Типологии нигеро-кордофанских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по нигеро-конголезским и кордофанским языкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Нигеро-кордофанской макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X нигеро-кордофанских языковых систем, распределённых по 2 семьям:

  1. Кордофанская (Kordofanian)
  2. Нигеро-конголезская (Niger-Congo)


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Кордофанской семьи

Number: 43
Language: Tulishi
Location: C Sudan
Population: 8,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Western
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: Diphthongs: ˈˈ
Noun
Number: s p [single, plural]
Gender: m f n [муж., жен., сред.?]
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 44
Language: Keiga
Location: C Sudan
Population: 6,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Western
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 45
Language: Kanga
Location: C Sudan
Population: 6,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Western
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 46
Language: Miri
Location: C Sudan
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Central
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 47
Language: Kadugli
Location: C Sudan
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Central
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 48
Language: Katcha
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 6,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Central
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k (ʔ) b ɓ d̪ d ɗ ɟ ɡ s š m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ d m n l Nc b d̪ d ɟ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 5 this/that near you/that not far and not near/yonder stationary/yonder approaching
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 49
Language: Tumma
Location: C Sudan
Population: 5,200
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Central
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 50
Language: Krongo
Location: C Sudan
Population: 11,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Eastern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 51
Language: Tumtum
Location: C Sudan
Population: 1,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Kadugli: Eastern
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 52
Language: Katla
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 8,700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Katla
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ t k kp (ʔ) b d̪ d ɟ ɡ ɡb s h m n ñ ŋ l r (ɾ) Stops: b t̪ d̪ t d ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r (ɾ) Modified Consonants: Nc b d̪ d ɟ ɡ ɡb s cʷ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) rˈ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Number: 53
Language: Tima
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Katla
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Number: 54
Language: Ko Alternate Name: Fungor
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 2,700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: Eastern
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ (t) c k ʔ b ɓ d̪ (d) ɗ ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ (t) (d) ɗ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: (Ī ɛ̄ ɔ̄ ʋ̄) Diphthongs: ɔw aw aj ɛj
Tones: hi lo fall (ris) downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 55
Language: Warnang
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: Eastern
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ (s̄) m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: (s̄) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (ʋ) ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: aw ɛj ɔj
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4de(?) 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 56
Language: Rere Alternate Name: Koalib
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Central
Other Sources: LA SK 1 WPF
Consonant system: p t̯ t c k (s) (š) (v) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t̯ t c k Fricatives: (v) (s) (š) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 23 (persons, trees, common objects, long objects, large and harmful animals, hollow deep objects, small or domesticated animals, augmentatives, infinitives, liquids, body parts, misc) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 57
Language: Utoro
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 10,400
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Central
Other Sources: LA SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but I ǝ ɐ Diphthongs: aw aj ɛj ɔj
Tones: hi lo fall?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(VSO [with one aspect]) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 58
Language: Logol
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Central
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɗ ɟ ɡ f s v m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ɗ c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ (ɤ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ (ɤ) ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: aw aj ɛj
Tones: hi lo fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND N-POSS
Number: 59
Language: Ebang Alternate Name: Heiban
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 690
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Central
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: b d̪ d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b d̪ d ɟ ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: uI aw aj ɛj ɔj
Tones: hi lo fall?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NG ND N-POSS
Number: 60
Language: Laru
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Central
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ t̄ c̄ k m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p t̪ t̄ c̄ k Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Diphthongs: aw aj ɛj ɔj
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo fall?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND
Number: 61
Language: Shirumba Alternate Name: Shwai
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 2,800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Shirumba
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ (ɸ) š v m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: (ɸ) v š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: aw iw ɛj ia
Tones: hi lo fall?
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4im 4if 4em 4ef 2 5 3 6 "The meanings of the various forms of the first person plural remain doubtful. In particular the masculine/feminine contrast does not recur elsewhere in the HEIBAN group, whereas dual and plural are commonly distinguished. On this point, I now suspect a misunderstanding between my informant (a lady with a little daughter) and myself." SK 1, 83.
Syntax: ND N-POSS
Number: 62
Language: Tiro
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Western
Other Sources: LA SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ (f) v m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: (f) v Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ a ɒ Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all but I ǝ ɒ Diphthongs: ej aw
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(VSO [with one aspect]) NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 63
Language: Moro
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Western
Other Sources: SK 1
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ f s m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ ? "phonological status . . . not clear" Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ɐ̄ ā ū ʋ̄ ɔ̄ Diphthongs: aj aw ej ow
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 64
Language: Moro Dialect: Umm Dorein
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 30,000 (460)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Heiban: West-Central: Western Grammar: GD: Black, K. 1971. The Moro Language: Grammar and Dictionary. Khartoum.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k (ʔ) b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ f θ̄ s ð m n ñ ŋ l ḷ̌ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f θ̄ ð s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ḷ̌ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p θ n ŋ l r cʷ all but ɡ̌ f s Nc b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ ɤ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɤ Diphthongs: ei ɤi ɤu oi ai au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) nˈ rˈ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 (unduplicated objects, liquids, seasons, relatives, body parts, animals, personal names) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+Num+A
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 65
Language: Tegem Alternate Name: Lafofa
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: SK 2
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: k̄ m̄ l̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo fall ris downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2mfc 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND POSS-N
Number: 66
Language: Nding Alternate Name: Eliri
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: SK 2
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ j d b c k m ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: NA NG N-POSS
Number: 67
Language: Jomang Alternate Name: Talodi
Location: C Sudan
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: LA SK 2
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ d ɟ ɡ s m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I (ǝ) ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: aj
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO [present aspect]/(VSO [past aspect]) NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 68
Language: Tocho Alternate Name: Moro Hills
Location: C Sudan
Population: 3,800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: SK 2
Consonant system: p t̪ t c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t c ɟ k ɡ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ cʷ t̪̄ Glides: (j w)
Vowel system: i u I (ǝ) ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3
Syntax: NG ND
Number: 69
Language: Ngile Alternate Name: Masakin
Location: C Sudan
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: SK 2 WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ t̄ c̄ k b d̪ ɗ ɡ s m n ñ ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t̄ ɗ c̄ k ɡ Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a ɒ Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ ɒ ("I suspect that this is an overdifferentiating." p. 67 Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NG ND N-POSS
Number: 70
Language: Dengebu Alternate Name: Dagik
Location: C Sudan
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Talodi
Other Sources: LA SK 2
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d̪ ɡ ts m n̪ n ŋ l r ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t k ɡ Affricates: ts Nasals: m n̪ n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo (fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV [present aspect]/(VSO [past aspect]) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 71
Language: Tegali Dialect: Rashad
Location: C Sudan (Nuba Hills)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Rashad
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t c k b d ɟ f s (h) m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b t d c ɟ k Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b d ɟ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 72
Language: Tagoi
Location: C Sudan
Population: 1,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Rashad
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 73
Language: Tingal
Location: C Sudan
Population: 2,100
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Rashad
Consonant system:
Number: 74
Language: Tukum
Location: C Sudan
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Rashad
Consonant system:
Number: 75
Language: Turum
Location: C Sudan
Population: 800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Kordofanian: Rashad
Consonant system:

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Нигеро-конголезской семьи

Number: 76
Language: Bobo-Fing Dialect: Sya
Location: W Burkina Faso
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande
Other Sources: LMS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 77
Language: Soninke Dialect: Marka
Location: Mali
Population: 457,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Soninke-Bozo
Other Sources: Meillassoux, Claude, Lassana Doucouré and Diaowé Simagha. 1967. Légende de la dispersion des Kusa. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: t̪ c k q b d̪ ɟ ɡ f s̪ χ h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ q Fricatives: f s̪ χ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p t d Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 78
Language: Bozo
Location: Mali
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Soninke-Bozo
Consonant system:
Number: 79
Language: Susu
Location: S Guinea
Population: 400,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Susu-Yalunka Dictionary: Lacan, P. 1942. Grammaire et dictionnaire français-sousou et soussou-français. Bordeaux: Procure des PP. du Saint-Esprit. Grammar: Houis, Maurice. 1963. Étude descriptive de la langue susu. Dakar: IFAN.
TextBooks: Friedländer, Marianne. 1974. Lehrbuch des Susu. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie.
Consonant system: (p) t k b d ɡ ɡb f s x h m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ ɡb Fricatives: f s x h Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 80
Language: Yalunka
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Susu-Yalunka
Consonant system:
Number: 81
Language: Ligbi
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Ligbi-Numu
Consonant system:
Number: 82
Language: Numu Alternate Name: Huela
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Ligbi-Numu
Consonant system:
Number: 83
Language: Vai
Location: NW Liberia
Population: 40,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Vai-Kono Grammar: Welmers, William E. 1976. A Grammar of Vai. UCPL 84.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b ɓ d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b ɓ t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ ɡb Glides: (j) w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ɔ̃̄
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p (pl for personal nouns only) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 84
Language: Kono
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Vai-Kono
Consonant system:
Number: 85
Language: Kono
Location: Liberia
Population: 112,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Vai-Kono
Consonant system:
Number: 86
Language: Mandinka
Location: Gambia
Population: 400,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan Grammar: Rowlands, E. C. 1959. A Grammar of Gambian Mandinka. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Consonant system: ph th kh b d (ɡ) čh ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: ph b th d kh (ɡ) Affricates: čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)V(N) Nˈ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 87
Language: Mandinka
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan
Consonant system:
Number: 88
Language: Xasonke
Location: Mali
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan
Consonant system:
Number: 89
Language: Maninka Alternate Name: Malinka
Location: Mali
Population: 1.2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan Dictionary: Nicol, Joseph. 1967. Français-mandique lexique, mandique-français lexique. Washington, D.C.: US Peace Corps. Grammar: GD: Delafosse, Maurice, 1929, 1955. La langue mandingue et ses dialectes (malinké, bambara, dioula), 2 vols Paris: Paul Geuthner. Labouret, Henri. 1934. Les manding et leur langue. Paris: Larose.
Other Sources: Bird, Charles and Timothy Shopen. 1979. "Maninka," in LTS, 58-111.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s x h v z ɣ ʁ m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ ɡb Fricatives: f v s z x ɣ ʁ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb f v s z cj cʷ Glides: j ȷ̃ ɥ ɥ̃ w w̃
Vowel system: i y u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 90
Language: Maninka Alternate Name: Malinka Dialect: Faranah
Location: Guinea
Population: 1.2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan Grammar: Spears, Richard Alan. 1965. The Structure of Faranah-Maninka. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Diss.
Other Sources: Spears, Richard A. 1966. "A Note on the Tone of Maninka Substantives," JAL 5, 113-20.
Consonant system: p t k b d (ɡ) ɡb f s h m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) ɡb Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep
Syntax: NA
Number: 91
Language: Maninka Alternate Name: Malinka Dialect: Manya
Location: Liberia
Population: 1.2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan
Other Sources: Manessy, G 1964. "L'Alternance consonantique initiale en manya, kpelle, loma, bandi et mende," JAL 3, 162-78.
Consonant system: (p) t k b ḍ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s v z m n ñ l Stops: (p) b t ḍ ɟ k ɡ ɡb Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ
Syntax: NA N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 92
Language: Bambara
Location: Mali
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan Dictionary: Travélé, Moussa. 1913. Petit dictionnaire français-bambara et bambara-français. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Grammar: Travélé, Moussa. 1955. Petit manuel français-bambara. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Delaforge, M. 1958. Grammaire et méthode bambara. Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle.
TextBooks: Diarra, Florentin and F. M. Traore. 197?. Un peu de bambara sans beaucoup de peine. Mopti, Mali. Hutchison, John P., Mamadou Kanté and Charles S. Bird. 1975. Introductory Bambara. Bloomington: African Studies Centre, Indiana Univ. Brauner, Siegmund. 1974. Lehrbuch des bambara. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie.
Other Sources: Houis, Maurice. 1970. "Problèmes de lexicographie en bambara," BSLP 65, 213 -27.
Consonant system: (p) t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s (h) m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: (p) b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p t c k Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 93
Language: Dyula
Location: EC Ivory Coast
Population: 1.1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Northern: Mandekan Grammar: Dumestre, G.1970. Éléments de grammaire dioula. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée, Univ d'Abidjan. Long, Ronald W. and Raoul S. Diomandé. 1968. Basic Dyula. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
TextBooks: Dumestre, G and G. L. A Retord. 1974. Kó dı̀: Cours de dioula. Abidjan: Univ of Abidjan.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s h m n ñ (ŋ) l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ɡb Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo ris
Noun
Number: s p Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND POSS-N N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 94
Language: Loko1
Location: N Sierra Leone (Northern)
Population: 76,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Southwestern Grammar: Innes, Gordon. 1964. "An Outline Grammar of Loko with Texts," ALS 5, 115-73.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h h̃ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h h̃ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w w̃
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ (ẽ) ɛ̃ ã ũ (õ) ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ɔ̃̄
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 95
Language: Loma
Location: Liberia
Population: 260,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Southwestern Grammar: Prost, A. 1967. Le Lɔghɔma. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
TextBooks: Sadler, Wesley. 1951. Untangled Loma. Monrovia: Evangelical Lutheran Church.
Other Sources: Manessy, G. 1964. "L'Alternance consonantique initial en manya, kpelle, loma, bandi et mende," JAL 3, 162-78.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɡ ɡb f s v z ɣ m n ŋ l Stops: p b ɓ t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all ?
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND/(DN [ref]) N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 96
Language: Kpelle
Location: Liberia
Population: 400,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Southwestern Grammar: DG: Casthelain, I.-R. P. J. 1952. La langue guerzé. Dakar: IFAN.
TextBooks: Welmers, William. 1971. A First Course in Kpelle. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Other Sources: Welmers, William E. 1962. "The Phonology of Kpelle," JAL 1, 69-93. Welmers, William E. 1969. "The Morphology of Kpelle Nominals," JAL 8, 73-101.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɡ ɡb f s v z ɣ m n ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b ɓ t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p (pl only for personal nouns) Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 97
Language: Mende
Location: S Sierra Leone
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Southwestern Dictionary: Innes, Gordon.1969. A Mende-English Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
TextBooks: Innes, Gordon. 1967. A Practical Introduction to Mende. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Other Sources: Manessy, G. 1964. "L'Alternance consonantique initial en manya, kpelle, loma, bandi et mende," JAL 3, 162-78.
Consonant system: p t k kp (ʔ) b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ f s h v m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all (ẽ õ marɡinal)
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 98
Language: Bandi
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Northern-Western: Southwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 99
Language: Mano
Location: N Liberia
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 100
Language: Dan
Location: W Ivory Coast
Population: 325,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern Grammar: Doneux, Jean and Joseph Mahan. n.d. Exercises de langue dan. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Other Sources: Bearth, Thomas and Hugo Zemp. 1967. "The Phonology of Dan (Santa)," JAL 6, 9-29. Flik, Eva. 1977. "Tone Glides and Registers in Five Dan Dialects," Lingistics 201, 5-59.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ̣ ɡ ɡb f s v z m n l Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ̣ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cw all but kp ɡb f v l m cj all but l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɐ ɔ æ a ɒ Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e ɨ ɐ o
Syllable: (C)(l)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi hi-mid mid lo-mid lo mid-fall-to-low mid-fall-to-lo-mid lo-ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+Num+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 101
Language: Dan
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 102
Language: Kweni Dialect: Guro
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 210,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern Grammar: Benoist, Jean-Paul. 1969. Grammaire gouro. Lyon: Afrique er Langage.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp b d̪ ɡ ɡb f s̪ v z̪ m n̪ ñ l ɾ̣ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: cj d k ɡ s cʷ b k s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (y) u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i (y) I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ɔ̄ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 103
Language: Mwa
Location: C Ivory Coast
Population: 4,400
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 104
Language: Nwa
Location: C Ivory Coast
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 105
Language: Tura
Location: W Ivory Coast
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Southern Grammar: Bearth Thomas. 1971. L'Énoncé toura. SIL 30.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b ɓ d ɡ ɡʷ ɡb f s v z m n ŋ l Stops: p b ɓ t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 106
Language: Bisa
Location: S Burkina Faso
Population: 127,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Eastern Grammar: GD: Prost, A. 1950. La langue bisa: Grammaire et dictionnaire. Ouagadougou: IFAN.
Consonant system: (p) t c k b d ɟ ɡ (f) s h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: (p) b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: (f) v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that very far) Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 107
Language: Bisa
Location: Burkina Faso
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 108
Language: Busa
Location: Benin
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Eastern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 109
Language: Sane Alternate Name: Samo, Seeku
Location: NW Burkina Faso
Population: 128000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Eastern
Other Sources: Platiel. Suzanne. 1971."Problèmes d'interprétaton des voyelles nasales et des tons modulés en samo," in La dénomination des couleurs chez les mbay de Moı̈ssala, Jean-Pierre Caprile, Paris, SELAF, 102-4. E
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Number: 110
Language: San Dialect: Sembla
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 128,000 (8,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Mande: Southern-Eastern: Eastern Grammar: Prost, André. 1971. Éléments de sembla. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Consonant system: (p) ṭ c k kp b ḍ ɟ ɡ (ɡb) bβ t̪s d̪z f s̪ m ṇ ñ ŋ (ŋm) (l̪) r Stops: (p) b ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ kp (ɡb) Affricates: bβ t̪s d̪z Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m ṇ ñ ŋ (ŋm) Laterals: (l̪) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ṇ̄ l̄ Glides: j (w)
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ ɔ v̄̃ all but ɛ ɔ
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi hi-fall hi-mid hi-mid-fall lo-mid lo-mid-fall lo lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 111
Language: Bijago
Location: Guinea-Bissau (Bijago Islands)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic
Consonant system:
Number: 112
Language: Fula Alternate Name: Fulani Dialect: Adamawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 8 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Senegal Dictionary: Taylor, F. W. 1932. A Fulani-English Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Dictionnaire élémentaire fulfulde-français-English. 1971. Niamey, Nigeria : Regional Documentation Centre for Oral Tradition. Grammar: Stennes, Leslie H. 1967. A Reference Grammar of Adamawa Fulani. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State Univ. GD: Klingenheben, August. 1963. Die Sprache der Ful. Hamburg: J. J. Augustin. Labouret, H. 1952. La langue des Peuls ou Foulbé. Dakar: IFAN. Taylor, F. W. 1953. A Grammar of the Adamawa Dialect of the Fulani Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Other Sources: Stennes, Leslie H. 1961. An Introduction to Fulani Syntax. HSL 2. Stennes, Leslie Herman. 1969. The Identification of Participants in Adamawa Fulani. HSL 24.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s h β (z) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s (z) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j (ʔj) w
Vowel system: I ʋ e o ɐ Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 19 (5 pl) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 113
Language: Fula Alternate Name: Fulani Dialect: Gombe
Location: EC Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 8 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Senegal Grammar: Arnott, D. W. 1970. The Nominal and Verbal System of Fula. Fair Lawn, NJ: Oxford Univ. Press.
Other Sources: Arnott, D. W. 1969. "Fula," in TNL, 57-71.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ʔj b ɓ d ɗ ɡ (č) ɡ̌ f s m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ ʔ ʔj Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but fricatives, ñ̃ɡ̌, ŋ Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɐ ɔ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: CV(C)
Syntax: SVO
Number: 114
Language: Serer
Location: Senegal
Population: 300,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Senegal
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: NG N-NUM
Number: 115
Language: Wolof
Location: Senegal
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Senegal Dictionary: Kobès, A. 1923. Dictionnare wolof-français. Dakar: Mission Catholique. Guy-Grand, V. J. 1923. Dictionnaire français-volof. Dakar: Mission Catholique. Grammar: Diagne, Pathé. 1971. Grammaire de wolof moderne. Paris: Présence Africaine.
TextBooks: Nussbaum, Loren V., William W. Gage and Daniel Varre. 1970. Dakar Wolof: A Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: CAL. Nussbaum, Loren and Jean Doneux. 1975. Jangum Wolof. Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliqée.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s x (h) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s x (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but f s r Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N [1 2 4 5 6]/(N-POSS [3])
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 116
Language: Wolof Dialect: Dyolof
Location: Senegal
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Senegal Grammar: Sauvageot, Serge. 1965. Description synchronique d'un dialecte wolof: le parler du Dyolof. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t c k q b d ɟ ɡ f s χ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ q Fricatives: f s χ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b ɟ m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ø ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N [1 2 4 5 6]/(N-POSS [3])
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 117
Language: Falor Alternate Name: Palor
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Cangin
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 118
Language: Lehar
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Cangin
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 119
Language: Ndut
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Cangin
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 120
Language: Non Alternate Name: Noon
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Cangin
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 121
Language: Safan
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Cangin
Consonant system:
Number: 122
Language: Balant Alternate Name: Balanta
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 167,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Balant-Ganja Grammar: Wilson, W. A. A. 1961. "Outline of the Balanta Language," ALS 2, 139-68.
Other Sources: Doneux, J. L. n.d. Les systèmes phonologiques des langues de Casamance. Daker: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée.
Consonant system: t k kp b d č f θ s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b t d k kp Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 123
Language: Ganja
Location: Senegal
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Balant-Ganja Grammar: GD: N'Diaye-Corréard, Geneviève. 1970. Études fca ou balante. Paris: SELAF.
Other Sources: N'Diaye-Corréard, Geneviève. 1969. "Le systéme des classes du fca, ou balante (dialecte ganja)," JAL 8, 102-19.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp (ʔ) b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f θ s h m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋm l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Fricatives: f θ s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋm Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ l r Nc b t d ɟ ɡ ɡb f Ɵ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi mid lo ris high-fall mid-fall Stress: root intial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 Demonstratives: 4: this present/this absent/that present/that absent + ref
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N- POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 124
Language: Mankan
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Manjaku-Papel Grammar: Trifkovič, Mirjana. 1969. Le mancagne. Dakar: IFAN.
