in Lugbara. Kampala: East African Literature Bureau.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp ʔ b ɓ d̪ ɗ̣ ɡ ɡb ts ṭr dz ḍr f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l ɾ̣ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ts dz ṭr ḍr Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ḍr v z Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ã Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO [def aspect]/SOV [indef aspect] NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N N+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1301
Language: Madi
Location: Uganda
Population: 120,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Moru-Madi Grammar: GD: Crazzolara, J. P. 1960. A Study of the Logbara (Ma'di) Language. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp ʔ b ʔb d̪ ʔd̪ ɡ ɡb pf ts tr dr ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b ʔb t̪ d̪ ʔd̪ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: pf ts dz tr dr Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b d ɡ ɡb dz dr v Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ã Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi mid lo (+6 ris/fall tones)
Noun
Number: s p (only kinship terms) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA GN/NG ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1302
Language: Mangbetu
Location: NE Zaire
Population: 100,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Mangbetu-Asua Grammar: GD: Larochette, J. 1958. Grammaire des dialectes mangbetu et medje. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k kp ʔ b ɓ d̪ ḍ ɗ̣ ʄ ɡ ɡb ts dz f θ s h v ð z ẓ m n ñ ŋ l P B v̊ ɾ ṛ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ ɗ̣ ʄ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v θ ð s z ẓ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: P B v̊ ɾ ṛ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k kp Nc b d ḍ ɡ ɡʷ cʷ p ŋɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1303
Language: Asua
Location: NE Zaire
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Mangbetu-Asua
Consonant system:
Number: 1304
Language: Mamvu
Location: NE Zaire
Population: 60,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Mangbutu-Efe
Other Sources: LA WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k kp ʔ b ɓ d̪ ḍ ɗ̣ ʄ ɡ ɡb ts dz f θ s h v ð z ẓ m n ñ ŋ l P B v̊ ɾ ṛ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ ɗ̣ ʄ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v θ ð s z ẓ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: P B v̊ ɾ ṛ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 1305
Language: Mangbutu
Location: Zaire
Population: 8,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Mangbutu-Efe
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 1306
Language: Ndo Alternate Name: Oke'bu
Location: NE Zaire
Population: 13,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Mangbutu-Efe
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 1307
Language: Balendru Alternate Name: Lendu
Location: NE Zaire (Djugu)
Population: 180,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Central Sudanic: East Central: Balendru
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. 1940. The Eastern Sudanic Languages, vol 1. London: Oxford Univ Press. LA
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp b ɓ d̪ ɗ̣ (ɟ) ʄ ɡ ɡb ts č dz ɡ̌ f θ s š (h) v ð z ž m n̪ ñ l (ľ) r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̣ (ɟ) ʄ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l (ľ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ z Glides: j (ʔj) w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: (ɔ̃)
Syllable: rˈ zˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO (def aspect)/SOV (indef aspect) AN GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Бертанской семьи

Number: 1308
Language: Berta
Location: W Ethiopia
Population: 50,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Berta Dictionary: Bender, M. Lionel. 1989. "Berta Lexicon," in Topics in Nilo-Saharan Linguistics, ed. by M. Lionel Bender, Hamburg, Helmut Buske, 271-304. Grammar: Cerulli, E. 1947. "Three Berta Dialects in Western Ethiopia," Africa ??. Triulzi, A., A. A. Dafallah and M. L. Bender. 1976. "Berta," in NSLE, 513-32.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ tsʔ čʔ ɡ̌ f θ s š x h ð z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ t̪ʔ d̪ ḍ k kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsʔ čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ ð s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m l ... Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP/POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Кунаманской семьи

Number: 1309
Language: Kunama
Location: Eritrea
Population: 40,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Kunama Grammar: Castelnuovo del Zappa, Giuseppe-Fermo da. 1938. Grammatica della lingua cunama. Asmara.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t d k s m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG/GN DN/ND N-POSS/(POSS-N [kinship terms])
Prep/Post: POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Комузской семьи

Number: 1310
Language: Bega Alternate Name: Gumuz
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 53,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Gumuz
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1311
Language: Anej Alternate Name: Gule
Location: N Sudan
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Koman
Consonant system: Comments: Most speakers are bilingual in Arabic.
Number: 1312
Language: Kwama Alternate Name: Northern Mao
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 14,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Koman
Consonant system:
Number: 1313
Language: Opo
Location: Ethiopia
Population: 2,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Koman
Consonant system:
Number: 1314
Language: Komo
Location: E Sudan
Population: 6,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Koman
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ s sʔ š h m n l r Stops: p pʔ b ɓ t tʔ d ɗ k kʔ ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s sʔ š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ p d k ɡ s š cj Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi mid lo normal Demonstratives: 1
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 1315
Language: Twampa Alternate Name: Uduk
Location: Sudan (Upper Nile)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: Komuz: Koman
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t tʔ k kʔ b ɓ d̪ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s h ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ t tʔ d ɗ k kʔ ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: r̄ cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND/(DN) N-POSS

Краткий типологический обзор Меротского языка

Number: 1316
Language: Meroitic
Location: Egypt
Population: extinct
Classification: Nilo-Saharan: ?
Other Sources: Greenberg, Joseph H. 1971. "Nilo-Saharan and Meroitic," in CTIL 7, 421-42.
Consonant system: Comments: This is the language of the ancient Meroitic kingdom of Egypt and the Sudan. It's classification as Nilo-Saharan remains controversial.

Словники языков: праязыков | древних | угасших | современных | модельных
Типологии праязыков: койсанских | конго-кордофанских | нило-сахарских | ностратических...
Лингвистические страницы: Языки мира | Письменности | Интерлингвистика | Основания языка | Компаративистика | Контактология | Экстралингвистика | Лексикология | Грамматика | Фонетика
Полезные страницы: История | Регионы | Карты | Энциклопедии

© «Lexicons.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 14.09.2019
Метрика