Other Sources: Doneux, J. L. n.d. Les systèmes phonologiques des langues de Casamance. Daker: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée.
Consonant system: p t (c) k b d ɟ ɡ č f θ š ɦ m n ñ (ŋ) l r Stops: p b t d (c) ɟ k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ š ɦ Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ ɡ m n r Nc p b t d c ɟ k ɡ č f θ š Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ø (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ø Stress: stem initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 125
Language: Manjaku
Location: Senegal
Population: 84,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Manjaku-Papel Grammar: Carreira, António and João Basso Marques. 1947. Subsı́dios para o estudo da lı́ngua manjaca. Lisbon: Center de Estudos da Guiné Portuguesa.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ l ʎ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ r
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã õ ũ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 126
Language: Papel
Location: Guinea
Population: 36,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Manjaku-Papel
Consonant system:
Number: 127
Language: Bayot
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Diola
Consonant system:
Number: 128
Language: Karon
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Diola
Consonant system:
Number: 129
Language: Kwatay
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Diola
Consonant system:
Number: 130
Language: Diola Alternate Name: Diola-Fogny Dialect: Fogny
Location: Senegal
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Diola Dictionary: Wintz, Edouard. 1909. Dictionnaire français-dyola et dyola-français. Paris. [Reprinted 1968 by Gregg Press, Farnborough, England] Grammar: Sapir, J. David. 1965. A Grammar of Diola-Fogny. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Doneux, J. L. n.d. Les systèmes phonologiques des langues de Casamance. Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée. Kennedy, A.M. 1964. "Dialect in Diola," JAL 3, 96-101.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s (h) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ñ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i_ u_ i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a i and u are lax; i̱ u̱ are tense; they have the same heiɡht. Front Vowels: i i̱ e ɛ (i and u are lax; i̱ u̱ are tense; they have the same heiɡht.) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u u̱ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(N)(C) Nˈ Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s (d) p (a dual is used for some body parts)
Noun Classes: 19 Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that way over there) Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 131
Language: Gusilay
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Bak: Diola
Consonant system:
Number: 132
Language: Badyara
Location: Guinea
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea Grammar: Ducos, Gisèle. 1971. Structure du badiaranke de Guinée et du Sénégal.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ f s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 133
Language: Banyun
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 18,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea
Other Sources: Doneux, J. L. n.d. Les systèmes phonologiques des langues de Casamance. Daker: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i_ u_ i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a i̱ and u̱ are tense; i and u are lax. Front Vowels: i i̱ e ɛ (i̱ and u̱ are tense; i and u are lax.) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u u̱ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p
Number: 134
Language: Basari
Location: E Senegal
Population: 11,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Dictionary: Ferry, Marie-Paule. 1968. Deux langues tenda du Sénégal oriental: basari et bedik. BSELAF 7.
Consonant system: p t c k kʷ b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ʄ ɡ ɡʷ f s š x xʷ ɣ ɣ̃ m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f s š x ɣ ɣ̃ xʷ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ ɡʷ Glides: j ȷ̃ w w̃
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8
Syntax: NA N-POSS
Number: 135
Language: Bedik
Location: E Senegal
Population: 1,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea Dictionary: Ferry, Marie-Paule. 1968. Deux langues tenda du Sénégal oriental: basari et bedik. BSELAF 7.
Other Sources: Ferry, M.-P. 1968. "L'Alternance consonantique en bedik," JWAL 5, 91-6.
Consonant system: p t c k b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ʄ ɡ f s š h ɣ ɣ̃ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ ʄ k ɡ Fricatives: f s š ɣ ɣ̃ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ Glides: j ȷ̃ w w̃
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8
Syntax: NA NG N-POSS
Number: 136
Language: Biafada
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 12,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 137
Language: Kasanga
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 420
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 138
Language: Kobiana
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 139
Language: Konyagi
Location: Guinea
Population: 85,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Eastern Senegal-Portugese Guinea
Consonant system:
Number: 140
Language: Baga Mboteni
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Mbulungish-Nalu
Consonant system:
Number: 141
Language: Mbulungish
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Mbulungish-Nalu
Consonant system:
Number: 142
Language: Nalu
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Northern: Mbulungish-Nalu
Consonant system:
Number: 143
Language: Sua Alternate Name: Mansoanka
Location: Guinea Bissau
Population: 6,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 144
Language: Limba1
Location: Sierra Leone
Population: 174,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 145
Language: Gola
Location: Liberia
Population: 150,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 146
Language: Baga Binari
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 147
Language: Baga Koga
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 148
Language: Baga Maduri
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 149
Language: Baga Sitemu
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 150
Language: Baga Sobane
Location: Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 151
Language: Banta
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 152
Language: Landuma
Location: Guinea
Population: 9,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne
Consonant system:
Number: 153
Language: Temne
Location: N Sierra Leone
Population: 650,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Temne Grammar: Scott, J. P. L. 1965. An Introduction to Temne Grammar. Sierra Leone: Government Printing Department. Wilson, W. A. A. 1961. An Outline of Temne Language. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Other Sources: Dalby, David. 1966. "Lexical Analysis in Temne with an Illustrative Word List," JWAL 3:2, 5-26.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d gb f s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ t d k ɡb Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (ɨ) u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ɨ) ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi hi-fall lo lo-ris downstep upstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 154
Language: Bom
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Bullom
Consonant system:
Number: 155
Language: Northern Bullom
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Bullom
Consonant system:
Number: 156
Language: Southern Bullom Alternate Name: Sherbro
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Bullom Dictionary: Pichl, W. J. 1964. Sherbro-English Dictionary. Freetown, Sierra Leone: Fourah Bay College. [Reprinted 1967 by Duquesne Univ Press, Pittsburg]
TextBooks: Sumner, A. T. 1921. A Handbook of the Sherbro Language. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies.
Other Sources: Rogers, Henry. 1970-71 [1973]. "The Sherbro Noun Class System," ALR 9, 27-33.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (š) h v m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t̪ t d k ɡ ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s (š) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4 (3 pl) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 157
Language: Kisi1
Location: Guinea
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Bullom Dictionary: Paulme, Denise. 1964. Documents sur la langue kissi: Lexique et textes. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA GN/NG DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 158
Language: Krim
Location: Sierra Leone
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Southern: Mel: Bullom
Consonant system:
Number: 159
Language: Aizi
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru
Consonant system:
Number: 160
Language: Kuwaa
Location: Liberia
Population: 25,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru
Consonant system:
Number: 161
Language: Seme Alternate Name: Siamou
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru Grammar: Prost, André. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaı̈ques. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ h v m n̪ ñ ŋm l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋm Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (y) u e œ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i (y) e œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo (fall)
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 162
Language: Bete Dialect: Neyo
Location: W Ivory Coast
Population: 185,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern Grammar: Thomann, Georges. 1905. Essai de manuel de la langue néouolé. Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ s š h v z ž m n ñ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u I e ø o ɛ ɔ a ɑ Front Vowels: i y I e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã õ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: a i Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN/NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 163
Language: Godie
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 164
Language: Dida
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 165
Language: Bakwe
Location: Liberia
Population: 16,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 166
Language: Kru
Location: SE Liberia
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern Grammar: Rickard, David T. 1970. Kru Grammar. Monrovia: United Methodist Church.
Other Sources: Lightfoot, Nancy. 1974. "Tones on Kru Monosyllables," AL 16, 425-41.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡb č ɡ̌ f s m n ñ ŋm ľ Stops: p b t d k kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋm Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: v̤ (muffled) e o ṽ̤ e o
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi mid lo [+ 6 gliding tones] downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N
Number: 167
Language: Grebo
Location: SW Liberia
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern Dictionary: Innes, Gordon. 1967. A Grebo-English Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Grammar: Innes, Gordon. 1966. An Introduction to Grebo. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋm l l̥ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l l̥ Glides: j w w̃ w̥
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony e̤ o̤ In addition to the seven 'bright' vowels (i e ɛ a u o ɔ) there are two 'muffled' vowels (e̤ o̤).
Syllable: (C)(l,w)V
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO/(SOV) AN/NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 168
Language: Tajuason
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 169
Language: Klau Alternate Name: Klao
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 170
Language: Peripheral Klau
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 171
Language: Bassa
Location: Liberia
Population: 150,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 172
Language: Dewoin
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 173
Language: Krahn
Location: Liberia
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 174
Language: Guere Alternate Name: We
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 175
Language: Wobe
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 176
Language: Nyabwa
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Kru: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 177
Language: Dogon
Location: S Mali
Population: 149,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Dogon Dictionary: Calame-Griaule, Geneviève. 1968. Dictionnaire dogon. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Calame-Griaule, Geneviève. 1965. Ethnologie et langage: La parole chez les Dogon. Paris: Gallimard.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɟ ɡ s v m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 178
Language: Bariba
Location: Benin
Population: 240,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur
Other Sources: Welmers, William E. 1952. "Notes on the Structure of Bariba," Lg 28, 82-103.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s x z m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s z x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 179
Language: Kulango
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 47,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kulango-Lorhon
Consonant system:
Number: 180
Language: Lorhon
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kulango-Lorhon
Consonant system:
Number: 181
Language: Tusya Alternate Name: Win, Toussian
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 18,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya Grammar: Prost, André. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaiques. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (ʔ) b d̪ ɟ ɡb ŋmɡb f s̪ v ṽ ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋm l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡb ŋmɡb (ʔ) Fricatives: f v ṽ s̪ ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋm Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj cʷ p k f s ... Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ œ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ œ̃ ã ũ õ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 182
Language: Senari
Location: N Ivory Coast
Population: 350,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Other Sources: Welmers, William E. 1950a. "Notes on Two Languages in the Senufo Group," Lg 26, 126-46.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ š v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA GN N-NUM
Number: 183
Language: Senari Dialect: Tyembara
Location: N Ivory Coast
Population: 350,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo Dictionary: Roulon, Paulette. 1968. Essai de phonologie du tyembara (dialecte sénoufo). BSELAF 9.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb ɸ s z m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s z Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: (Nc) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ǝ ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ õ
Syllable: CV(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Number: 184
Language: Palaka Alternate Name: Palara
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 9,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 185
Language: Nafana Alternate Name: Pantera, Nafaanra
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 186
Language: Tyeliri
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 187
Language: Tiefo
Location: Mali
Population: 6,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 188
Language: Kulele
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 189
Language: Karaboro
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 25,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 190
Language: Viemo Alternate Name: Vige
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 191
Language: Natioro
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 1,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 192
Language: Wara
Location: Burkina Faso
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Number: 193
Language: Suppire Alternate Name: Supyire
Location: Mali
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Other Sources: Welmers, William E. 1950b. "Notes on Two Languages in the Senufo Group II. Sup'ide," Lg 26, 464-53.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ pf bv f s̪ v z̪ m n̪ ŋ l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: pf bv Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: cj Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA DN POSS-N
Number: 194
Language: Mianka
Location: Mali
Population: 172,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo Grammar: Chéron, Georges. 1925. Le dialecte sénoufo du minianka. Paris: Paul Geuthner. Prost, A. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaı̈ques. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k (kp) ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ š x v z̪ ž ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ (ŋm) l̪ r̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ (kp) ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ (ŋm) Laterals:Vibrants: r̪ Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ œ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ ǝ ɔ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 195
Language: Tagbana Alternate Name: Senuoufo
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 196
Language: Dyimini
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Senufo-Tusya: Senufo
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 197
Language: Kurumfe Alternate Name: Koromfe
Location: Burkina Faso
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 198
Language: Bwamu Alternate Name: Bobo, Bomu
Location: W Burkina Faso
Population: 389,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 199
Language: Buli
Location: Ghana
Population: 63,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Syntax: NA
Number: 200
Language: Koma Alternate Name: Konni
Location: Ghana
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 201
Language: Bieri
Location: Benin
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 202
Language: Wama
Location: Benin
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 203
Language: Tayari
Location: Benin
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 204
Language: Tamari
Location: Togo
Population: 72,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: Prost, A. n.d. Li Tamari. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Consonant system: p t c k b d f s ɣ m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c k Fricatives: f s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all ?
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 205
Language: Nyende
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 206
Language: Notre
Location: Benin
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 207
Language: Gurenne Alternate Name: Frafra
Location: N Ghana (Upper)
Population: 138,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Schaefer, Robert L. 1974. "Tone in Gurenne," AL 16, 464-9.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ I o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but I ɨ
Tones: hi hi-fall low downstep
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 208
Language: Gurenne Dialect: Nankanse
Location: N Ghana (Upper)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Schaefer, Nancy. 1975. "Gurenne Clause Structure," in Network Grammars, ed. by Joseph E. Grimes, SIL 45, 31-45.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u I e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi lo Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA GN POSS-N
Number: 209
Language: More Alternate Name: Moore
Location: C Burkina Faso
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: GD: Alexandre, R. P. 1953. La langue möré, 2 vols. Dakar: IFAN .
TextBooks: Socquet, ??. 1952. Manuel-grammaire mossi. Dakar: IFAN.
Other Sources: Canu, Gaston. 1969. Contes mossi actuels. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t c k b d ɟ ɡ f s h v z m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o a Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7: human, trees, instruments, places, body parts, fruits, plants, abstract, collectives, diminutives Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 210
Language: Safalaba
Location: Ghana
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 211
Language: Dagara Alternate Name: Dagaare
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 75,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: GD: Prost, A. and L. Girault . 1958. Abrégé de langue dagara: Grammaire et dictionnaire. Bobo-Dioulasso: Diocèse de Bobo-Dioulasso.
Other Sources: Girault, L. 1967. Description phonologique du dagara. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp ʔ b ʔb d̪ ɡ ɡb f s̪ s h v z̪ ɣ m ʔm n̪ ŋ ŋm l̪ l̪ɯ r Stops: p b ʔb t̪ d̪ c k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ɣ h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l̪ l̪ɯ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ b m n l r cj all but ʔb c ʔm r cw all but ʔb c kp ɡb h ʔm ŋ ŋm r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ ı̃̄ ẽ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ Diphthongs: ie iɛ iu io uo oɔ (ai ɔi)
Syllable: (C)V(ɣ)(C)
Tones: hi mid low Stress: always on root
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 212
Language: Kusaal
Location: NE Ghana (Upper)
Population: 517,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Spratt, David and Nancy Spratt. 1968 The Phonology of Kusal. Accra: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana. Spratt, David and Nancy Spratt. 1972. Kusal Syntax. Accra: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana.
Consonant system: ph th kh kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ŋ l ɹ̣ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w w̃
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ã ʋ̃ ɔ Ĩ̄ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ʋ̃̄ ɔ̃̄
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3Pn 6 3 has 2 forms: (1) 3 plain (=he, she, it), (2) 3 neuter (=it)
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 213
Language: Kamara
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 214
Language: Talne
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 215
Language: Nabte
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 216
Language: Mampelle
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 217
Language: Dagbani
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 409,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Wilson, W. A. A. 1963. "Relative Constructions in Dagbani," JAL 2, 139-44. Laguage Guide (Dagbani Edition). 1968. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. Wilson, W. A. A. and J. T. Bender-Samuel. 1969. "The Phonology of the Nominal in Dagbani," Linguistics 52, 56-82.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š (h) v z ž m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Tones: hi lo downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 218
Language: Dagbani Dialect: Mampruli
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 409,000 (85,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Dictionary: Arana, Evangelina and Mauricio Swadesh. 1967. Diccionario analitico del mampruli. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp ʔ b d̪ ɡ ɡb (č) (ɡ̌) f s̪ (h) v z̪ m n̪ ñ (ŋ) ŋm l̪ (ɾ) Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ (h) Nasals: m n̪ ñ (ŋ) ŋm Laterals:Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 219
Language: Hanga
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 220
Language: Kasele
Location: Togo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 221
Language: Basari
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 222
Language: Basari Alternate Name: Tobote
Location: Ghana
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: NA GN ND
Number: 223
Language: Basari
Location: Senegal
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 224
Language: Konkomba
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Steele, Mary and Gretchen Weed. 1966a. The Phonology of Konkomba. Accra: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana. Steele, Mary and Gretchen Weed. 1966b. Collected Field Reports on the Phonology of Konkomba. Accra: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (h) m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid low
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: NA GN N-NUM
Number: 225
Language: Soruba
Location: Togo
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 226
Language: Dye
Location: N Togo
Population: 17,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: Prost, A. n.d. Mi Gangam. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cw p t k f v ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8: human, animals, trees, collectives, diminutives, liquids
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 227
Language: Gangam
Location: Togo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 228
Language: Gurma Alternate Name: Gourmanchema
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: Chantoux, Alphonse, Alexandre Gontier and André Prost. 1968. Title??. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp (ʔ) ɓ d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm l̪ Stops: p ɓ t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ia ie oa oe ua ue
Tones: hi mid low (fall) (ris-fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND/(DN) N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 229
Language: Gurma Dialect: Kpana
Location: N Togo
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Other Sources: Tersis, Nicole. 1967. "Essai pour une phonologie du gurma parlé à Kpana (Nord-Togo)," BSELAF 4.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp b d̪ ɟ ɡ ɡb f s̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (I) e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i (I) e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi mid low (ris & fall on long vowels)
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 230
Language: Moba Alternate Name: Bimoba
Location: NW Togo
Population: 80,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta Grammar: Prost, A. 1967. Le moba. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Other Sources: Jacobs, Gillian. 1966. "The Structure of the Verbal Clause in Bimoba," JWAL 3:1, 47-53. Jacobs, Gillian. 1970. Bimoba Syntax: A Syntagmatic Analysis. Accra: Institute of African Studies.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ ŋm l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj̱ p f m cw b k f ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Tones: hi mid low
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5: human, animals & trees, small objects, collectives, liquids Demonstratives: ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+NUM+D
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 231
Language: Yom
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 232
Language: Naudem Alternate Name: Nawdam
Location: Togo
Population: 27,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Kurumfe-Oti-Volta
Consonant system:
Number: 233
Language: Doghose
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 7,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 234
Language: Gan
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 51,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 235
Language: Kasem
Location: N Ghana (Upper)
Population: 74,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: Callow, John C. 1965. "Kasem Nominals - A Study in Analyses," JWAL 2:1, 29-36. Language Guide (Kasem). 1967. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. Callow, John C. 1968. "A Hierarchical Study of Neutralization in Kasem," JL 4, 33-45. Hewer Judy. 1976. "Interrogative Sentences in Kasem," Linguistics 171, 5-18. Hewer, Philip L. 1976. "A Lexical Approach to Clause Series in Kasem," Linguistics 171, 19-34.
Consonant system: p pʷ t k kʷ b d ɡ ɡʷ č ɡ̌ f s v z m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l Stops: p pʷ b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony: set 1: i e ǝ u o; set 2: I ɛ a ʋ ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo ris
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 236
Language: Nuni Alternate Name: Nunuma
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 43,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 237
Language: Lyele
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 61,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Dictionary: Nicolas, F. 1953. Glossaire l'élé-français. Dakar: IFAN. Grammar: Bon, G. 1953. Grammaire l'élé. Dakar: IFAN .
Consonant system: p t̪ c k b d̪ ɟ ɡ f s̪ š v z̪ m n̪ (ñ) l̪ r Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj all but r cʷ all but r Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i y u I Y e ǝ ɤ o ɛ ɐ ɔ a Front Vowels: i y I Y e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ a Back Vowels: u o ɤ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 238
Language: Pana
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 7,800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 239
Language: Siti
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 240
Language: Winye
Location: Bukina Faso
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 241
Language: Pwo Alternate Name: Puguli
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 7,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 242
Language: Isala Alternate Name: Sisala
Location: Ghana (Upper)
Population: 62,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: Rowland, Ron. 1966. "Sissala Noun Groups," JWAL 3:1, 23-8. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č dz f s h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: dz č Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO
Number: 243
Language: Chakali
Location: Ghana
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 244
Language: Tampulma
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: Bergman, Richard, Ian Gray and Claire Gray. 1969. The Phonology of Tampulma. Ghana: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ŋ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 245
Language: Vagala
Location: Ghana
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 246
Language: Mo Alternate Name: Degha
Location: Ghana
Population: 11,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 247
Language: Kabre Alternate Name: Kabiyé
Location: Togo
Population: 157,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Grammar: Delord,J. n.d. Morphologie abregée du kabrè. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp b d̪ ḍ č ɡ̌ f s x z ɣ m n̪ ñ l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ḍ k kp Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z x ɣ Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 248
Language: Lamba1
Location: Benin
Population: 29,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Grammar: Prost, A. n.d. Lamba. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp d̪ f s̪ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r Stops: p t̪ d̪ c k kp Fricatives: f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all ǝ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 249
Language: Tem
Location: Benin
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: GN POSS-N
Number: 250
Language: Chala
Location: Togo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 251
Language: Delo
Location: Togo
Population: 1,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 252
Language: Bago
Location: Togo
Population: 6,100
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Consonant system:
Number: 253
Language: Kirma Alternate Name: Cerma
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Grammar: Prost, André. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaı̈ques. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s h v m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 254
Language: Tyurama
Location: Burkina Faso
Population: 27,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Grammar: Prost, André. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaı̈ques. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s h v m n ñ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e œ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i y e œ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but y ǝ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 255
Language: Lobi
Location: SW Burkina Faso
Population: 211,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi Grammar: Lamothe, Charles. 1966. Esquisse du système grammatical lobi. Paris: CNRS. Vaillant, M. 1967. Esquisse grammaticale du lobiri. Dakar: Univ of Dakar.
Other Sources: Labouret, H. 1958. Nouvelles notes sur les tribus du rameau lobi. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh kp ʔ b ɓ d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f š h v m n ñ l ʔl r Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d k kh ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʔl Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 256
Language: Dan
Location: S Burkina Faso
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Gur: Doghose-Gurunsi
Other Sources: Labouret, H. 1958. Nouvelles notes sur les tribus du rameau lobi. Dakar: IFAN.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d k ɡ f s n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e ø o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 257
Language: Kam
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa
Consonant system:
Number: 258
Language: Longuda
Location: NE Nigeria (Northeastern)
Population: 32,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa
Other Sources: Newman, John and Bonnie Newman. 1974. "Longuda," in TNTS, 109-16. Newman, Bonnie. 1976. "Deep and Surface Structure of the Longuda Clause," Linguistics 171, 35-68. LWA
Consonant system: p t̪ t k (ʔ) b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h z m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t̪ t d k ɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ā Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 4i=5
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 259
Language: Fali
Location: Cameroon
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa
Consonant system:
Number: 260
Language: Nimbari
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa
Consonant system:
Number: 261
Language: Kim
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa
Consonant system:
Number: 262
Language: Awak
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 263
Language: Dadia
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Population: 2,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 264
Language: Kamu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 265
Language: Tula
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: 6
Syntax: NG
Number: 266
Language: Waja
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 267
Language: Cham
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 268
Language: Mona
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Waja
Consonant system:
Number: 269
Language: Chamba Alternate Name: Samba Leko
Location: E Nigeria
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Chamba
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ǝ̄ ā ū ō ɔ̄
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 270
Language: Donga
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Chamba
Consonant system:
Number: 271
Language: Wom
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Chamba
Consonant system:
Number: 272
Language: Daka
Location: Nigeria
Population: 53,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Daka
Consonant system:
Number: 273
Language: Dirrim
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Daka
Consonant system:
Number: 274
Language: Gandole
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Daka
Consonant system:
Number: 275
Language: Taram
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Daka
Consonant system:
Number: 276
Language: Doyãyo
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Other Sources: Weiring, Elizabeth. 1974. "The Indicative Verb in Doowaayããyo," Linguistics 124, 33-55. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o v̄ all but e o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 277
Language: Dupa
Location: Cameroon
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 278
Language: Duru Dialect: Mbe
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 40,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru Dictionary: Bohnhoff, Lee E. 1972. Duru Dictionary. Ms. Grammar: Bohnhoff, Lee E. 1971. Introduction à la phonologie et à la grammaire duru. Yaoundé: Section de Linguistique Appliquée, Univ Fédérale du Cameroon.
TextBooks: Bohnhoff, Lee E. and Kadia Matthieu. 1972. Cours de langue duru. Ms.
Other Sources: Bohnhoff, Lee E. 1976. Vowel Length in Duru. Toronto: Univ of Toronto Diss.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v z ɣ m ʔm n ʔn ŋ l v̊ ɾ v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ b d ɡ ʔ m n ŋ l j w Nc b d ɡ ɡb z Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all v̄̄ (overlonɡ) Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ ʋ ɔ v̄̃ all but ɛ ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: non-phonemic
Noun Classes: 4 Demonstratives: 3 + ref (general) "that previously mentioned" & ref (recent) "that just mentioned"
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6 + indef (= 4di & 6 in various contexts) politeness: polite/intimate: 2 3
Syntax: SVO NA NG/(GN [some kinship terms]) ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 279
Language: Goom
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 280
Language: Kolbila
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 281
Language: Kutin
Location: Cameroon
Population: 400
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 282
Language: Sari
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 283
Language: Sewe
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 284
Language: Vere
Location: Nigeria
Population: 11,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Duru
Consonant system:
Number: 285
Language: Mumuye Dialect: Zinna
Location: E Nigeria
Population: 103,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ ?
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 286
Language: Gengle
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 287
Language: Kumba
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 288
Language: Teme
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 289
Language: Waka
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 290
Language: Yendang
Location: Nigeria
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 291
Language: Kugama
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 292
Language: Passam
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mumuye-Yendang
Consonant system:
Number: 293
Language: Galke
Location: Cameroon
Population: 200
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Other Sources: Lacroix, P. F. 1962. "Note sur le [sic] langue galke (ndaı́)," JAL 1, 94-121.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v m n ñ l (v̊) r v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (v̊) r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡʷ cʷ b k ɡ ŋɡ ɡb h Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ø (ǝ) o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ø ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã ũ õ ɔ̃
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p (pl little used) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Number: 294
Language: Mangbai Alternate Name: Manbai
Location: Cameroon
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 295
Language: Pam
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 296
Language: Tupuri
Location: SW Chad
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NA NG
Number: 297
Language: Mbum
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 51,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang Dictionary: Hino, Shun'ya. 1978. The Classified Vocabulary of the Mbum Language in Mbangmboun - with Ethnographical Descriptions. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Grammar: Hagège, Claude. 1970. La langue mboum de Nganha, 2 vols. Paris: SELAF.
Other Sources: Hagège, Claude. 1968. "Description phonologique du mbum," BSELAF 5.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v ž m n ñ ŋ l v̊ r v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb v ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo (fall on long vowels) Demonstratives: 3 + ref [=yonder]
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 298
Language: Dek
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 299
Language: Kali
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 300
Language: Lakka
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 301
Language: Mundang
Location: Chad
Population: 45,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 302
Language: Gelama
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 303
Language: Dama
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 304
Language: Mono
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Mbum-Mundang
Consonant system:
Number: 305
Language: Libo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Yungur
Consonant system:
Number: 306
Language: Mboi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Yungur
Consonant system:
Number: 307
Language: Yungur
Location: Nigeria
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Yungur
Consonant system:
Number: 308
Language: Roba
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Yungur
Consonant system:
Number: 309
Language: Bambuka
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bambuka
Consonant system:
Number: 310
Language: Jen
Location: Nigeria
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bambuka
Consonant system:
Number: 311
Language: Kanawa
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bambuka
Consonant system:
Number: 312
Language: Munga
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bambuka
Consonant system:
Number: 313
Language: Bua1
Location: Chad
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Consonant system:
Number: 314
Language: Bua1
Location: Chad
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV [with infinitive]) NG ND N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 315
Language: Bolgo
Location: Chad
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Consonant system:
Number: 316
Language: Buso
Location: SW Chad (S Chari-Baguirmi)
Population: 50
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 317
Language: Day Alternate Name: Dai
Location: S Chad
Population: 600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 318
Language: Fanya
Location: SE Chad (SW Salamat)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Consonant system:
Number: 319
Language: Fanya Alternate Name: Mana
Location: Chad
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 320
Language: Gula
Location: S Chad
Population: 2,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: Pairault, Claude. 1969. Documents du parler d'Iro. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k f s h β m n̪ ñ ŋ l (v̊) ɾ v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p t̪ ṭ k Fricatives: β f s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (v̊) ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ẽ õ ẽ̄ ȭ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Number: 321
Language: Kulaal
Location: Chad
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Consonant system:
Number: 322
Language: Koke
Location: Chad
Population: 1,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO NG
Number: 323
Language: Nielim
Location: Chad
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND POSS-N
Number: 324
Language: Tunya
Location: S Chad (N Moyen-Chari)
Population: 2,250
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Adamawa: Bua
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV [with infinitive]) NG N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 325
Language: Gbaya Dialect: Bossangoa
Location: W Central African Repulic
Population: 600,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya Grammar: GD: Samarin, William J. 1966. The Gbeya Language. UCPL 44.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v z m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ŋm l v̊ ɾ v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o v̄̃ all but e o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 326
Language: Gbaya Dialect: Kara
Location: W Central African Republic
Population: 600,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya
Other Sources: Roulon, Paulette. 1971. "Rapport sur la phonologie d'un dialecte gbaya: le gbaya-'bodoe du groupe kara," Études bantoues I, 90-115. Monino, Yves and Paulette Roulon. 1972. Phonologie du gbaya kara 'bodoe. Paris: SELAF. Roulon, Paulette. 1975. Le verbe en gbaya. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ʔb d ʔd ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l v̊ ɾ v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall Demonstratives: 4: near, less near, far, very far
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef politeness: familiar/polite distinction for 2 3 5
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 327
Language: Gbaya Alternate Name: Mbodomo Dialect: Buli
Location: SW Central African Republic
Population: 600,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya
Other Sources: Monino, Yves. 1971. "Note sur la phonologie d'un dialecte gbaya de Berberati," Études bantoues I, 116-8. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ʔb d ʔd ɡ ɡb f s h (v) z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f (v) s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ɔ̃ (ı̃ ũ)
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 328
Language: Bangando
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya
Consonant system:
Number: 329
Language: Manza
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya
Consonant system:
Number: 330
Language: Ngbaka
Location: SW Central African Repulic
Population: 600,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Gbaya Dictionary: Maes, V. 1959. Dictionnaire ngbaka-français-néerlandais. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Grammar: Thomas, Jacqueline M. C. 1963. Le parler ngbaka de Bokanga. Paris: Mouton.
Other Sources: AGT
Consonant system: p t k kpʷ ʔ b ɓ d (ɗ) ɡ ɡbʷ f s h v z m n ñ (ŋ) ŋm l Stops: p b ɓ t d (ɗ) k ɡ kpʷ ɡbʷ ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡbʷ z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: (ı̃) ẽ ã (ũ) õ
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall mid-ris mid-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 331
Language: Ngbandi
Location: NW Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 137,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Ngbandi Dictionary: Lekens, Benjamin. 1952. Dictionnaire ngbandi. Tervuren: Annales du Musée du Congo Belge.
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ v̊ r v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ ɡb v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 332
Language: Sango1
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Ngbandi
Other Sources: WALS
Syntax: SVO
Number: 333
Language: Yakoma
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 5,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Ngbandi
Other Sources: Boyeldieu, Pascal. 1973. "Phonologie du yakoma," in Problèmes de phonologie, Paris, SELAF, 11-72. Boyeldieu, Pascal. 1975. Études yakoma. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n (ñ) l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ æ̃ ũ ɒ̃
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi mid lo lo-ris-to-mid lo-ris-to-hi hi-fall mid-fall Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 334
Language: Feroge
Location: SW Sudan
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere Grammar: Santandrea, Stefano. 1969. Note grammaticali e lessicali sul gruppo Feroge e sul Mundu. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ʔb d ʔd ḍ ɡ ɡb č dz ɡ̌ m n ñ ŋ l v̊ ɾ r v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: dz č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d k ɡ kp ɡb v Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all ?
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 335
Language: Indri
Location: S Sudan
Population: 700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 336
Language: Ndogo
Location: S Sudan
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 337
Language: Sere
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 2,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 338
Language: Tagbu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 339
Language: Bai1
Location: Sudan
Population: 2,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Number: 340
Language: Viri Alternate Name: Bviri
Location: W Sudan
Population: 16,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere Grammar: Santandrea, Stefano. 1965. "The Birri Language," Afrika und Übersee 49, 81-105 & 196-234. [Reprinted 1966 by Editrice Nigrizia, Bologna]
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: t̪ ṭ c k kp ʔ (b) ɓ d̪ ɗ̪ ḍ ɟ ɡ ɡb ṭr ḍr (ɡ̌) f θ s v ð z (ž) m n̪ n ñ ŋ l v̊ r v̊ is a labiodental flap. Stops: (b) ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ̪ ṭ ḍ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ṭr ḍr (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v θ ð s z (ž) Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc b ɡb ɡ̌ v Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 341
Language: Mangaya
Location: S Sudan
Population: 400
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 342
Language: Togoyo
Location: S Sudan
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 343
Language: Mundu
Location: Sudan
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 344
Language: Mayogo
Location: NE Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 75,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 345
Language: Bangba
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 11,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Number: 346
Language: Gbanzili
Location: NW Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: AGT
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ʔb d ɡ ɡb f s v z m n ñ ŋm l Stops: p b ʔb t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo lo-ris-to-hi mid-ris-to-hi lo-ris-to-mid hi-fall-to-lo hi-fall-to-mid mid-fall-to-lo fall-ris ris-fall
Number: 347
Language: Bwaka
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 17,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 348
Language: Monzombo Alternate Name: Monjombo
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 13,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: Thomas, Jacqueline, M. C. 1971. "Esquisse linguistique du monzombo," in La dénomination des couleurs chez les mbay de Moı̈ssala, by Jean-Pierre Caprile, Paris, SELAF, 109-16. AGT
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f š v ž m n ñ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v š ž Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: (ı̃) ẽ ã õ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo hi-ris hi-mid-ris lo-ris hi-fall hi-mid-fall lo-fall Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-POSS
Number: 349
Language: Baka
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 350
Language: Bomasa
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 351
Language: Bayanga
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 352
Language: Ngombe1
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 353
Language: Gundi
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 354
Language: Ganzi
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Gbaya-Gbanzili: Sere
Consonant system:
Number: 355
Language: Langbasi
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Langbasi-Ngubu
Consonant system:
Number: 356
Language: Ngubu
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Langbasi-Ngubu
Consonant system:
Number: 357
Language: Mbanza
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Mbanzi-Mbanja
Consonant system:
Number: 358
Language: Mbanja
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Mbanzi-Mbanja
Consonant system:
Number: 359
Language: Ngbundu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 360
Language: Ngundu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 361
Language: Kpagua
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 362
Language: Gubu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 363
Language: Yakpa
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 364
Language: Linda Alternate Name: Banda
Location: Central African Republic
Population: 27,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo Dictionary: Tisserant, Charles. 1931. Dictionnaire banda-français. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie. Grammar: Tisserant, Charles. 1930. Essai sur la grammaire banda. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie.
Other Sources: Santandrea, Stefano. 1965. Languages of the Banda and Zande Group. Naples: Instituto Universitario Orientale. Cloarec-Heiss, France. 1967. "Essai de phonologie du parler banda-linda de Ippy," BSELAF 3. Cloarec-Heiss, France. 1969. Banda-Linda de Ippy. Paris: SELAF. LA
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (š) h v z (ž) m n (ñ) l v̊ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z (š) (ž) h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: v̊ r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o (ɛ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (hi-fall) (mid-fall)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 365
Language: Gbi
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 366
Language: Golo
Location: Sudan
Population: 7,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Banda: Ngundu-Golo
Consonant system:
Number: 367
Language: Zande
Location: S Sudan
Population: 700,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Zande Dictionary: Vocabulaire français-azande et azande-français. 1912. Brusells: Imprimérie Veuve Monnom. Grammar: Gore, E. C. 1926. A Zande Grammar. London: Sheldon Press. Tucker, A. N. 1959. Le groupe linguistique zande. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Other Sources: LA E
Consonant system: p t k kp (ʔ) b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ ɾ̃ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ̃ ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: aI ʋa
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall downdrift Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfai 6hai + indef
Syntax: SVO/VSO AN/(NA) GN (alienable)/NG (inalienable) DN (gi-N-re 'this N'; gu-N-re 'that N')/(ND) N-NUM POSS-N (alienable)/N-POSS (inalienable)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 368
Language: Nzakara
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Zande
Other Sources: Dampierre, Éric de. 1963. Poètes nzakara. Bruges: Julliard.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb f s v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm ḷ̌ ʎ Stops: p b t d c k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: ḷ̌ ʎ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡb v z ḷ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ʋ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony i̤ a̤ ṳ ı̤̃ ã̤ ṳ̃ v̤ represents tense vowels with hollow voice.
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall Stress: initial/penult
Noun
Number: s p (anim only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hai 6hai
Syntax: SVO AN/(NA) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 369
Language: Barambo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 46,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Zande
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. 1959. Le groupe linguistique zande. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Noun
Number: s p (anim only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO (indefinite aspect)/VSO (definite aspect) AN/(NA) NG ND N-NUM POSS-N(alienable)/N-POSS (inalienable)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 370
Language: Pambia
Location: Sudan
Population: 2,900
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Zande
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. 1959. Le groupe linguistique zande. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Noun
Number: s p (anim only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: VSO (definite aspect)/SVO (indefinite aspect) AN GN (alienable)/NG (inalienable) ND N-NUM POSS-N (alienable)/N-POSS (inalienable)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 371
Language: Amadi Alternate Name: Ma
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 4,700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Amadi
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfai 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 372
Language: Dongo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 4,900
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Amadi
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO/(SOV [definite aspect]) NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 373
Language: Mondunga
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 2,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Mondunga
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN(inalienable)/NG(alienable) DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 374
Language: Mondunga
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Mondunga
Consonant system:
Number: 375
Language: Mba
Location: N Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 16,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: North Central: Adamawa-Ubangian: Ubangian: Mondunga
Other Sources: LA
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ (ɠ) ɡb (ts) (č) (dz) (ɡ̌) (f) s h v z m n ñ (ŋ) r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ (ɠ) kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: (ts) (dz) (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) v s z h Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɟ ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ?
Tones: hi mid lo fall Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfai 6 3f=3a
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Number: 376
Language: Proto-Benue-Congo
Location: W Africa
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central
Other Sources: Wolf, Paul de. 1971. The Noun Class System of Proto-Benue-Congo. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb s z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d ɡ Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Noun Classes: 15
Number: 377
Language: Defaka
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka
Consonant system:
Number: 378
Language: Kalabari
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 295,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka
Other Sources: Williamson, Kay. 1969. "Ijo," in TNL, 97-114.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡʷ ɡb ɡ̌ f s (h) v z m n l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Number: 379
Language: Nembe
Location: S Nigeria
Population: 71,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka Dictionary: Kaliai, M. H. I. 1964, 1966. A Nembe-English Dictionary, 2 vols. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan. Grammar: Williamson, Kay. 1969. "Ijo" in TNL, 97-114.
TextBooks: Efebo, L. Awotua. 1967. Nembe Language Made Easy. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s (h) v z ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z ɣ (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ Ĩ (ẽ) ɛ̃ ã ũ ʋ̃ (õ) ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n [pl: h H (non-human)] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 380
Language: Nembe Dialect: Akassa
Location: S Nigeria
Population: 71,500 (4,900)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Number: 381
Language: Biseni
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka
Consonant system:
Number: 382
Language: Kolokuma Alternate Name: Ijo
Location: S Nigeria
Population: 158,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka Grammar: Williamson, Kay. 1965. A Grammar of the Kolokuma Dialect of Ijo. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Other Sources: Williamson, Kay. 1969. "Ijo," in TNL, 97-114. STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s (h) v z (ɣ) m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z (ɣ) (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ Ĩ (ẽ) ɛ̃ ã ũ ʋ̃ (õ) ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi lo downdirft
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 383
Language: Kolokuma Dialect: Mein
Location: S Nigeria
Population: 158,000 (58,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Ijo-Defaka
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z ɣ m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Number: 384
Language: Abure
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 385
Language: Eotile
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 386
Language: Akan Dialect: Fante
Location: S Ghana
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Dictionary: Christaller, J. G. 1933. Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language. Basel: Basel Evangelical Missionary Society. Berry, Jack. 1960. English, Twi, Asante, Fante Dictionary. London: Macmillan. Grammar: Balmer, W. T. and F. C. F. Grant. 1929. A Grammar of the Fante-Akan Language. London: Atlantic Press. Welmers, William E. 1946. A Descriptive Grammar of Fanti, Supplement to Lg 22:3.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ b d ɡ ɡʷ f s h hʷ m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Fricatives: f s h hʷ Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ʋ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 387
Language: Abron Dialect: Twi
Location: S Ghana
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
TextBooks: Rapp, E. L. 1948. An Introduction to Twi. London: Longmans. Bellon, Immanuel. 1963. Twi Lessons for Beginners. Accra: Longmans.
Other Sources: Boadi, L. 1963. "Palatality as a Factor in Twi Vowel Harmony," JAL 2, 133-8.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s h m n (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ m n cj k ɡ h n cʷ d k h n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ae ai ei ɛe oe ɔe oi ui aw ew ɛw iw ɔw uw
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 388
Language: Baule
Location: EC Ivory Coast
Population: 373,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: GD: Carteron, Michel. 1972. Étude de la langue baoulé, 8 vols. Bocanda, Ivory Coast: Mission Catholique.
Other Sources: Stewart, J. M. 1956. "Notes on Baule Phonology," BSOAS 18, 353-65. Gross, Marcel. 1967. "Essai pour une phonologie de baulé," BSELAF 2. Vogler, P. 1968. "Esquisse d'une phonologie du baoulé," Annales de l'Univ d'Abidjan, Series H, Linguistique, tome 1, fascicule 1, 5-17.
Consonant system: (p) t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ (ɡb) f s v z m n ñ l (r) Stops: (p) b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp (ɡb) Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j (ɥ) w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ
Syllable: (C)(C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 389
Language: Anyi Dialect: Brissa
Location: Ghana
Population: 450,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Chamberlain, G. D. 1930. A Brief Account of the Brissa Language. Accra: Government Printing Office.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h z m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj h cʷ č ɡ̌ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ æ̃ ũ õ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 390
Language: Anyi Dialect: Sanvi
Location: SE Ivory Coast
Population: 450,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Retord, G. n.d. L'Agni: Varieté dialectale Sanvi.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kp ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡʷ ɡb f s (š) h z m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡʷ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f s z (š) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ Ĩ ã ũ ʋ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo Articles: indef
Syntax: SVO NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 391
Language: Chakosi
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Dictionary: Krass, A. C. 1970,1973. A Dictionary of the Chokosi Language, 2 vols. Legon, Ghana: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana. Grammar: Stanford, Ronald and Lyn Stanford. 1970. The Phonology and Grammar of Chakosi. Ghana: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ghana.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ ŋm l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ l cj p b t d kp ɡb f m n ŋm cʷ p b k ɡ č ɡ̌ s l ŋk ŋɡ Nc p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb č ɡ̌ Glides: ɥ w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ã ʋ̃ ɔ̃
Syllable: (C)V(m) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 392
Language: Nzema
Location: SW Ghana (W Western)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Welman, C. W. n.d. A Preliminary Study of the Nzima Language. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies.
Other Sources: Chinebuah, I. K. 1963. "The Category of Number in Nzema," JAL 2, 249-59. Language Guide (Nzema Edition). 1967. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. Chinebuah, I. K. 1971. "Variable Nouns in Nzema," JAL 10, 42-64.
Consonant system: p t k b d̪ d ɡ č čʷ ɡ̌ ɡ̌ʷ f s š h v z ʁ m n ñ ŋ l l̃ ɹ̣ Stops: p b d̪ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ čʷ ɡ̌ʷ Fricatives: f v s z š ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l l̃ Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6 H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 393
Language: Ahanta
Location: Ghana
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 394
Language: Awutu
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 395
Language: Chiripong
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 396
Language: Gonja Dialect: Hill
Location: SE Ghana
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: Painter, Colin. n.d. Fourteen Papers on Gwa.
Consonant system: t̪h kh kp b d (ɡ) (ɡb) č ɡ̌ f s̪ h m n ñ ŋ ŋm l̪ Stops: b t̪h d kh (ɡ) kp (ɡb) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: cʷ kh č ɡ̌ l (ɡ h ñ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: lˈ Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 397
Language: Gonja Dialect: Gonja
Location: N Ghana (Northern)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Painter, Colin. 1970. Gonja. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (h) (z) m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (z) (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: rˈ Nˈ
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) downstep downdrift upstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 398
Language: Nkonya
Location: E Ghana (Volta)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Reineke, Brigitte. 1972. The Structure of the Nkonya Language. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ḍ ɟ ts f s ɦ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t ḍ ɟ k kp Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɦ n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ ɑ Front Vowels: i e ɛ Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: ? Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 399
Language: Nawuri
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 400
Language: Nchumunu
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 401
Language: Nchumburu
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 402
Language: Achode
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 403
Language: Anyanga
Location: Togo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 404
Language: Krachi
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 405
Language: Adele
Location: Togo
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SVO NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 406
Language: Akpafu
Location: Ghana
Population: 8,200
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 407
Language: Siwu
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 408
Language: Basila
Location: W Benin
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: Heine, Bernd. 1968. "A Preliminary Survey of the Noun Classes of Basila," JAL 7, 1-13.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b ḍ ɟ ɡ ɡb ts f s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t ḍ c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u I e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ǝ̃ ã ũ õ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: NA ND
Number: 409
Language: Buem Alternate Name: Lelemi
Location: E Ghana
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Grammar: Höftmann, Hildegard. 1971. The Structure of Lelemi Language. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie.
Consonant system: (p) t k kp b ḍ ɡ ɡb ts dz ɸ (f) s h v (z) m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: (p) b t ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: ɸ (f) v s (z) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: anim inan ...? Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 410
Language: Likpe
Location: Chana
Population: 7,140
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 411
Language: Logba
Location: Ghana
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 412
Language: Sele
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 413
Language: Ahlo
Location: Togo
Population: 2,900
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 414
Language: Animere
Location: Ghana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 415
Language: Avatime
Location: Ghana
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: ND
Number: 416
Language: Nyangbo
Location: Ghana
Population: 3,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 417
Language: Bowili
Location: Ghana
Population: 3,280
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Consonant system:
Number: 418
Language: Kebu
Location: Togo
Population: 17,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4
Number: 419
Language: Kposo
Location: Togo
Population: 80,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Articles: def
Syntax: SVO GN POSS-N
Number: 420
Language: Gã
Location: SE Ghana
Population: 300,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo
TextBooks: Berry Jack and Nii Amon Kotei. 1969. An Introductory Course in Ga. Washington, D.C.: Dept of Health, Education and Welfare.
Other Sources: Berry, J. n.d. The Pronunciation of Gã. Cambridge: Heffer . Kropp, M. E. 1968. "An Analysis of the Consonant System of Gã," JWAL 5, 19-61.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʷ k ɡ č ɡ̌ š h ŋ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ɛ̄̃ ã̄ ũ̄ ɔ̃̄
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND/DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 421
Language: Adangme
Location: SE Ghana
Population: 826,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Nyo Dictionary: Accam, T. N. 1966. Adangme Vocabularies. Legon, Ghana: Institute of African Studies.
Other Sources: Kropp, Mary Esther. 1964. "The Morphology of the Adangme Verb Complex,"JAL 3, 80-95. Language Guide (Daŋme Version). 1968. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages. Dakubu, M. E. Kropp. 1970. "The Adangme Verb Reconsidered," JAL 9, 19-26. Apronti, E. O. 1971. "The Structure of the Nominal Group in Dangme," JAL 10, 65-72.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ č ɡ̌ š h ŋ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ?
Tones: hi (mid) lo
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Number: 422
Language: Ewe Dialect: Anglo
Location: SE Ghana
Population: 2.4 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo Grammar: Westermann, Diedrich. 1960. A Study of the Ewe Language. London: Oxford Univ Press.
TextBooks: Warburton, Irene, Prosper Kpotufe and Roland Glover. 1968. Ewe Basic Course. Bloomington: African Studies Program, Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Berry, Jack. The Pronunciation of Ewe. Cambridge: Heffer.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k kp b d̪ ḍ ɡ ɡb t̪s (č) d̪z (ɡ̌) ɸ f s x β v z ɣ ɦ m n̪ ñ ŋ l (ɹ) Stops: (p) b t̪ d̪ ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: t̪s d̪z (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: ɸ β f v s z x ɣ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɹ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e v̄̃ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(L)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall (ris-fall)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 423
Language: Ewe Dialect: Adja
Location: SW Benin
Population: 2.4 million (475,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo Dictionary: Harguindéguy, R. 1969. Dictionnaire adja-français, 2 vols. Lyon: Afrique et Langage.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ḍ ɡ ɡb č ̌ ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo ris
Syntax: SVO
Number: 424
Language: Ewe Dialect: Gũ
Location: S Benin
Population: 2.4 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Other Sources: Rouget, Gilbert. 1962. "Une chante-fable d'un signe divinatoire (Dahomey)," JAL 1, 273-92. Rouget, Gilbert. 1963. "Le problème du 'ton moyen' en gũ," JAL 2, 218-21.
Consonant system: t k kp b d ḍ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s x h v m n ñ l Stops: b t d ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s x h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi (mid) lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 425
Language: Fon Alternate Name: Fongbe
Location: S Benin
Population: 1.4 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo Dictionary: Segurola, B. 1963. Dictionnaire fon-français. Cotonou, Dahomey. Grammar: Alapini, Julien. 1969. Le petit dahoméen. Cotonou, Dahomey: Les Éditions du Benin.
TextBooks: Guillet, Gérard. 1972. Initiation à la tonalité et à la grammaire de la langue fon. Cotonou, Dahomey.
Consonant system: (p) t k kp b d ḍ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s x v z ɦ m n ñ l Stops: (p) b t d ḍ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z x ɦ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo fall-ris (mid-ris) (mid-fall)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG/GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 426
Language: Mbato
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 427
Language: Ebrie Alternate Name: Kyama
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 11,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Other Sources: Vogler, P. 1968. "Esquisse phonologique de l'ebrié," Annales de l'Univ d'Abidjan, Series H, Linguistique, tome 1, fascicule 1, 60-5.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s (h) m n ñ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã õ
Tones: hi lo
Number: 428
Language: Attie
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 429
Language: Abe
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 22,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 430
Language: Abiji
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 431
Language: Krobu
Location: Ivory Coast
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 432
Language: Adyukru
Location: S Ivory Coast
Population: 72,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo Grammar: Hérault, G. 1978. Éléments de grammaire adioukrou. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée, Univ d'Abidjan.
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (x) m n ñ ŋ ľ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (x) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 1 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N(1 3 4 5 6)/N-POSS (2) N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 433
Language: Aladian
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 7,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 434
Language: Avikam
Location: Ivory Coast
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Western: Togo
Consonant system:
Number: 435
Language: Ebira Alternate Name: Igbirra
Location: WC Nigeria (Kwara)
Population: 180,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Niger-Kaduna
Other Sources: Ladefoged, Peter. 1964. "Igbirra Notes and Word-List," JWAL 1:1, 27-37 . STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ v s h z m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ s z h ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmany
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 436
Language: Gade
Location: C Nigeria
Population: 90,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Niger-Kaduna Grammar: Sterk, Jan Pieter. 1977. Elements of Gade Grammar. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Diss.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s v z m n r Stops: p b t d c k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo [+ ten gliding tones]
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5: (1) 'general' person nouns, (2) the word 'person', (3) non-person nouns-vowel initial, (4) non-person nouns-consonant initial, (5) 'co-wife,' senior person, doctor. Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 437
Language: Nupe
Location: WC Nigeria (Kwara)
Population: 500,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Niger-Kaduna Dictionary: Banfield, A. W. 1914, 1916. Dictionary of the Nupe Language, 2 vols. Shonga, Nigeria: The Niger Press. [Reprinted 1969 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England] Grammar: Smith, N. V. 1967. An Outline Grammar of Nupe. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Other Sources: Smith, N. V. 1967. "The Phonology of Nupe," JAL 6, 153-67. Smith, N. V. 1969. "Nupe," in TNL, 133-41.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č dz f s h v z m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ a only Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɐ̃ ʋ̃
Syllable: (C)(G)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 438
Language: Gwari
Location: C Nigeria (Benue)
Population: 155,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Niger-Kaduna Grammar: Hyman, Larry M. and Daniel J. Magaji. 1970. Essentials of Gwari Grammar. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kp ɓ d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š (h) β v z ž m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p ɓ t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V
Tones: hi mid (hi-mid) lo (ris) (fall)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hHA 6 + indef H=non-human, A=abstract
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 439
Language: Alago
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Consonant system:
Number: 440
Language: Idoma Dialect: Oturkpo
Location: SE Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 600,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma Grammar: Abraham, R. C. 1967. The Idoma Language. London: Univ of London Press.
Other Sources: Armstrong, R. G. 1963. "The Subjunctive in Idoma," JAL 2, 155-9. STAL
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b d ɡ ɡʷ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋm l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ŋm Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ?
Tones: hi mid lo (fall) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 441
Language: Yala Alternate Name: Iyala
Location: SE Nigeria
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Other Sources: Armstrong, Robert G. 1968. "Yala (Ikom): A Terraced-Level Language with Three Tones" JWAL, 49-58.
Consonant system: p t c k kʷ kp b mb d ɟ ɡ ɡʷ ɡb ŋmɡb f s sj x m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b mb t d c ɟ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb ŋmɡb Fricatives: f s sj x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi mid lo downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 442
Language: Akpa
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Consonant system:
Number: 443
Language: Igede
Location: SE Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Other Sources: Bergman, Richard. 1971. "Vowel Sandhi and Word Division in Igede," JWAL 8, 13-25. Bergman, R. and N. Bergman. 1974. "Igede," in TNTS, 43-50.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ h m n ñ ŋ ŋm l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b ɡ m h r cʷ p b k ɡ č ɡ̌ h m ŋ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Syntax: SVO ND
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 444
Language: Etulo
Location: SE Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Other Sources: Armstrong, Robert G. 1964. "Notes on Etulo," JWAL 1:2, 57-60.
Consonant system: t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb ts dz f s š z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s z š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ɔ̃
Syllable: Nˈ rˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 445
Language: Eloyi
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Central Niger: Idoma
Other Sources: Mackay, Hugh D. 1964. "A Word List of Eloyi," JWAL 1:1, 5-12.
Consonant system: ph th kh kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: NA
Number: 446
Language: Northern Akoko
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Yoruba-Northern Akoko
Consonant system:
Number: 447
Language: Yoruba
Location: SW Nigeria (Western)
Population: 8 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Yoruba-Northern Akoko Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1958. Dictionary of Modern Yoruba. London: Univ of London Press. Crowther, S. et al. 1956. A Dictionary of the Yoruba Language. London: Oxford Univ Press. Grammar: Ward, Ida C. 1952. An Introduction to the Yoruba Language. Cambridge: Heffer. Bamgbose, Ayo. 1966. A Grammar of Yoruba. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press. Ogunbowale, P. O. 1970. The Essentials of the Yoruba Language. London: Univ of London Press.
TextBooks: Stevick, E. W. and Olallye Aremu. 1963. Yoruba Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute. Wolff, Hans. 1963. Beginning Yoruba. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State Univ. de Gaye, J. A. and W. S. Beecroft. 1964. Yoruba Grammar. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Rowlands, E. C. 1969. Teach Yourself Yoruba. London: English Unversities Press.
Other Sources: Bamgbose, Ayo. 1969. "Yoruba," in TNL, 163-72. Oyelaran, Olasope O. 1971. Yoruba Phonology. Stanford: Stanford Univ Diss. Awobuluyi, A. Oladele. 1967. "Vowel and Consonant Harmony in Yoruba," JAL 6, 1-8.
Consonant system: t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ f s š h m n l ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ɛ̃ ʋ̃ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 448
Language: Yoruba Dialect: Itsekiri
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 8 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Yoruba-Northern Akoko
Other Sources: Opubor, A. E. 1969. "Itsekiri," in TNL, 125-32.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡʷ ɡb f s š ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d ɟ k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s š ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɒ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo
Number: 449
Language: Igala
Location: SW Nigeria
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Yoruba-Northern Akoko
Other Sources: Philpot, W. T. A. 1935. "Notes on the Igala Language," BSOAS 7, 897-912.
Consonant system: p t kp b d ɡb č f s h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d kp ɡb Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ai ei
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 450
Language: Epie
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Delta
Other Sources: Thomas, Elaine and Kay Williamson. 1967. Wordlists of Delta Edo: Epie. Engenni, Degema. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: (p) t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s v z m n (ŋ) l r Stops: (p) b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Number: 451
Language: Engenni
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Delta
Other Sources: Thomas, Elaine and Kay Williamson. 1967. Wordlists of Delta Edo: Epie, Engenni, Degema. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan. Thomas, Elaine. 1974. "Engenni," in TNTS, 13-26.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb s š v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: v s z š Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) upstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Number: 452
Language: Degema
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Delta
Other Sources: Thomas, Elaine and Kay Williamson. 1967. Wordlists of Delta Edo: Epie, Engenni, Degema. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s x v z m n ŋ ŋw l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z x Nasals: m n ŋ ŋw Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo downstep
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 453
Language: Okpe1
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 454
Language: Urhobo Dialect: Agbon
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 546,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Other Sources: Kelly, John. 1969. "Urhobo" in TNL, 153-61. Welmers, William E. 1969. "Structural Notes on Urhobo," JWAL 6, 85-107.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb ɸ f s š x xw β v z ž ɣ ɣʷ m n ñ ŋm ɾ r̥ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: ɸ β f v s z š ž x ɣ xw ɣw Nasals: m n ñ ŋm Vibrants: ɾ r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ ɑll Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 455
Language: Urhobo Dialect: Agbarho
Location: S Nigeria
Population: 546,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ ɸ f s š x h β v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ ŋm l ľ ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l ľ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo [+ 6 ris & fall tones]
Number: 456
Language: Uvbie
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 457
Language: Isoko
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 321,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Other Sources: Mafeni, Bernard. 1969. "Isoko" in TNL, 115-24. STAL
Consonant system: p t̪ t k kp b d̪ d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ f s h β v z j ̂ ɣ m n ñ ŋw l ɾ ɹ̣ ɹ̣̥ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z j ̂ ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋw Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ ɹ̣̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Number: 458
Language: Eruwa
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Southwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 459
Language: Bini
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-West)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central Dictionary: Melzian, Hans. 1937. A Concise Dictionary of the Bini Language of Southern Nigeria. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Munro, David A. 1967. English-Edo Wordlist. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
TextBooks: Dunn, Ernest F. 1968. An Introduction to Bini. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State Univ.
Other Sources: Wescott, Roger W. 1965. "Speech Tempo and the Phonemics of Bini," JAL 4, 182-90.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s x h β v z ɣ m n l ḷ r r̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: β f v s z x ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r r̥ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Diphthongs: ie iɛ iɔ ia ue uɛ ua uo uɔ ı̃ɛ ı̃ɔ ı̃a ũɛ ũa
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi (mid) lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s (p) (only for a few words) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 460
Language: Esan Alternate Name: Ishan
Location: S Nigeria (Benin)
Population: 90,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š x h β v z ɣ m n ñ ŋʷ l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z š x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo +6 ris & fall tones
Number: 461
Language: Emai
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 462
Language: Iyekhee Alternate Name: Etsako Dialect: Ayele
Location: SC Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 120,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central Grammar: Strub, E. 1915. "Essai d'une grammaire de la langue kukuruku (Nigieria, Afrique Occidentale," Anthropos 10-11, 450-65 & 888-907.
Other Sources: Laver, John. 1967. "A Preliminary Phonology of the Ayele Dialect of Esako," JWAL 4:2, 53-6. Laver, J. D. M. 1969. "Etasko," in TNL, 47-55.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb f s x β v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ ɾ̥ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: β f v s z x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̥ Modified Consonants: c̄ m v z Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V
Tones: hi hi-fall lo downstep downdrift
Number: 463
Language: Iyekhee Alternate Name: Etsako Dialect: Ekpheli
Location: Nigeria
Population: 120,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Other Sources: Elimelech, Baruch. 1978. A Tonal Grammar of Etsako. UCPL 87.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts dz f θ s x β v ɣ m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: β f v θ s x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ kp ɡb m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Tones: hi lo ris fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 464
Language: Iyekhee Alternate Name: Estako Dialect: Auchi
Location: SC Nigeria
Population: 120,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č ɡ̌ f s š x β v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋʷ l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo [+ 6 ris & fall tones]
Number: 465
Language: Ghotuo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 466
Language: Uneme
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 467
Language: North Ibie
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 468
Language: Ikpeshi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 469
Language: Sasaru
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 470
Language: Ososo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: North-Central
Consonant system:
Number: 471
Language: Okpamheri
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Northwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 472
Language: Uhami
Location: Nigeria (Western)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Northwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 473
Language: Ukue
Location: Nigeria (Western)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Northwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 474
Language: Okpe2
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Edo: Northwestern
Consonant system:
Number: 475
Language: Ekpeye
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger
Consonant system:
Number: 476
Language: Izi
Location: SE Nigeria (East-Central)
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger Grammar: Meier, Paul, Inge Meier and John Bendor-Samuel. 1975. A Grammar of Izi: An Igbo Language. SIL 47.
Other Sources: Bendor-Samuel, John T. and Inge Meier. 1967. "Some Contrasting Features of the Izi Verbal System," JAL 6, 10-41.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb pf ts bv dz ɸ (f) s (š) x v z (ž) ɣ m n (ñ) ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: pf bv ts dz Fricatives: ɸ (f) v s z (š) (ž) x ɣ Nasals: m n (ñ) ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj p b t d ts dz s z n cʷ k ɡ ŋ l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony (i e a u o are characterized by advanced tonɡue root; iˈ eˈ aˈ uˈ oˈ are characterized by retracted tonɡue root. These two classes form the basis of the vowel harmony system.)
Syllable: (C)V(N) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift upstep Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NA/AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 477
Language: Igbo Dialect: Umuahia
Location: SE Nigeria (East-Central)
Population: 18 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger Grammar: Green, M. M. and G. E Igwe. 1963. A Descriptive Grammar of Igbo. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. Igwe, G. E. and M. M. Green. 1965. A Short Igbo Grammar. London: Oxford Univ Press. Abraham, R. C. 1967. The Principles of Ibo. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan. Emenanjo, E. Nolue. 1978. Elements of Modern Igbo Grammar. Ibadan: Oxford Univ Press.
TextBooks: Carnochan, J. and B. Iwuchuku. 1963. An Igbo Revision Course. London: Oxford Univ Press. Igwe, G. E. and M. M. Green. 1967. Igbo Language Course, 2 vols. Ibadan: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Williamson, Kay. 1969. "Igbo," in TNL, 85-96. Dunstan, Elizabeth and G. E. Igwe. 1966. "Two Views of the Phonology of the Ohuhu Dialects of Igbo," JWAL 3:2, 71-5.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh kp b b̤ ɓw d d̤ ɡ ɡ̤ č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ f s h v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p ph b b̤ ɓw t th d d̤ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ kp Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ ɡ̤̌ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p ph b b̤ s s̃ z z̃ h h̃ r cʷ ɓ k kh ɡ ɡ̤ h̃ ŋ c̃ f v s z h r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p (only for a few kinship terms) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N [1 20 400]) N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 478
Language: Igbo Dialect: Onitsha
Location: SE Nigeria (East-Central)
Population: 18 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger Dictionary: Wiliamson, Kay, ed. 1972. Igbo-English Dictionary. Benin City: Ethiope.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b d ɡ ɡʷ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s (š) (h) ɣ m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s (š) ɣ (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N [1 20 400 1,000 1,000,000] N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 479
Language: Ika
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 18 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger
Other Sources: Willamson, Kay. 1968. An Introduction to Ìka and Ukwuanı̀. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h (ṽ) z ɣ m n n ̃ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (ṽ) s z š ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p b t f h cʷ k ɡ s h ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 480
Language: Ukwuani
Location: S Nigeria (Mid-Western)
Population: 18 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger
Other Sources: Willamson, Kay. 1968. An Introduction to Ìka and Ukwuanı̀. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kp b d ɡ ɡʷ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š x (v) z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (v) s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(w)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo downstep
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 481
Language: Ogbah
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger
Consonant system:
Number: 482
Language: Ikwere
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Niger
Consonant system:
Number: 483
Language: Yukuben Alternate Name: Boritsu
Location: Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Yukuben-Kuteb
Consonant system:
Number: 484
Language: Kuteb Alternate Name: Zumper
Location: Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Yukuben-Kuteb
Other Sources: Koops, Robert and John T. Bendor-Samuel. 1974. "The Recapitulating Pronouns in Kuteb," JWAL 9, 5-16
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š x m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo mid-ris lo-ris hi-fall Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 485
Language: Kpan Alternate Name: Eregba
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Kpan-Icen Dictionary: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1972. The Kente Dialect of Kpan(2). Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 5:1. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan. Grammar: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1971. The Kente Dialect of Kpan (1). Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages. 4. 2-3. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č dz ɡ̌ f s s ̌ x v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ cʷ x ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid low
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 486
Language: Icen
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Kpan-Icen
Consonant system:
Number: 487
Language: Ashuku
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Jukun
Consonant system:
Number: 488
Language: Nama
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Jukun
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a (ǝ) Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ũ õ
Pronouns: 1mf 4dmie 4dfie 4dc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfc 6dmfc 6mfc [c=common] 4dm & 4df have inclusive and exclusive forms.
Number: 489
Language: Jukun Dialect: Wukari
Location: EC Nigeria
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Jukun Grammar: Welmers, William E. 1968. Jukun of Wukari and Jukun of Takum. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k (kp) b d ɡ ɡb ts dz f s h v z m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ (kp) ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj all but ts dz kp ɡb ɾ cʷ p b ts dz s k h Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ʋ̃ ɔ̃
Syllable: mˈ nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall mid-fall (low-ris)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 490
Language: Jukun Dialect: Takum
Location: EC Nigeria
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Jukun Grammar: Welmers, William E. 1968. Jukun of Wukari and Jukun of Takum. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: p t k (kp) b d ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ (kp) ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj all but t kp ɡb h m ɾ cʷ b k h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall mid-fall (low-ris)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 491
Language: Jukun Dialect: Jibu
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Jukun
Other Sources: Bradley, Virginia M. 1971. "Jibu Narrative Discourse Structure," AL 13, 1-15. Dyken, Julia van. 1974. "Jibu," in TNTS, 87-92
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ɡ̌) f s š (h) v z ž m n ŋ (l) ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f v s z š ž (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid low
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 492
Language: Bandawa
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Wurbo
Consonant system:
Number: 493
Language: Chomo
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Wurbo
Consonant system:
Number: 494
Language: Jiru Dialect: Jirru
Location: NE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Jukunoid: Wurbo
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 495
Language: Ogbogolo
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Consonant system:
Number: 496
Language: Ogbia Dialect: Oloibiri
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s β v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: β f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid low
Number: 497
Language: Kugbo
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Consonant system:
Number: 498
Language: Mini
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Consonant system:
Number: 499
Language: Abua
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s β v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: β f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo
Number: 500
Language: Odual
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb f s β v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: β f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid low
Number: 501
Language: Ogbronuagum
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 502
Language: Obulom
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Central Delta
Consonant system:
Number: 503
Language: Kana
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Ogoni
Other Sources: Wolf, Hans. 1964. "Synopsis of the Ogoni Languages," JAL 3, 38-51. STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ s h z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o
Tones: hi mid low ris fall
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 504
Language: Gokana
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Ogoni
Other Sources: Brosnahan, L. F. 1964. "Outlines of the Phonology of the Gokana Dialect of Ogoni," JWAL 1:1, 43-8. Brosnahan, L. F. 1967. "A Word List of the Gokana Dialect of Ogoni," JWAL 4:2, 43-52. STAL
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s v z ž m n l (r) Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f v s z ž Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e o v̄̃ all but e o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 505
Language: Eleme
Location: S Nigeria (Rivers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Delta Cross: Ogoni
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 506
Language: Obolo Alternate Name: Andoni
Location: Nigeria
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross
Other Sources: LWA WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO GN N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 507
Language: Efik Dialect: Calabar
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 400,000 (2 million second language speakers)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik Dictionary: Adams, R. F. G. 1952. English-Efik Dictionary. Liverpool: Philip, Son & Nephew. Adams, R. F. G. 1953. Efik-English Dictionary. Liverpool: Philip, Son & Nephew. Grammar: Essien, U. and T. L. Cook. 1966. A Brief Introduction to Efik. Enugu: U.S. Peace Corp.
TextBooks: Welmers, William E. 1968. Efik. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan.
Other Sources: Ward, Ida C. 1933. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Efik. Cambridge, Eng: W. Heffer & Sons. Cook, T. L. 1969a. "Efik," in TNL, 35-46. Cook, T. L. 1969b. The Pronunciation of Efik for Speakers of English. Bloomington: African Studies Program, Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: t k kp b d f s m n ñ ŋ (r) is analyzed as an allophone of /d/ between vowels, thouɡh written in orthoɡraphy. Stops: b t d k kp Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: (r) analyzed as an allophone of ǀdǀ between vowels, thouɡh written in orthoɡraphy Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo hi-fall lo-ris downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p (pl rarely used) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 508
Language: Ibibio
Location: SE Nigeria (South-eastern)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik Dictionary: Kaufman, Elaine M. 1972. Ibibio Dictionary. Stanford: African Language and Area Center, Stanford Univ. Grammar: Kaufman, Elaine. 1969. Ibibio Grammar. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system: p t̪ k kp b d f s m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t̪ d k kp Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo hi-fall downstep Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 509
Language: Anaang
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Efik
Consonant system:
Number: 510
Language: Okobo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:
Number: 511
Language: Oron
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Other Sources: Simmons, Donald C. 1965. "Oron Noun Morphology," JWAL 2:2, 33-7.
Consonant system:
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: AN
Number: 512
Language: Ekit
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:
Number: 513
Language: Ibino
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Lower Cross: Oron
Consonant system:
Number: 514
Language: Tita
Location: SE Nigeria (North-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross
Consonant system:
Number: 515
Language: Mbembe Dialect: Adun
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 60,000 (10,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources: Barnwell, K. 1969. "The Noun Class System in Mbembe," JWAL 6, 51-8. Barnwell, K. G. L. 1974. "Mbembe," in TNTS, 51-78.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ ɸ f s β v m n ñ ŋ (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β f v s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ t k f s m n cj p b ɸ m cʷ k ɡ ŋ Nc d Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ā ɔ̄
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall) downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 516
Language: Legbo
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources: Spreda, Klaus and Janice Spreda. 1966. "An Interim Report on the Phonological Data of Agbo," in Tagmemic and Matrix Linguistics Applied to Selected African Languages, ed. by Kenneth L. Pike, Ann Arbor, Center for Research on Language and Language Behavior, Univ of Michigan.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb dz f s v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: dz Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but ɟ and z cʷ k ɡ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 517
Language: Leyigha
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 518
Language: Lenyima
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 519
Language: Loko2 Alternate Name: Yakurr
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Other Sources: Winston, F. D. D. 1962. "The Nominal Class System of Loko," ALS 3, 49-70. Berry, Elaine. 1974. "Yakurr," in TNTS, 79-85.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ f s m n ŋ ŋm l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all ? Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 520
Language: Agoi
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 521
Language: Lokukoli
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 522
Language: Lubilo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 523
Language: Olulumo
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 524
Language: Koring
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 525
Language: Kukele
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 526
Language: Uzekwe
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 527
Language: Kohumono
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western Grammar: GD: Cook, T. L. 1969. Some Tentative Notes on the KòHúmónò Language. Research Notes from the Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages 2.3. Ibadan: Univ of Ibadan.
Consonant system: ph t th kh kp b ɓ d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h β v z m n ñ ŋ r Stops: ph b ɓ t th d kh ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ kh ɡ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Iˈ ɛˈ aˈ ʋˈ ɔˈ (retracted tonɡue root)
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 35 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: AN/NA ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num+D
Number: 528
Language: Ubaghara
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 529
Language: Agwaagwune
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 530
Language: Umon
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 531
Language: Ukpet
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 532
Language: Kiong
Location: Nigeria
Population: nearly extinct; spoken only by elderly people
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Calabar River
Consonant system:
Number: 533
Language: Korop
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Calabar River
Consonant system:
Number: 534
Language: Lyoniyorg
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Calabar River
Consonant system:
Number: 535
Language: Doko
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Upper Cross: Calabar River
Consonant system:
Number: 536
Language: Amo
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 537
Language: Piti
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 1,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Chawai
Consonant system:
Number: 538
Language: Chawai
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 8,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Chawai
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 539
Language: Kuzamani
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 540
Language: Kurama
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: NG N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 541
Language: Rumaya
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 542
Language: Ruruma
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 543
Language: Binawa
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 544
Language: Kono
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 545
Language: Surubu
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 546
Language: Kaivi
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 547
Language: Kiballo
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 548
Language: Kitimi
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 549
Language: Kinuku
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 550
Language: Dungi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 551
Language: Gure
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Consonant system:
Number: 552
Language: Gure Dialect: Kahugu
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 1,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Kurama
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 553
Language: Kuda
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 554
Language: Butu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 555
Language: Gyem
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 556
Language: Taura
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 810
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 557
Language: Lemoro
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Other Sources: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1979. "Five Wordlists with Analyses from the Northern Jos Group of Plateau Languages," AUU 62, 253-71.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ɡb s v z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai ae ǝi
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND
Number: 558
Language: Lemoro Dialect: Sanga
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Other Sources: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1979. "Five Wordlists with Analyses from the Northern Jos Group of Plateau Languages," AUU 62, 253-71.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d nd ɟ ɡ ɡb s š ̌ z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b t d nd c ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: s z š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai ia ǝi
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND
Number: 559
Language: Janji
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 360
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Other Sources: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1979. "Five Wordlists with Analyses from the Northern Jos Group of Plateau Languages," AUU 62, 253-71.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ s š h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū Modified Vowels: vowel harmony ? Diphthongs: ie io oi ai
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo hi-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 560
Language: Shani
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 561
Language: Buji
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 2,300
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Consonant system:
Number: 562
Language: Anaguta
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Other Sources: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1979. "Five Wordlists with Analyses from the Northern Jos Group of Plateau Languages," AUU 62, 253-71.
Consonant system: p t c k kp b d nd ɟ ɡ s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d nd c ɟ k ɡ kp Fricatives: v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony ? Diphthongs: ai au iu ie uǝ
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 563
Language: Chokobo
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 420
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Eastern: Jera
Other Sources: Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1979. "Five Wordlists with Analyses from the Northern Jos Group of Plateau Languages," AUU 62, 253-71.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b mb d nd ɟ ɡ ɡb f s š h z m n ñ ŋ ŋm l r Stops: p b mb t d nd ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Fricatives: f s z š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋm Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ai au
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA N-NUM
Number: 564
Language: Reshe
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: NA
Number: 565
Language: Laru
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Laru-Lopa
Consonant system:
Number: 566
Language: Lopa
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Laru-Lopa
Consonant system:
Number: 567
Language: Western Kambari
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kambari
Consonant system:
Number: 568
Language: Western Kambari
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 67,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kambari
Other Sources: Hoffman, C. 1963. "The Noun Class System of Central Kambari," JAL 2, 160-9.
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all but ɨ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM
Number: 569
Language: Eastern Kambari
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kambari
Consonant system:
Number: 570
Language: Ngwoi
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kamuku
Consonant system:
Number: 571
Language: Kamuku
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kamuku
Consonant system:
Number: 572
Language: Bassa-Kontagora
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kamuku
Consonant system:
Number: 573
Language: Ashaganna
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Kamuku
Consonant system:
Number: 574
Language: Bassa-Kaduna
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 575
Language: Bassa-Kuta
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 576
Language: Gurmana
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 577
Language: Pongu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 578
Language: Bauchi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 579
Language: Ura
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 580
Language: Bassa-Kwomu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Bassa
Consonant system:
Number: 581
Language: Lela
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Duka
Consonant system:
Number: 582
Language: Duka
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Duka
Other Sources: Bendor-Samuel, John, Esther Cressman and Donna Skitch. 1971. "The Nominal Phrase in Duka," JWAL 8, 59-78. Bendor-Samuel, John, Donna Skitch and Esther Cressman. 1973. Duka Sentence, Clause and Phrase. Studies in Nigerian Languages, No.3. Zaria: Institute of Linguistics.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s š h z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG DN N-NUM N-POSS D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 583
Language: Puku
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Duka
Consonant system:
Number: 584
Language: Lyase
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Cara: Western: Duka
Consonant system:
Number: 585
Language: Ayu
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 586
Language: Yashi
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 587
Language: Mabo-Barkul
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 588
Language: Irigwe
Location: N Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 13,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 589
Language: Migili
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Birom-Migili
Consonant system:
Number: 590
Language: Aten
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Birom-Migili
Other Sources: Bouquiaux, Luc. 1964. "A Word List of Aten (Ganawuri)," JWAL 1:2, 5-25.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 591
Language: Birom
Location: C Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Birom-Migili
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi mid low
Syntax: SVO
Number: 592
Language: Fachara
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Birom-Migili
Consonant system:
Number: 593
Language: Katab Alternate Name: Gworok
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 23,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara
Other Sources: LWA WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: SVO NG N-POSS
Number: 594
Language: Yeskwa
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Yeskwa
Consonant system:
Number: 595
Language: Lungu
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Yeskwa
Consonant system:
Number: 596
Language: Koro
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Yeskwa
Consonant system:
Number: 597
Language: Kamanton
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Consonant system:
Number: 598
Language: Kagoma
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 6,125
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Consonant system:
Number: 599
Language: Jaba
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 600
Language: Nandu
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Consonant system:
Number: 601
Language: Izarek
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Consonant system:
Number: 602
Language: Kaje
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 24,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kaje
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Syntax: NG N-POSS
Number: 603
Language: Kadara
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 17,700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kadara
Consonant system:
Number: 604
Language: Kuturmi
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: Benue-Congo: Plateau: II
Consonant system:
Number: 605
Language: Ikulu
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 5,600
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kadara
Consonant system:
Number: 606
Language: Idong
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kadara
Consonant system:
Number: 607
Language: Doka
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kadara
Consonant system:
Number: 608
Language: Iku
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Kaje-Kadara: Kadara
Consonant system:
Number: 609
Language: Rukuba
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba
Consonant system:
Number: 610
Language: Kwanka
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Kwanka
Consonant system:
Number: 611
Language: Shall
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Kwanka
Consonant system:
Number: 612
Language: Ninzam
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 4,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 613
Language: Mada
Location: N Nigeria
Population: 23,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 614
Language: Gwantu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 615
Language: Nindem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 616
Language: Kaningkon
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 617
Language: Kanufi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Ninzam-Rukuba: Ninzam
Consonant system:
Number: 618
Language: Eggon
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Eggon
Consonant system:
Number: 619
Language: Nungu
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Eggon
Consonant system:
Number: 620
Language: Ake
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Eggon
Consonant system:
Number: 621
Language: Jidda
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Eggon
Consonant system:
Number: 622
Language: Fyam Alternate Name: Pyem
Location: C Nigeria
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Fyam
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ ɗ ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO
Number: 623
Language: Horom
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Fyam
Consonant system:
Number: 624
Language: Tarok Alternate Name: Yergham
Location: C Nigeria (Plateau)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Tarok
Other Sources: STAL
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi mid lo
Number: 625
Language: Bashar
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Tarok
Consonant system:
Number: 626
Language: Pai
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Tarok
Consonant system:
Number: 627
Language: Turkwam
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Turkwam
Consonant system:
Number: 628
Language: Arum
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Plateau: Turkwam
Consonant system:
Number: 629
Language: Bokyi
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 630
Language: Bekwarra
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 631
Language: Bendi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 632
Language: Obanliku
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 633
Language: Ukpe
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 634
Language: Ubang
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 635
Language: Alege
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 636
Language: Utugwang
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 637
Language: Bumaji
Location: SE Nigeria (South-Eastern)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bendi-Bokyi
Consonant system:
Number: 638
Language: Mambila
Location: SE Nigeria (S North-Eastern)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Other Sources: Perrin, M. 1974a. "Mambila," in TNTS, 93-108. Perrin, Mona. 1974b. "Direct and Indirect Speech in Mambila," JL 10, 27-37. LWA
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h v m n ŋ l ľ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ľ Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɒ
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo hi-mid-ris lo-mid-ris hi-fall hi-mid-fall ris-fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4de 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 639
Language: Mambila Dialect: Atta
Location: N Cameroon
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Other Sources: Perrin, Mona J. and Margaret V. Hill. 1969. Mambila (parler d'Atta). Cameroon: Section de Lingustique Appliquée, Univ Fédérale du Cameroun.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č bv ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: bv č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 640
Language: Kamkam
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Population: 800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 641
Language: Tep
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 642
Language: Magu
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 643
Language: Kila
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 644
Language: Ndoro
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Population: 1,200
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 645
Language: Gandua
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute
Consonant system:
Number: 646
Language: Vute
Location: CCameroon
Population: 14,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Mambila-Vute Dictionary: Guarisma, Gladys. 1978. Études vouté. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s h v m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɔ ( ã̄ only?)
Syllable: C(w)V(C)
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev lo-ris-to-mid lo-ris-to-hi mid-ris-to-hi mid-fall-to-lo hi-fall-to-lo hi-fall-to-mid hi-lo-hi hi-lo-mid downdrift
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 647
Language: Tiv
Location: SE Nigeria (S Benue-Plateau)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu Dictionary: Abraham, R. C. 1940a. A Dictionary of the Tiv Language. London. [Reprinted 1968 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England] Terpstra, Gerard. 1968. English-Tiv Dictionary. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, Univ of Ibadan. Grammar: Abraham, R. C. 1940. The Principles of Tiv. London: Crown Agents for the Colonies. [Reprinted 1968 by Gregg International Publishers, Farnborough, England]
Other Sources: Arnott, D. W. 1969. "Tiv," in TNL, 143-51.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š h v ɣ m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s š ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb dz ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)(G)V Cˈ = m n v ɣ r [ɡ̌]
Tones: hi lo downstep downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 (persons, trees, collectives) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 648
Language: Otank
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 649
Language: Emane
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 650
Language: Icheve
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 651
Language: Evant
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 652
Language: Bitare
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 653
Language: Abon
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 654
Language: Batu
Location: Nigeria (Sardauna)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Non-Bantu: Tiv-Batu
Consonant system:
Number: 655
Language: Mboa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 656
Language: Nagumi
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 657
Language: Bile
Location: Nigeria (North-East)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 658
Language: Mbula
Location: Nigeria (North-East)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 659
Language: Mama
Location: Nigeria (Benue-Plateau)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 660
Language: Lame
Location: Nigeria (North-East)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 661
Language: Jaku
Location: Nigeria (North-East)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 662
Language: Gubi
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 663
Language: Kulung
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Consonant system:
Number: 664
Language: Jarawa1
Location: C Nigeria (North-East)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Jarawan
Other Sources: STAL WALS
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č ɡ̌ f s š h z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: SVO
Number: 665
Language: Mbe
Location: E Nigeria (Ogoja)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Other Sources: Bamgboso, Ayo. 1967. "Notes on the Phonology of Mbe," JWAL 4:1, 5-11.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š (x) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š (x) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ k (ŋ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ie iɛ ia iɔ io ue uɛ ua uɔ uo
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall downstep
Number: 666
Language: Ndoe
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Consonant system:
Number: 667
Language: Ejagham
Location: W Cameroon (Mamfe)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
TextBooks: Edmondson, Tom and Eileen Edmondson. 1971. "Some Dialect Shifts in Ejagham," Camelang 3, 19-42. Yaoundé: Univ Fédérale du Cameroun.
Consonant system: p t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s m n ñ ŋ (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 668
Language: Efutop
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Consonant system:
Number: 669
Language: Nde
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Consonant system:
Number: 670
Language: Abanyom
Location: SE Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Other Sources: Crabb, David W. 1965. Ekoid Barrtu Languages of Ogoja, Eastern Nigeria. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: (p) t k kp b d ɟ ɡ ɡb f s m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: (p) b t d ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Number: 671
Language: Nkem
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 672
Language: Nkumm
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Number: 673
Language: Nnam
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Consonant system:
Number: 674
Language: Ekajuk
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Ekoid-Mbe
Consonant system:
Number: 675
Language: Esimbi
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 676
Language: Amasi
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 677
Language: Kenyang
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, Jan. 1980. "Kenyang," EXB 1, 275-85. E
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS Comments: "Kenyang has all the appearances of a Narrow Bantu language, but . . . in many points of grammar there is evidence of un-Bantu behavior." p. 282
Number: 678
Language: Kitwii
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 679
Language: Kinkwa
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 680
Language: Menka
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 681
Language: Ngwo
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 682
Language: Bitieku
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 683
Language: Assaka
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Mamfe
Consonant system:
Number: 684
Language: Adere
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 685
Language: Limbum Alternate Name: Nsungli
Location: Cameroon (Bamenda)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, Jan. 1980. "Limbum," EXB 1, 183-91.
Consonant system:
Noun Classes: noun classes
Number: 686
Language: Kofa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 687
Language: Kwaja
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 688
Language: Ncha
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 689
Language: Ndaktup
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 690
Language: Ntem
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 691
Language: Yamba
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nkambe
Consonant system:
Number: 692
Language: Bamun
Location: Cameroon
Population: 75,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Other Sources: Ward, Ida C. 1938. "The Phonetic Structure of Bamum," BSOAS 9, 423-38. LWA
Consonant system: p t k kp b nd ŋɡ ɡb f s š v nz ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t nd k ŋɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s nz š ž ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡʷ z š Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ø ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ɯ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Diphthongs: iɛ ia iǝ oa oǝ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: SVO NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 693
Language: Mungaka
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 694
Language: Bambalang
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Consonant system:
Number: 695
Language: Baba
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Consonant system:
Number: 696
Language: Bapi
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Consonant system:
Number: 697
Language: Bandeng
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Nun
Consonant system:
Number: 698
Language: Mankon Alternate Name: Awing
Location: NW Cameroon (North-Western)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba Grammar: Leroy, Jacqueline. 1977. Morphologie et classes nominales en mankon. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: t k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz f s z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj b k ɡ ts dz s z l cʷ b t k ɡ ts dz s z ŋ l
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (human, animals, people, inanimate, body parts, animals & plants, small animals & grains, misc) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4die 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 699
Language: Mundum
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Consonant system:
Number: 700
Language: Bafut
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Other Sources: LWA WALS
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: SVO ND
Number: 701
Language: Nkwen
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Consonant system:
Number: 702
Language: Bambui Alternate Name: Mbili
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 703
Language: Pinyin
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Consonant system:
Number: 704
Language: Awing
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Consonant system:
Number: 705
Language: Kpati
Location: Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Ngemba
Consonant system:
Number: 706
Language: Babaju
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 707
Language: Fe'fe
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 708
Language: Dschang
Location: Cameroon (Menoua)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Other Sources: Tadadjeu, Maurice. 1980. "Le dschang," EXB 1, 165-81.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d c k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo lo-fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 709
Language: Bafussam
Location: Cameroon
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 710
Language: Bagam
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 711
Language: Balum
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 712
Language: Bamaha
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 713
Language: Bamendiinda
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 714
Language: Bamenkombit
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 715
Language: Bamenyam
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 716
Language: Banjun
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 717
Language: Bangangte
Location: Cameroon
Population: 66,700
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Other Sources: Voorhoeve, J. 1963. "La classification nominale dans le bangangté," JAL 2, 206-9.
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ʌ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: DN/ND (D-N-D) N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Number: 718
Language: Bangwa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 719
Language: Bapi
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 720
Language: Bapi
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 721
Language: Bacham
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 722
Language: Bachingu
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 723
Language: Bati1
Location: Cameroon
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 724
Language: Bati1
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 725
Language: Batie
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 726
Language: Bamugun
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 727
Language: Fomopea
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 728
Language: Fongondeng
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 729
Language: Foto
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 730
Language: Fotuni
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 731
Language: Ngwe
Location: W Cameroon
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Other Sources: Dunstan, Elizabeth. 1963. "Conjugation in Ngwe," JAL 2, 235-43. Dunstan, Elizabeth. 1964. "Towards a Phonology of Ngwe," JWAL 1:1, 39-42.
Consonant system: p t k kp ʔ b d ɡ ɡb ts tr č (kx) ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ (l) B r B is a bilabial trill. Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: ts tr č ɡ̌ (kx) Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: B (bilabial trill) r Glides: w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ø ɛ œ æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ ʌ Long Vowels: ̱v̄ all but æ œ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ɛ̃ ɯ̃ ɔ̃ ã
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (fall)
Syntax: SVO NG ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 732
Language: Babuantu
Location: Cameroon (Bamenda)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 733
Language: Upper Mundani
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Eastern: Nun-Bamileke: Bamileke
Consonant system:
Number: 734
Language: Aghem Alternate Name: Wum
Location: NW Cameroon (North West)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: West Grammar: Hyman, Larry M., ed. 1979. Aghem Grammatical Structure. SCOPIL 7.
Consonant system: (ph) th kh (kp) ʔ b d (ɡ) (ɡb) ts (č) bv dz (ɡ̌) f s z ɣ m n ñ ŋ (ŋm) l Stops: (ph) b th d kh (ɡ) (kp) (ɡb) ʔ Affricates: bv ts dz (č) (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ (ŋm) Laterals: l Glides: (j) w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ ɒ Long Vowels: v̄ all but I ʋ Diphthongs: ia Ia ua uo uɔ uɒ ʋɔ ɔe ɔē ɒe ɒ̄ɛ
Syllable: (C)(w)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo lo-fall ris fall downdrift downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 (6 sg, 6 pl) Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 735
Language: Isu
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: West
Consonant system:
Number: 736
Language: Weh
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: West
Consonant system:
Number: 737
Language: Bafumen
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: West
Consonant system:
Number: 738
Language: Babanki
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: Central
Other Sources: Hyman, Larry M. 1980. "Babanki and the Ring Group," EXB 1, 225-58.
Consonant system: t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č dz f s š h v z ž ɣ m n ñ ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č Fricatives: f v s z š ž ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo-lev lo-fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 739
Language: Kom Alternate Name: Nkom
Location: Cameroon
Population: 16,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: Central
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Number: 740
Language: Bum
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 741
Language: Oku Alternate Name: Ukfwo
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: Nkom: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 742
Language: Lamnso
Location: NW Cameroon (Bamenda)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Other Sources: Grebe, Karl. 1975. "Verb Clusters of Lamnsok, " in Network Grammars, ed. by Joseph E. Grimes, SIL 45, 31-45. Grebe, Karl and Winnifred Grebe. 1975. "Verb Tone Patterns in Lamnsok," Linguistics 149, 5-23. LWA
Consonant system: t k kp b d ɡ ɡb č ɡ̌ f s š v ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s š ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi mid low mid-ris hi-fall-to-mid mid-fall hi-fall-to-lo mid-fall-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: SVO ND
Number: 743
Language: Bamessing Alternate Name: Kensense
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Consonant system:
Number: 744
Language: Bamessi
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Consonant system:
Number: 745
Language: Babungo Alternate Name: Ngo
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 746
Language: Bamunka Alternate Name: Muka
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Consonant system:
Number: 747
Language: Bamali
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Consonant system:
Number: 748
Language: Fanji
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Ring: East
Consonant system:
Number: 749
Language: Tadkon Dialect: Widekum
Location: Cameroon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Momo
Other Sources: LWA
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 750
Language: Tadkon
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Momo
Consonant system:
Number: 751
Language: Ngie Alternate Name: Ngi
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Momo
Consonant system:
Number: 752
Language: Oshie
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Momo
Consonant system:
Number: 753
Language: Njem1
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 754
Language: Lower Mundani
Location: W Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Grassfields: Western: Momo-Njen: Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 755
Language: Modele
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Number: 756
Language: Mukuru
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Number: 757
Language: Befang
Location: Cameroon
Population: 67,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes
Number: 758
Language: Bangui
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Number: 759
Language: Obang
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Number: 760
Language: Okomanjan
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Menchum
Consonant system:
Number: 761
Language: Mekaf Alternate Name: Bunaki
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 762
Language: Bu
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 763
Language: Kinabe
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 764
Language: Koshin
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 765
Language: Bebe
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 766
Language: Dumbo Alternate Name: Kumaju
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 767
Language: Nchanti
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 768
Language: Noni
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Eastern
Other Sources: Hyman, Larry M. 1980. "Noni (Misaje Group)," EXB 1, 259-74. WALS
Consonant system:
Tones: extreme-hi hi mid lo upstep downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 769
Language: Akweto
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Beboid: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 770
Language: Tikar
Location: E Cameroon
Population: 10,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Tikar Grammar: Hagège, Claude. 1969. Esquisse linguistique du tikar (Cameroun). Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b d ñɟ ɡ ɡb pf ɸ f s š ç χ (v) mv ž ʁ m n ñ ŋ l (ɾ) Stops: p b t d c ñ̃ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb ʔ Affricates: pf Fricatives: ɸ f (v) mv s š ž ç χ ʁ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Modified Consonants: Nc b t d ɟ k ɡ kp ɡb v s ž Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ õ ı̃̄ ẽ̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ȭ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) nˈ mˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 771
Language: Bandobo
Location: E Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Bane: Tikar
Consonant system:
Number: 772
Language: Lundu Alternate Name: Londo
Location: Cameroon
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Lundu-Balong
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 773
Language: Lue
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Lundu-Balong
Consonant system:
Number: 774
Language: Balong
Location: Cameroon
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Lundu-Balong
Consonant system:
Number: 775
Language: Bonkeng
Location: Cameroon
Population: 1,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Lundu-Balong
Consonant system:
Number: 776
Language: Bafo Alternate Name: Akoose
Location: SW Cameroon (South-West)
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Lundu-Balong
Other Sources: Hedinger, Robert and Sylvia Hedinger. 1977. Phonology of Akɔ́ɔ̄sē (Bakossi). Yaoundé: SIL . Hedinger, Robert. 1977. The Noun Classes of Akɔɔse (Bakossi). Yaoundé: SIL .
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ č (ɡ̌) s z h m n ñ l Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l cj p b t d č s z h m n l cʷ p b t k ɡ č s h m l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Syllable: (C)VC) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall-to-low fall-to-mid downstep downdrift upstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 15 (human, liquids, paired body parts, abstract nouns, animals) Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 777
Language: Mboko1
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Consonant system:
Number: 778
Language: Kwiri Alternate Name: Bakueri
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 779
Language: Su
Location: Cameroon
Population: 500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Consonant system:
Number: 780
Language: Duala
Location: W Cameroon
Population: 23,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala Dictionary: Helmlinger, Paul. 1972. Dictionnaire duala-français. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Ittmann, Johannes. 1939. Grammatik des Duala. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Other Sources: Paulian, Christiane. 1971. "Esquisse phonologique du duala, " Études bantoues I. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k b d (ɡ) č ɡ̌ (f) s h (v) m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k (ɡ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) (v) s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 13
Syntax: SVO
Number: 781
Language: Wori
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Consonant system:
Number: 782
Language: Pongo
Location: N Nigeria
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Consonant system:
Number: 783
Language: Limba2 Alternate Name: Mulimba
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Duala
Consonant system:
Number: 784
Language: Bubi
Location: Equatorial Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bubi-Benga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 785
Language: Noho
Location: Equatorial Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bubi-Benga
Consonant system:
Number: 786
Language: Yasa Dialect: Kombe
Location: Equatorial Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bubi-Benga Dictionary: Fernandez, P. L. 1951. Diccionario español-kômbè. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h v ž m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 787
Language: Benga
Location: Equatorial Guinea
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bubi-Benga Dictionary: Dictonary of the English and Benga languages. 1879. New York: Mission House. Grammar: Nassau, R. H. 1892. Mackey's Grammar of the Benga-Bantu Language. New York: American Tract Society. Pérez, Gaspar and Lorenzo Sorinas. 1928. Gramatica de la lengua benga. Madrid: Editorial del Corazon de Marı́a.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ɡ̌ f s h v m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b bʷ ɡ ɡʷ ɡ̌ cʷ b mb k ŋɡ m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM/(NUM-N) N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 788
Language: Lombi
Location: Cameroon
Population: 1,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa
Consonant system:
Number: 789
Language: Bankon
Location: Cameroon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 790
Language: Basaa
Location: Cameroon
Population: 300,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa Dictionary: Lemb, Pierre and François de Gastines. 1973. Dictionnaire basaà-français. Douala: Collège Libermann.
TextBooks: Koki Ndombo, P., Pierre Lemb and François de Gastines. 1971. Le basaà par la grammaire. Douala: Collège Libermann.
Consonant system: p t k b ɓ d ɡ č ɡ̌ (f) s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b ɓ t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj h n cʷ k ɡ ŋɡ ŋ Nc b d ɡ ɡʷ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 18 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 791
Language: Tunen Alternate Name: Banen
Location: SW Cameroon
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa Dictionary: Dugast, Idelettle. 1967. Lexique de la langue tunɛn. Paris: Klincksieck. Grammar: Dugast, Idelette. 1971. Grammaire du tùnɛn. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: (p) t k (ʔ) b mb nd ŋɡ ñɡ̌ f s ç x h m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: (p) b mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f s ç x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/(POST)
Number: 792
Language: Nyo'o
Location: Cameroon
Population: 3,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa
Consonant system:
Number: 793
Language: Mande
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Basaa
Consonant system:
Number: 794
Language: Fa'
Location: Cameroon
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bafia
Consonant system:
Number: 795
Language: Mbong
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bafia
Consonant system:
Number: 796
Language: Kpa Alternate Name: Bafia
Location: SW Cameroon
Population: 23,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bafia Dictionary: Guarisma, Gladys. 1969. Études bafia. Paris: SELAF.
TextBooks: Guarisma, Gladys. 1967. "Esquisse phonologique du bafia," BSELAF 1.
Other Sources: Guarisma, Gladys. 1973. Le nom en bafia. Paris: SELAF. Guarisma, Gladys. 1980. "Les voyelles centrales en bafia et dans d'autres parlers du groupe A50," EXB 2, 447-53.
Consonant system: p t c k kp ʔ b ɓ d ɗ ɟ ɡ (ɡb) f s v z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ c ɟ k ɡ kp (ɡb) ʔ Fricatives: f v s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ ɑ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɑ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 (6 pl) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 797
Language: Djanti
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Bafia
Consonant system:
Number: 798
Language: Ki Alternate Name: Tuki
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Sanaga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 799
Language: Yambasa
Location: Cameroon
Population: 27,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Sanaga
Consonant system:
Number: 800
Language: Eton
Location: Cameroon
Population: 112,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Ewondo
Consonant system:
Number: 801
Language: Ewondo
Location: Cameroon
Population: 93,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Ewondo Dictionary: Abega, Prosper. n.d. Petit lexique ewondo. Yaoundé, Cameroon: Federal Univ of Cameroon. Grammar: Abega, Prosper. 1971. Grammaire ewondo. Yaoundé, Cameroon: Federal Univ of Cameroon.
Consonant system: t k kp b d ɡ ɡb ts dz f s v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: b t d k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb dz v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 (5 pl) Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 802
Language: Bebele
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Ewondo
Consonant system:
Number: 803
Language: Bulu
Location: S Cameroon
Population: 170,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Ewondo Grammar: GD: Alexandre, P. 1955. Manuel élémentaire de langue bulu. Paris: Centre de Hautes Études Administratives sur l'Afrique et l'Asie Modernes.
Other Sources: Alexandre, P. 1962. "Sur la voyelle suffixielle du bulu," JAL 1, 243-52.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s (h) v z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ kʷ ɡʷ ɡ̌ f v s z l cʷ k ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 804
Language: Fang Dialect: Ntum
Location: Gabon
Population: 858,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Ewondo Dictionary: Galley, Samuel. 1964. Dictionnaire fang-français et français-fang. Neuchatel: Henri Messeiller.
Other Sources: Wolf P. de. 1972. "Notes sur la langue," in Un mvet, by Herbert Pepper, Paul and Paule de Wolf, Paris, Armand Colin, 441-76.
Consonant system: (p) t k kpʷ (ʔ) b d ɡ ɡbʷ ts dz f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ kpʷ ɡbʷ (ʔ) Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc ? cʷ kp gb Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 805
Language: Ngumba Alternate Name: Mvumbo
Location: Equitorial Guinea
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem Grammar: Gonzalez Echegaray, Carlos. 1960. Morfologia y sintaxis de la lengua bujeba. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
Consonant system: p t k kp (ʔ) b d ɡ ɡb pf č bv ɡ̌ f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kp ɡb (ʔ) Affricates: pf bv č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ b m n l Nc b t d k ɡ z š ž cʷ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: v̰̄ (velarized) all
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 4 (3 + remote )
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA/(AN) NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 806
Language: So1
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Number: 807
Language: Makaa
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 808
Language: Njem2
Location: Cameroon
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 809
Language: Konabem
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 810
Language: Mpiemo
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 811
Language: Bomwali
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Makaa-Njem
Consonant system:
Number: 812
Language: Kwakum
Location: Cameroon
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Kako
Consonant system:
Number: 813
Language: Pol
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Kako
Consonant system:
Number: 814
Language: Yaka1
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone A: Kako
Number: 815
Language: Myene
Location: Gabon
Population: 12,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Myene Dictionary: Walker, André Paponda. 1934. Dictionnaire mpongwe-français. Metz: La libre lorraine.
TextBooks: Teisseres, U. 1957. Méthode pratique pour apprendre l'omyene. Paris: Societé des Missions Évangéliques de Paris.
Other Sources: Jacquot, A. 1976. "Étude de phonologie et de morphologie myene," Études bantoues II, 13-78. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k mb ɓ nd ɗ ŋɡ (č) ɡ̌ f s β z ɣ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p mb ɓ t nd ɗ k ŋɡ Affricates: (č) ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s z ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ Glides: j w w̃
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 (human, abstract, common, noble) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 816
Language: Sekyani
Location: Equitorial Guinea
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 817
Language: Kele
Location: Gabon
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 818
Language: Mbangwe
Location: Gabon
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 819
Language: Wumvu
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 820
Language: Kota
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 821
Language: Ndasa
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 822
Language: Sighu
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 823
Language: Tsogo
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Tsogo
Consonant system:
Number: 824
Language: Kande
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Tsogo
Consonant system:
Number: 825
Language: Pinji
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Tsogo
Consonant system:
Number: 826
Language: Sira
Location: Gabon
Population: 17,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Consonant system:
Number: 827
Language: Sangu
Location: Gabon
Population: 18,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 828
Language: Punu
Location: Gabon
Population: 46,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Consonant system:
Number: 829
Language: Lumbu
Location: Gabon
Population: 12,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Consonant system:
Number: 830
Language: Mbwisi
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Consonant system:
Number: 831
Language: Barama
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Sira
Consonant system:
Number: 832
Language: Duma
Location: Gabon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Njebi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 833
Language: Njebi Alternate Name: Nzebi
Location: Gabon
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Njebi
Other Sources: Guthrie, Malcolm. 1968. "Notes on Nzebi (Gabon)," JAL 7, 101-29.
Consonant system: p t k mb ɓ nd ɗ ŋɡ (pf) ts f s š x β mv nz m n ñ (ŋ) l ɾ Stops: p mb ɓ t nd ɗ k ŋɡ Affricates: (pf) ts Fricatives: β f mv s nz š x Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 13
Syntax: SVO
Number: 834
Language: Tsaangi
Location: Gabon
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Njebi
Consonant system:
Number: 835
Language: Mbede
Location: Gabon
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede Dictionary: Biton, Alexandre. 1969. Dictionnaire ndumu-mbede-français et français-ndumu-mbede. Libreville, Gabon: Archéveché de Libreville.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 836
Language: Mbede
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede
Consonant system:
Number: 837
Language: Mbama
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede
Consonant system:
Number: 838
Language: Ndumu
Location: Gabon
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede Grammar: GD: Biton, Alexandre. 1969. Dictionnaire ndumu-mbede-français et français-ndumu-mbede. Libreville, Gabon: Archéveché de Libreville.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ f v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 (people, animals, plants, measures, instruments, actions, abstractions) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 3 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS/(POSS-N)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 839
Language: Ngwii
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede
Consonant system:
Number: 840
Language: Ngul
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede
Consonant system:
Number: 841
Language: Kaningi
Location: Gabon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Mbede
Consonant system:
Number: 842
Language: Ngu Ngwoni
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 843
Language: North Teke
Location: Congo
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 844
Language: Northeast Teke
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 845
Language: West Teke
Location: Congo
Population: 32,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 846
Language: Central Teke
Location: Congo
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 847
Language: Bali1
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 848
Language: East Teke
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 849
Language: South Teke
Location: Congo
Population: 14,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke Grammar: GD: Calloc'h, J. 1911. Vocabulaire français-ifumu (batéké). Paris: Paul Geuthner. Paulian, Christiane. 1975. Le kukuya. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t k b (d) pf ts bv dz f s (h) m (ɱ) n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t (d) k Affricates: pf bv ts dz Fricatives: f s (h) Nasals: m (ɱ) n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ (f v) s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 (humans, animals, things) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 850
Language: Wuumu
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Teke
Consonant system:
Number: 851
Language: Tiene
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 852
Language: Mfinu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 853
Language: Mpuono
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 854
Language: Yanzi
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 855
Language: Di
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 856
Language: Mbuun
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone B: Yanzi
Consonant system:
Number: 857
Language: Ngando1
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngando
Consonant system:
Number: 858
Language: Kota
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngando
Consonant system:
Number: 859
Language: Kota
Location: Gabon
Population: 28,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngando
Consonant system:
Number: 860
Language: Ngundi
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Consonant system:
Number: 861
Language: Pande
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Consonant system:
Number: 862
Language: Mbati
Location: S Central African Republic
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Other Sources: AGT
Consonant system: t k kp b ʔb d ʔd ɡ ɡb ɸ s z m n ñ l Stops: b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: ɸ s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: extra-hi hi mid lo ris fall
Number: 863
Language: Mbomotaba Alternate Name: Babole, Dibole
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 864
Language: Bongili
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Consonant system:
Number: 865
Language: Lobala
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngundi
Consonant system:
Number: 866
Language: Mboko2
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Consonant system:
Number: 867
Language: Akwa
Location: NE Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Other Sources: AGT
Consonant system: p t k kp ɓ ɗ ɡ ɡb s v z m n ñ l Stops: p ɓ t ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: v s z Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Number: 868
Language: Ngare
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Consonant system:
Number: 869
Language: Koyo
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 870
Language: Mboshi
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Consonant system:
Number: 871
Language: Kwala
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Consonant system:
Number: 872
Language: Kuba
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mboshi
Consonant system:
Number: 873
Language: Ngiri Alternate Name: Mabaale
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 6,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba
Other Sources: Tanghe, J. 1929. "Mable Stories," BSOAS 5, 359-78 & 571-86.
Consonant system: p t k b (ɓ) d ɡ ɡ̌ f s ž m n ŋ l Stops: p b (ɓ) t d k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s ž Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 14 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 874
Language: Bobangi
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba Grammar: GD: Whitehead, John. 1899. Grammar and Dictionary of the Bobangi Language. London. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, NJ]
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts s z m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Tones: hi lo Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 11 (kinship terms, names of foreign origin) Demonstratives: 3 this here, that yonder visible, that remote invisible (=ref)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 875
Language: Sengele
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 876
Language: Sakata
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba
Consonant system:
Number: 877
Language: Ntomba Alternate Name: Bolia
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 45,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba Grammar: GD: Mamet, M. 1955. La langue ntomba. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Consonant system: p t k b d (f) s h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k Fricatives: (f) s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ s z ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 878
Language: Losengo Dialect: Lingala
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 7 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba Dictionary: Blavier, E. 1958. Dictionnaire-Woordenboeck: lingala-français-néerlandais. Leopoldville : La Librairie Congolaise. Grammar: GD: Guthrie, Malcolm. 1939. Grammaire et dictionnaire de lingala Cambridge, Eng: W. Heffer Sons. [Reprinted 1966 by Gregg Press, Farnborough, England]. Bwantsa-Kafungu, Pierre. 1970. Esquisse grammaticale de lingala. Kinshasa: Univ of Lovanium. Ellington, John. 1974. A Handbook of Kinshasa Lingala. n.p. Redden, James and F.Bongo. 1963. Lingala: Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute.
TextBooks: Everbroeck, R. van. 1969. Le lingala: parlé et écrit. n.p.
Consonant system: p t k b (d) (ɡ) f s (h) v z m n l Stops: p b t (d) k (ɡ) Fricatives: f v s z (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z (p t k f s) cj b m n cʷ p b t k ɡ ts s z m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall (fall-ris) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (6 pl) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH H=non-human
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Lingala is used as a trade language along the Zaire River.
Number: 879
Language: Buja
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 100,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bangi-Ntomba
Consonant system:
Number: 880
Language: Ngombe2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 150,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe Dictionary: Rood, N. 1958. Ngombe-Nederlands-Frans Woordenboek. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Grammar: GD: Ruskin, Edward Algernon. 1937. Notes on the Grammar of Lingombe. Bongandanga, Belgian Congo: CBM Press.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d ɗ ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ s h m n l Stops: p b ɓ t d ɗ k ɡ kp ɡb Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (persons) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 881
Language: Ngombe2 Dialect: Ngiri Doko
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Consonant system:
Number: 882
Language: Ngombe2 Dialect: Doko
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 883
Language: Bwela
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Consonant system:
Number: 884
Language: Bati2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Consonant system:
Number: 885
Language: Bua2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Consonant system:
Number: 886
Language: Beo Alternate Name: Lebeo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Ngombe
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 887
Language: Mbesa
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 888
Language: So2
Location: Cameroon
Population: 6,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 889
Language: So2
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 890
Language: Gesogo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Number: 891
Language: Lombo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 10,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 892
Language: Lokele
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 26,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 893
Language: Foma
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Kele
Consonant system:
Number: 894
Language: Mongo Dialect: Ekonda
Location: C Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 400,000 (80,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo Dictionary: Hulstaert, G. 1952. Dictionnaire français-lomongo. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Hulstaert, G. 1957. Dictionnaire lɔmɔ́ngɔ-français, 2 vols. Tervuren : Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Grammar: Rop, Albert de. 1958. Grammaire du lomongo. Leopoldville: Lovanium Univ. Hulstaert, G. 1961. Grammaire du lɔmɔ́ngɔ. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: (p) t k b d (ɡ) ts dz ɸ s (h) m n ñ ŋ l Stops: (p) b t d k (ɡ) Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: ɸ s (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz s cj p mp b mb k ŋk ŋɡ m cʷ p mp b mb k ŋk ŋɡ ts nts dz ndz s ns m ñ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: stem initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that invisible) + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 895
Language: Mongo Dialect: Oli
Location: SW Cameroon
Population: 200,000 (5,000)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo
Other Sources: Hagège, Claude. 1967. "Description phonologique du parler wori," JWAL 4:2, 15-34.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ v s m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Number: 896
Language: Lalia
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo
Consonant system:
Number: 897
Language: Ngando2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 121,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo
Consonant system:
Number: 898
Language: Konda
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo
Consonant system:
Number: 899
Language: Mbole
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 95,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo
Consonant system:
Number: 900
Language: Ombo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Mongo Grammar: Meeussen, A. E. 1952. Esquisse de la langue ombo. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Consonant system: (p) t k b (bv) č (bv) ɡ̌ (f) s m n ñ l (r) Stops: (p) b t k Affricates: (bv) č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 19 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 901
Language: Tetela
Location: C Democratic Republic of Congo (Eastern Kasai)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Tetela Dictionary: Hagendorens, J. 1957. Dictionnaire otɛtɛla-français. Tshumbɛ-Sainte-Marie. Grammar: Jacobs, John. 1962,1964. Tetela-Grammatica, 3 vols. Gent: Wetenschappelijke Uitgeverij en Boekhandel.
Other Sources: Jacobs, John. 1959. Tetela-Teksten. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Labaera, Raphael. 1971. Orthographe de la langue tetela. Wezembeek-Oppem, Belgium.
Consonant system: p t k b d č ɡ̌ f s š h v m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but l Nc Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: (ī) ē ɛ̄ ā ō ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall)
Noun Classes: noun classes
Syntax: N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 902
Language: Kusu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (Maniema)
Population: 26,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Tetela
Consonant system:
Number: 903
Language: Nkutu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Tetela
Consonant system:
Number: 904
Language: Yela
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 33,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Tetela
Consonant system:
Number: 905
Language: Kela
Location: C Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 90,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Tetela Grammar: Forges, Germaine. 1977. Le kela. Paris: SELAF.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ m n̪ ŋ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives:Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 906
Language: Ndengese
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bushong
Consonant system:
Number: 907
Language: Songomeno
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bushong
Consonant system:
Number: 908
Language: Bushong
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kasai)
Population: 29,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Northwest: Zone C: Bushong Grammar: GD: Vansina, J. 1959. Esquisse de grammaire bushong. Tervuren. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Consonant system: p t k b d č š m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č Fricatives: š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ m n Nc p b t d k ɡ č š cj p b d k č m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo (ris) (fall)
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 15 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 909
Language: Lengola
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (Maniema)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Enya
Consonant system:
Number: 910
Language: Mituku
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (Orientale)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Enya
Consonant system:
Number: 911
Language: Enya
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Enya
Consonant system:
Number: 912
Language: Bali2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo (Orientale)
Population: 38,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Lega-Kalanga
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 913
Language: North Binja Alternate Name: Songola
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Lega-Kalanga
Consonant system:
Number: 914
Language: Lega
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 33,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Lega-Kalanga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 915
Language: South Binja Alternate Name: Songola
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Lega-Kalanga
Consonant system:
Number: 916
Language: Holoholo
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 2,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Lega-Kalanga Grammar: Coupez, A. 1955. Esquisse de la langue holoholo. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k b (d̪) ɡ ɡ̌ (f) š h m n̪ ñ l̪ (r) Stops: (p) b t̪ (d̪) k ɡ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: (u) ʋ o Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 18
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 917
Language: Piri
Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Nord-Kivu)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Consonant system:
Number: 918
Language: Bira
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 31,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 919
Language: Nyali Alternate Name: Huku
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 13,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Other Sources: LSNBB IV
Consonant system:
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels:
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NG
Number: 920
Language: Bodo
Location: Sudan
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Consonant system:
Number: 921
Language: Komo Alternate Name: Kuumu
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 922
Language: Kare
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bira-Huku
Consonant system:
Number: 923
Language: Nyanga1
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 25,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Nyanga
Consonant system:
Number: 924
Language: Bembe1
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bembe
Consonant system:
Number: 925
Language: Buyu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone D: Bembe
Consonant system:
Number: 926
Language: Logoli
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 927
Language: Gusii
Location: SW Kenya (S Nyanza)
Population: 700,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Other Sources: Whiteley, W. H. 1960. The Tense System of Gusii. Kampala: East African Institute of Social Research.
Consonant system: (p) t k mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ s β ɣ m n ñ ŋ r Stops: (p) mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β s ɣ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s cʷ b t k ɡ č s m n ñ ŋ r & all Nc except ñɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(w)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO NA ND
Number: 928
Language: Kuria
Population: 94,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 929
Language: Zanaki
Population: 23,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 930
Language: Nata
Population: 9,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 931
Language: Sonjo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 932
Language: Ngurimi
Population: 11,800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Logoli-Kuria
Consonant system:
Number: 933
Language: Kikuyu
Location: Kenya
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba Dictionary: Benson, T. G. 1964. Kikuyu-English Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Barlow, A. Ruffell. 1975. English-Kikuyu Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press.
TextBooks: Leakey, L. S. B. 1959. First Lessons in Kikuyu. Nairobi: The Eagle Press.
Other Sources: Armstrong, Lilias E. 1940. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Consonant system: t k (ʔ) mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ h β ð ɣ m n ñ ŋ ɹ Stops: mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɹ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 934
Language: Embu
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba
Consonant system:
Number: 935
Language: Meru
Location: Kenya
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba
Consonant system:
Number: 936
Language: Tharaka
Location: Kenya
Population: 52,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba Grammar: GD: Lindblom, Gerhard. 1914. Outlines of a Tharaka Grammar. Uppsala: Archives d'Études Orientales.
Consonant system: t k mb d ɡ G č ñɡ̌ θ s β ð m n ŋ (l) r Stops: mb t d k ɡ G Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β θ ð s Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b t d ɡ ɡ̌ ð Glides: j w ɯ̯
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ai au ao Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 937
Language: Kamba
Location: S Kenya
Population: 933,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba Dictionary: Mbiti, John S. 1959. English-Kamba Vocabulary. Nairobi: The Eagle Press. A Kikamba-English Dictionary. 1970. Nairobi: Machakos. Grammar: Farnsworth, E. M. 1957. A Kamba Grammar. n.p. Africa Inland Mission. Lindblom, Gerhard. 1926. Notes on Kamba Grammar. Uppsala: Aktiebolag.
TextBooks: Whiteley, W. H and M. G. Muli. 1962. Practical Introduction to Kamba. London: Oxford Univ Press.
Other Sources: Ndumbu, J. M. G. and W. H. Whiteley. 1962. "Some Problems of Stability and Emphasis in Kamba One-Word Tenses," JAL 1, 167-80.
Consonant system: t̪ c k mb nd̪ ŋɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ š β ð nz ž ɣʷ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ Stops: mb t̪ nd̪ c k ŋɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð s̪ nz š ž ɣʷ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Modified Consonants: Nc b t d ɡ ɡ̌ ð s z w cʷ t k ð β s m n ŋ l ɣ Glides: j ɥ w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall mid-fall Stress: root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 938
Language: Daiso
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Kikuyu-Kamba
Consonant system:
Number: 939
Language: Rwo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Chaga
Consonant system:
Number: 940
Language: Chaga
Location: Tanzania
Population: 237,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Chaga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 941
Language: Rusa
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Chaga
Consonant system:
Number: 942
Language: Kahe
Population: 1,800
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Chaga
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 943
Language: Gweno
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Chaga
Consonant system:
Number: 944
Language: Pokomo
Population: 16,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Nyika
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6*
Number: 945
Language: Nyika
Population: 39,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Nyika
Consonant system:
Number: 946
Language: Digo
Population: 32,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Nyika
Consonant system:
Number: 947
Language: Taita
Location: Kenya
Population: 120,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone E: Nyika Grammar: Wray, J. Alfred. 1894. An Elementary Introduction to the Taita Language. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ? ʔc d ɡ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai au ei oi
Syllable: mˈ nˈ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 948
Language: Tongwe
Location: Tanzania
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Tongwe
Consonant system:
Number: 949
Language: Bende
Location: Tanzania
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Tongwe
Consonant system:
Number: 950
Language: Fipa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Tongwe
Consonant system:
Number: 951
Language: Sukuma
Location: N Tanzania (Lake)
Population: 900,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Sukuma-Nyamwezi Dictionary: Richardson, I. and W. M. Mann. 1966. "A Vocabulary of Sukuma," ALS 7, 1-79.
Other Sources: Batibo, Herman M. 1977. "La fonction expressive des phonèmes en kesukuma," Afrique et Language 8, 37-43. WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h v z m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ f v s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo ris
Syntax: SVO
Number: 952
Language: Nyamwezi
Location: C Tanzania
Population: 365,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Sukuma-Nyamwezi
Consonant system:
Number: 953
Language: Sumbwa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Sukuma-Nyamwezi
Consonant system:
Number: 954
Language: Kimbu
Location: S Tanzania
Population: 9,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Sukuma-Nyamwezi
Consonant system:
Number: 955
Language: Bungu
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Sukuma-Nyamwezi
Consonant system:
Number: 956
Language: Nyilamba
Location: Tanzania
Population: 170,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Nyilamba-Langi
Consonant system:
Number: 957
Language: Rimi
Location: C Tanzania (Singida)
Population: 180,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Nyilamba-Langi Grammar: Olson, Howard Stanley. 1964 The Phonology and Morphology of Rimi. HSL 14.
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s x h β ɣ ʁ m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s x ɣ ʁ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc cʷ & cj are analysed as clusters Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 958
Language: Langi
Location: Tanzania
Population: 95,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Nyilamba-Langi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 959
Language: Mbugwe
Location: Tanzania
Population: 7,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Nyilamba-Langi
Consonant system:
Number: 960
Language: Mbugu
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone F: Nyilamba-Langi
Consonant system:
Number: 961
Language: Gogo
Location: EC Tanzania
Population: 270,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Gogo
Consonant system:
Number: 962
Language: Kaguru
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Gogo
Consonant system:
Number: 963
Language: Tubeta
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Shambala
Consonant system:
Number: 964
Language: Casu Alternate Name: Asu
Location: Tanzania
Population: 99,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Shambala
Consonant system:
Number: 965
Language: Shambala
Location: NE Tanzania
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Shambala
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 966
Language: Bondei
Location: NE Tanzania
Population: 30,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Shambala Grammar: GD: Woodward, H. W. 1882. Collections for a Handbook of the Boondéi Language. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 967
Language: Zigula Alternate Name: Pare. Asu
Location: Tanzania
Population: 112,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 968
Language: Ngwele
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 969
Language: Zaramo
Population: 180,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 970
Language: Ngulu1
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Number: 971
Language: Ruguru
Population: 179,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 972
Language: Kami
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 973
Language: Kutu
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 974
Language: Vidunda
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 975
Language: Sagala
Population: 20,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Zigula-Zaramo
Consonant system:
Number: 976
Language: Tikuu
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Swahili
Consonant system:
Number: 977
Language: Swahili
Location: E Tanzania
Population: 20 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Swahili Dictionary: Johnson, Frederick. 1971a. A Standard Swahili-English Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Johnson, Frederick. 1971b. A Standard English-Swahili Dictionary. London: Oxford Univ Press. Grammar: Polomé, Edgar C. 1967. Swahili Language Handbook. Washington, D.C.: CAL.
TextBooks: Ashton, E. O. 1947. Swahili Grammar. London: Longman. Haddon, Ernest B. 1955. Swahili Lessons. Cambridge, Eng: W. Heffer and Sons. Indakwa, John. 1975. Swahili: Conversation and Grammar. Houston: Gulf. Perrott, D. V. 1957. Teach Yourself Swahili. London: The English Universties Press.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ č čh ɡ̌ f (θ) s š h v (ð) z (ɣ) m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v (θ) (ð) s z š (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄)
Syllable: (C)(C)V Nˈ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5 (human, body parts & plants & trees, natural phenomena, inanimate objects, abstract) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+D+NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 978
Language: Pemba
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Swahili
Consonant system:
Number: 979
Language: Komoro Dialect: Ngazija
Location: Comoro Is.
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Swahili
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. and M. A. Bryan. 1970. "Tonal Classification of Nouns in Ngazija," ALS 11, 351-82.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k b ɓ d̪ d ɗ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s š h β v z m n ñ l r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ t d ɗ k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc all but β f s š h m n ñ l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall downstep Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: NA NG ND N-POSS
Number: 980
Language: Komoro Dialect: Kingwana
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Swahili Dictionary: Spinette, J. 1960. Vocabulaire kingwana-français. Brussels: Direction de l'Agriculture, des Forêts et de l'Élévage. Grammar: Whitehead, John and L. F. Whitehead. 1928. Manuel de kingwana. Belgian Congo.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s š h mv z m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f mv s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 981
Language: Pogoro Alternate Name: Pogolo
Location: Tanzania
Population: 63,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Pogoro
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 982
Language: Ndamba
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Pogoro
Consonant system:
Number: 983
Language: Sango2
Population: 23,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 984
Language: Sango2
Location: Central African Republic
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 985
Language: Sango2
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 986
Language: Sango2
Location: S Central African Republic
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga Dictionary: Taber, Charles R. 1965. A Dictionary of Sango. Hartford: Hartford Seminary Foundation. Grammar: Samarin, William. 1967. A Grammar of Sango. The Hague: Mouton. Samarin, W. J. 1970. Sango: Langue de l'Afrique Centrale. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
TextBooks: Samarin, William J. 1967. Lessons in Sango, 2 vols. Hartford: Hartford Seminary Foundation.
Other Sources: Taber, Charles R. 1964. French Loan Words in Sango: A Statistical Analysis of Incidence. HSL 12.
Consonant system: p t k kp b ɓ d (ɗ) ɡ ɡb f s h v z m n l ɾ Stops: p b ɓ t d (ɗ) k ɡ kp ɡb Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡb (v) z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ā ō Nasal Vowels: æ̃ ã ũ ɒ̃
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) (fall) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 5=6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Sango is a lingua franca based on Ngbandi, with French and Bantu loans.
Number: 987
Language: Hehe
Location: EC Tanzania
Population: 192,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 988
Language: Bena
Population: 158,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 989
Language: Pangwa
Location: Tanzania
Population: 38,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 990
Language: Kinga
Location: Tanzania
Population: 57,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 991
Language: Wanji
Population: 18,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 992
Language: Kisi2
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 993
Language: Kisi2
Location: Liberia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone G: Bena-Kinga
Consonant system:
Number: 994
Language: Bembe2
Location: Congo
Population: 35,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo
Other Sources: Jacquot, A. 1962. "Notes sur la phonologie du beembe (Congo)," JAL 1, 232-42.
Consonant system: ph th kh b d ɡ pfh tsh bv dz f s v z m n l Stops: ph b th d kh ɡ Affricates: pfh bv tsh dz Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 995
Language: Yombe
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo Grammar: Clercq, L. de. 1921. Grammaire du kiyombe. Brussels: Goemaere.
Other Sources: Meeussen, A. E. and D. Ndembe. 1964. "Principes de tonologie yombe (Kongo Occidental)," JAL 3, 135-61.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ŋɡ (pf) ts f s v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ŋɡ Affricates: (pf) ts Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 996
Language: Kunyi
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo
Consonant system:
Number: 997
Language: Ndingi
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo
Consonant system:
Number: 998
Language: Mboka
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo
Consonant system:
Number: 999
Language: Kongo Alternate Name: Fiote
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo Dictionary: Laman, K. E. and M. Westling. 1972. Vocabulaire kikongo-français - français-kikongo. Kinshasa: Leco. Grammar: GD: Bentley, W. Holman. 1887, 1895. Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo language, 2 vols. London: Baptist Missionary Society. [Reprinted 1967 by Gregg Press, Farnborough, England]
TextBooks: Dereau, Léon. 1955. Cours de kikongo. Namur, Belgium: Wesmael-Charlier.
Other Sources: Lumwamu, François. 1973. Essai de morphosyntaxe systématique des parlers kongo. Paris: Klincksieck.
Consonant system: p t k b d ŋɡ pf ts dz f s (h) v z ɣ m n (ŋ) l Stops: p b t d k ŋɡ Affricates: pf ts dz Fricatives: f v s z ɣ (h) Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ f v s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V mˈ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Widely used as a lingua franca.
Number: 1000
Language: Dondo
Location: Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Kongo
Consonant system:
Number: 1001
Language: North Mbundu
Location: Angola
Population: 1.7 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Mbundu Dictionary: Alves, Albino. 1951. Dicionário Etimológico Bundo-Português. Lisbon: Tipografia Silvas. Grammar: Chatelain, Heli. 1888-89. Grammatica Elementar do Kimbundu. Geneva. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, NJ.
TextBooks: DT: Maia, António da Silva. 1964. Lições de Gramática de Quimbundo. Cucujães, Angola.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ f s š h v nz ñž m n l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: f v s nz š ñž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ z ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1002
Language: Sama
Population: 9,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Mbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 1003
Language: Bolo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Mbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 1004
Language: Songo
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Mbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 1005
Language: Yaka2
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1006
Language: Yaka2
Location: Cameroon
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1007
Language: Yaka2
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 37,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka Grammar: van den Eynde, Karel. 1968. Éléments de grammaire yaka. Kinshasa: Univ Lovanium.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b mb nd̪ ɡ ŋɡ pf t̪s mbv nd̪z f s̪ h v z̪ m n̪ l̪ (r) Stops: p ph b mb t̪ t̪h nd̪ k kh ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: pf mbv t̪s nd̪z Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc b d̪ ɡ bv dz Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo fall
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 1008
Language: Yaka2
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1009
Language: Suku
Population: 74,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1010
Language: Hungu
Population: 66,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1011
Language: Mbangala
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1012
Language: Sinji Alternate Name: Shingi
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Yaka
Consonant system:
Number: 1013
Language: Hungana
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone H: Hungana
Consonant system:
Number: 1014
Language: Nyoro Dialect: Nyankole, Runyankore, Gungu
Location: Uganda
Population: 810,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Nyoro-Luganda Dictionary: Taylor, C. 1959. A Simplified Runyankore-Rukiga-English and English-Runyankore-Rukiga Dictionary. Kampala: The Eagle Press.
TextBooks: Morris, H. F. and B. E. R. Kirwan. 1957. A Runyankore Grammar. Kampala: The Eagle Press.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k ɡ mb nd ts č f s š h β v nz ž m n ñ r Stops: (p) mb t̪ nd k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β f v s nz š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t̪ d k ɡ ts č f v s z š ž cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai ei oi
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo
Noun Classes: 13 Demonstratives: 4: this near at hand-position known/that far away-position known/that some distance away-position unknown (=ref)/that neither present nor previously mentioned Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1015
Language: Luganda Alternate Name: Ganda
Location: Uganda
Population: 1.6 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Nyoro-Luganda Dictionary: Snoxall, R. A., ed. 1967. Luganda-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Murphy, John D. 1972. Luganda-English Dictionary. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic Univ of America Press.
TextBooks: Ashton, E. O., et al. 1954. A Luganda Grammar. London: Longmans. Chesswas, J. D. 1963. The Essentials of Luganda. London: Oxford Univ Press. Kamoga, Frederick K. and Earl W. Stevick. 1968. Luganda Basic Course. Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute.
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. 1962. "The Syllable in Luganda: A Prosodic Approach," JAL 1, 122-66. Cole, Desmond T. 1967. Some Features of Ganda Linguistic Structure. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s v z m n n ̃ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ all but l j w Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f v s z cj p b t d k ɡ m n l (r) cʷ p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ s z m n ñ ŋ l (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall downdrift downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1016
Language: Soga
Population: 745,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Nyoro-Luganda
Consonant system:
Number: 1017
Language: Gwere
Population: 162,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Nyoro-Luganda
Consonant system:
Number: 1018
Language: Nyala
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Nyoro-Luganda
Consonant system:
Number: 1019
Language: Karagwe Alternate Name: Nyambo
Location: Tanzania
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Haya-Kwaya
Consonant system:
Number: 1020
Language: Haya
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Haya-Kwaya
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1021
Language: Dzindza
Population: 67,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Haya-Kwaya
Consonant system:
Number: 1022
Language: Kerebe
Population: 31,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Haya-Kwaya
Consonant system:
Number: 1023
Language: Kwaya
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Haya-Kwaya
Consonant system:
Number: 1024
Language: Masaba
Location: E Uganda
Population: 510,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
Other Sources: Brown, Gillian. 1972. Phonological Rules and Dialect Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s β z m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo fall downstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 21 Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND
Number: 1025
Language: Luyia
Location: SW Kenya (Nyanza)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
TextBooks: Appleby, L. L. 1961. A First Luyia Grammar. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ ɸ s š x β z ɦ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s z š x ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i (y) e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 Demonstratives: 4 [3 + this near at hand, but not actually within reach)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A+Num/N+D+Num+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1026
Language: Nyole
Location: SE Uganda (Bukedi)
Population: 140,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
Other Sources: Eastman, Carol M. 1972. "Lunyole of the Bamenya," JAL 11:3, 63-78.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ fʷ s h vʷ m n ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: fʷ vʷ s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi mid lo fall
Noun Classes: 15 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1027
Language: Nyole
Location: Uganda
Population: 620,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia Grammar: GD: Maddox, H. E. 1902. An Elementary Lunyoro Grammar. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Consonant system: p t k d ɡ č ɡ̌ fʷ s h β z m n ɾ r Stops: p t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β fʷ s z h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č fʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 (humans, trees, countries & places, abstract, diminutive) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+D+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1028
Language: Suamia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
Consonant system:
Number: 1029
Language: Nyuli
Population: 57,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
Consonant system:
Number: 1030
Language: Syan
Location: E Uganda
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Masaba-Luyia
Other Sources: Huntingford, G. W. B. 1965. "The Orusyan Language of Uganda," JAL 4, 145-69.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ f v s z cj t k č v s m n r cʷ p t k ɡ f v s m r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ã
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 18 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1031
Language: Konzo
Location: W Uganda
Population: 162,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Konzo
Other Sources: Tucker, A. N. 1960. "Notes on Konzo," ALS 1, 16-41.
Consonant system: t c k mb nd ŋɡ ts tr dr ɡ̌ ñ̃ɡ̌ f s h β nz ɣ m n l ḷ r Stops: mb t nd c k ŋɡ Affricates: ts tr dr ɡ̌ ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s nz ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ḷ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Tones: hi mid lo (ris) fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 15 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1032
Language: Nande
Population: 225,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Konzo
Consonant system:
Number: 1033
Language: Hunde
Population: 33,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1034
Language: Havu
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1035
Language: Shi Alternate Name: Mashi
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 4,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1036
Language: Fuliru
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 56,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1037
Language: Vira
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1038
Language: Kabwari
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1039
Language: Tembo1 Alternate Name: Nyabungu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Shi-Havu
Consonant system:
Number: 1040
Language: Rwanda Alternate Name: Kinyarwanda
Location: Rwanda
Population: 5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Rwanda-Rundi Dictionary: Schumacher, Pierre. 1956. Dictionnaire phonétique: français-runyarwanda - runyarwanda-français. Kabgayi: Vicariat Apostolique.
TextBooks: Hurel, Eugene. 1959. Grammaire kinyarwanda. Kabgayi. Overdulve, C. M. 1975. Apprendre la langue rwanda. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k d ɡ pf ts č f s š h β v z ž m n ñ r Stops: p t d k ɡ Affricates: pf ts č Fricatives: β f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ f v s z š ž h r cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3, 6d & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1041
Language: Rundi
Location: Burundi
Population: 3.7 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Rwanda-Rundi Dictionary: Bonneau, H. 1950. Dictionnaire français-kirundi, kirundi-français. Usumbura. Rodegem, F. M. 1970. Dictionnaire rundi-français. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal de L'Afrique Centrale. Cox, Elizabeth E. n.d. Dictionary Kirundi-English, English-Kirundi. Chicago: Irvin L. Young Foundation. Grammar: Meeussen, A. E. 1959. "Essai de grammaire rundi," Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge, Linguistique, vol 24, 9-15. Rodegem, F. M. 1967. Précis de grammaire rundi. Brussels: E. Story-Scientia.
Other Sources: Bouquiaux, Luc. 1973. "Quelques réflexions sur le système phonologique du rundi," in Problèmes de phonologie, Paris, SELAF, 113-9.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ pf ts č f s š h v z ž m n ñ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: pf ts č Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ f v s z š šj ž žj pf ts č čj cj t č v š ž m n r cʷ b t d k ɡ ts č f s š h m n r ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo hi-fall ris-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 3, 6d & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1042
Language: Shubi
Population: 74,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Rwanda-Rundi
Consonant system:
Number: 1043
Language: Hangaza
Population: 54,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Rwanda-Rundi
Consonant system:
Number: 1044
Language: Vinza
Population: 3,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone J: Rwanda-Rundi
Consonant system:
Number: 1045
Language: Yeci
Location: Angola
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Holu
Consonant system:
Number: 1046
Language: Holu
Location: Angola
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Holu
Consonant system:
Number: 1047
Language: Chokwe Alternate Name: Guioca
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi Grammar: Santos, Eduardo dos. 1962. Elementos de Gramática Guioca. Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar.
Other Sources: Martins, João Vicente. 1951. Subsı́dios Etnográficos para a História dos Povos de Angola. Lisbon: Agência Geral do Ultramar.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z ž m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z ž
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 12 (rational beings, trees, abstract nouns, verbs used as nouns) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1048
Language: Luimbi
Location: Angola
Population: 500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi Dictionary: Baião, Domingos Vieira. 1939. Dicionário Ganguela-Portugês. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Filológicos. Grammar: Baião, Domingos Vieira. 1938. Elementos de Gramática Ganguela. Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Filológicos.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ ts č ndz ñɡ̌ (θ) s h v z m n ñ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ts ndz č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v (θ) s z h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz ɡ̌ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1049
Language: Luchazi Alternate Name: Lucazi
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1050
Language: Lwena Alternate Name: Luvale
Location: E Angola (Moxico)
Population: 90,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi Dictionary: Horton, A. E. 1953. A Dictionary of Luvale. El Monte, CA: Rahn Brothers Printing. Grammar: Horton, A. E. 1949. A Grammar of Luvale. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press. White, C. M. N. 1949. A Short Lwena Grammar. London: Longmans.
Consonant system: p t̪ k mb nd̪ ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ ž m n̪ ñ ŋ ľ̪ Stops: p mb t̪ nd̪ k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: ľ̪ Modified Consonants: cj p v h m l cʷ p mb t nd k ŋɡ f v s h m n ñ l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 (persons, trees, liquids, body parts, inanimate) Demonstratives: 4 (3 + this here)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS N+A+Num
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1051
Language: Mbuunda
Population: 25,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Consonant system:
Number: 1052
Language: Nyengo
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Consonant system:
Number: 1053
Language: Mbwela
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Consonant system:
Number: 1054
Language: Nkangala
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Consonant system:
Number: 1055
Language: Ngangela
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Chokwe-Luchazi
Consonant system:
Number: 1056
Language: Salampasu
Population: 60,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Salampasu-Ndembo
Consonant system:
Number: 1057
Language: Ndembo
Location: Zambia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Salampasu-Ndembo
Consonant system:
Number: 1058
Language: Ruund Alternate Name: Lunda
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 82,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Salampasu-Ndembo
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1059
Language: Luyi Alternate Name: Luyana
Location: SW Zambia (Western)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa Grammar: Jacottet, E. 1896. Études sur les langues du Haut-Zambèze. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Givón, Talmy. 1970. The Si-Luyana Language. Lusaka, Zambia: Insitute for Social Research, Univ of Zambia.
Consonant system: p t̪ k mb nd̪ ŋɡ č (ñɡ̌) f s̪ β m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ Stops: p mb t̪ nd̪ k ŋɡ Affricates: č (ñɡ̌) Fricatives: β f s̪ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (6 pl) Demonstratives: 4 (3 + close to both speaker & hearer)
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1060
Language: Mbowe
Location: SW Zambia (Western)
Population: 5,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1061
Language: Kwangali
Location: Namibia
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa Grammar: Westphal, E. O. J. 1958. Kwangari. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ of London.
Consonant system: p mph t̪ t nth k ŋkh d̪ d ɡ č ñɡ̌ f s̪ x β v z̪ m n̪ n l r Stops: p mph t̪ d̪ t nth d k ŋkh ɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s̪ z̪ x Nasals: m n̪ n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc p ph b t̪ t th d k kh ɡ ɡ̌ f v s z x j Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C)
Tones: hi lo downdrift
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: noun classes Demonstratives: 4 (3 + yonder far)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1062
Language: Masi
Location: Zambia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1063
Language: Simaa
Location: Zambia (Western)
Population: 9,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1064
Language: Sanjo
Location: Zambia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1065
Language: Kwangwa
Location: Zambia (Western)
Population: 26,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1066
Language: Gova
Location: Namibia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Kwangwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1067
Language: Totela
Location: Zambia (Western)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Subia
Consonant system:
Number: 1068
Language: Subia
Location: Zambia
Population: 4,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Subia Grammar: Jacottet, E. 1896. Études sur les langues du Haut Zambèze. Paris: Ernest Leroux.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b (d̪) ɡ č ɡ̌ f s̪ š h v z̪ m n̪ ñ (ŋ) l̪ Stops: p b t̪ (d̪) k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s̪ z̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ (ŋ) Laterals: l̪ Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f v s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (6 pl) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1069
Language: Mbala
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Mbala
Consonant system:
Number: 1070
Language: Diriku
Location: Namibia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone K: Diriku
Consonant system:
Number: 1071
Language: Bwile
Location: Zambia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Bwile
Consonant system:
Number: 1072
Language: Kete
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1073
Language: Mbagani
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye
Consonant system:
Number: 1074
Language: Songye
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye
Consonant system:
Number: 1075
Language: Luna
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye
Consonant system:
Number: 1076
Language: Budya
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye
Consonant system:
Number: 1077
Language: Bangubangu
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Songye Grammar: Meeussen, A. E. 1954. Linguistische Schets van het Bangubangu. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge.
Consonant system: (p) t ʔ b mb nd ɡ ŋɡ (č) f s š h v z ž m n ñ ŋ l Stops: (p) b mb t nd ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) Fricatives: f v s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9
Syntax: NA N-NUM
Number: 1078
Language: Luba-Kasai
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 3.4 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Luba Dictionary: Clercq, A. de. 1960. Dictionnaire tshiluba-français. Leopoldville: Société Missionnaire de St. Paul. Grammar: Coupez, A. 1954. Études sur la langue luba. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Willems, P. E. 1955. Le tshiluba du Kasayi. Luluabourg: Mission de Scheut.
Consonant system: t k b d č f s š v z ž m n ñ ŋ l Stops: b t d k Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s z š ž Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ f v s z š ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (human, animals, objects, abstract) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1079
Language: Kanyok
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Luba
Consonant system:
Number: 1080
Language: Luba-Shaba Alternate Name: Kiluba
Location: SW Democratic Republic of Congo (Katanga)
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Luba Dictionary: Avermaet, E. van. 1954. Dictionnaire kiluba-français. Tervuren: Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Grammar: Nkiko, Munya Rugero. 1975. Esquisse grammaticale de la langue luba-shaba. Lubumbashi: Univ Nationale du Zaı̈re
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s v z m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony nasal harmony
Syllable: (N)(C)(G)V
Tones: hi lo ris fal
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 16 (human, kinship terms, animals, body parts) Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1081
Language: Hemba
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Luba
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1082
Language: Sanga
Location: Nigeria (Bauchi)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Luba
Consonant system:
Number: 1083
Language: Kaonde
Population: 38,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Kaonde
Consonant system:
Number: 1084
Language: Mbwera
Population: 36,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Nkoya
Consonant system:
Number: 1085
Language: Nkoya
Population: 19,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone L: Nkoya
Consonant system:
Number: 1086
Language: Pimbwe
Population: 8,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Rungu
Consonant system:
Number: 1087
Language: Rungwa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Rungu
Consonant system:
Number: 1088
Language: Rungu
Population: 24,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Rungu
Consonant system:
Number: 1089
Language: Mambwe
Location: Zambia
Population: 15,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Rungu Grammar: London Missionary Society. 1962. Cimambwe Grammar. Lusaka: Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland Publications Bureau.
Consonant system: p t k b nd ɡ č ɡ̌ f s v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t nd k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ f s cʷ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+NUM+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1090
Language: Ndali
Location: Tanzania
Population: 57,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Other Sources: Vail, Leroy. 1972. "The Noun Classes of Ndali," JAL 11:3, 21-47.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f s š h β ɣ m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s š ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cj p β f m l cʷ p mb t k ŋɡ f s m l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 21 Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1091
Language: Mwanga
Population: 32,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1092
Language: Nyiha
Population: 59,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1093
Language: Malila
Population: 17,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1094
Language: Safwa
Population: 46,200
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1095
Language: Iwa
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1096
Language: Tembo2
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyika-Safwa
Consonant system:
Number: 1097
Language: Nyakyusa
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Nyakyusa
Other Sources: Johnson, Frederick. 1921-23. "Notes on Kimakonde," BSOAS 2, 417-66.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ s h hʷ m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cʷ h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: NA ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1098
Language: Taabwa
Location: Democratic Republic of Congo
Population: 13,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bemba
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1099
Language: Bemba
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bemba
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1100
Language: Aushi
Population: 29,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bemba
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1101
Language: Bisa
Population: 41,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba Grammar: GD: Madan, A.C. 1906. Wisa Handbook. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ č ñ̃ɡ̌ f s βʷ v z m n ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: βʷ f v s z Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ Glides: j
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=3
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1102
Language: Lala
Population: 64,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba
Consonant system:
Number: 1103
Language: Swaka
Population: 12,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba
Consonant system:
Number: 1104
Language: Lamba
Location: Togo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba
Consonant system:
Number: 1105
Language: Lamba
Population: 75,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba
Consonant system:
Number: 1106
Language: Seba
Population: 7,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Bisa-Lamba
Consonant system:
Number: 1107
Language: Lenje
Population: 33,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Lenje-Tonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1108
Language: Soli
Population: 13,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Lenje-Tonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1109
Language: Ila
Location: Zambia
Population: 130,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Lenje-Tonga Grammar: GD: Smith, Edwin W. 1907. A Handbook of the Ila Language. Oxford. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, NJ]
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v vh z ž m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v vh s z š ž h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f vh s z š cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Back Vowels: ʋ o ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Diphthongs: ai oi
Syllable: (C)V
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 2=3 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1110
Language: Tonga1
Population: 90,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Lenje-Tonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1111
Language: Tonga1
Location: Zambia
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone M: Lenje-Tonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1112
Language: Manda
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Manda
Consonant system:
Number: 1113
Language: Matengo
Population: 58,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Manda
Consonant system:
Number: 1114
Language: Mpoto
Population: 58,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Manda
Consonant system:
Number: 1115
Language: Tonga2
Location: Malawi
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Manda
Consonant system:
Number: 1116
Language: Tumbuka
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Tumbuka
Consonant system:
Number: 1117
Language: Nyanja Alternate Name: Chichewa
Location: Malawi
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Nyanja Dictionary: English-Cinyanja Dictionary. n.d. London: United Society for Christian Literature. Scott, David Clement. 1929. Dictionary of the Nyanja Language. London: United Society for Christian Literature. Dicionário Cinyanja-Português. 1963. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar. Dicionário Portugês-Cinyanja. 1964. Lisbon: Junta de Investigaçõs do Ultramar. Grammar: Elementos de Gramática Cinyanja. 1964. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar.
TextBooks: Thomoson, T. D. 1955. A practical Approach to Chinyanja. Zomba, Malawi: Government Printer. Price, Thomas. 1966. The Elements of Nyanja for English-Speaking Students. Blantyre, Malawi: The Synod Bookshop.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ f s (h) v z m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z (h) Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f v s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G) V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (personal, impersonal, abstract, diminutives) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+A+NUM +D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1118
Language: Senga Alternate Name: Nsenga
Location: Zambia
Population: 45,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1119
Language: Kunda
Population: 73,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena
Consonant system:
Number: 1120
Language: Nyungwe
Location: Mozambique
Population: 700,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena Grammar: Courtois, Victor José. 1899. Elementos de Grammatica Tetense. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s š h v z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (persons, inanimate, abstract, diminutives) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1121
Language: Sena
Location: Mozambique
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena Dictionary: Alves, P. Albano. 1957. Dicionário Português-Chisena e Chisena-Português. Beira: Tipografia da Escola de Artes e Ofı́cios. Grammar: Torrend, J. 1900. Grammatica do Chisena. Chipanga, Zambia.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ ts č čh dz ɡ̌ f fh s š h v z m n ñ l Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f fh v s z š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ts dz č ɡ̌ f v s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 Demonstratives: 4: near person speaking, in hands of or joined to person speaking, near person spoken to, remote from both speaker and person spoken to.
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1122
Language: Rue
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena
Consonant system:
Number: 1123
Language: Podzo
Population: 5,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone N: Senga-Sena
Consonant system:
Number: 1124
Language: Ndengereko
Population: 53,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Matumbi
Consonant system:
Number: 1125
Language: Ruihi
Population: 71,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Matumbi
Consonant system:
Number: 1126
Language: Matumbi
Location: Tanzania
Population: 41,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Matumbi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1127
Language: Ngindo
Population: 85,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Matumbi
Consonant system:
Number: 1128
Language: Mbunga
Population: 10,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Matumbi
Consonant system:
Number: 1129
Language: Yao
Location: N Mozambique (Niassa)
Population: 127,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Yao Dictionary: Sanderson, G. Meredith. 1954. A Dictionary of the Yao Language. Zomba, Malawi: Government Printer. José Viana, Miguel. 1961. Dicionário de Portugês-Chi-Yao e Chi-Yao- Português. Memórias do Instituto de Investigação Cientı́fia de Moçambique 3, 1-172. Grammar: Sanderson, Meredith. 1922. A Yao Grammar. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Other Sources: Whiteley, W. H. 1966. A Study of Yao Sentences. Oxford: Charendon Press.
Consonant system: p t c k mb ɓ nd ɗ ñɟ ʄ ŋɡ ɠ č (f) v s š m n ñ ŋ l ʎ Stops: p mb ɓ t nd ɗ c ñɟ ʄ k ŋɡ ɠ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v s š Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Modified Consonants: cj p mNc b d ɟ ɡ cj p m Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo ris fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 15 (human, trees, fruits, inanimate, birds, animals, natural phenomena) Demonstratives: 2 + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1130
Language: Mwera
Location: S Tanzania
Population: 126,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Yao Grammar: Harries, Lyndon. 1950. A Grammar of Mwera. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press.
Consonant system: pʔ t̪ k mb nd̪ ŋɡ č ɡ̌ h β m n̪ n ñ ŋ l Stops: pʔ mb t̪ nd̪ k ŋɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ cj many cʷ many Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 (persons, proper names, kinship terms, trees, body parts, fruits, animals) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1131
Language: Makonde
Location: Mozambique
Population: 281,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Yao
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1132
Language: Ndonde
Population: 12,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Yao
Consonant system:
Number: 1133
Language: Mabiha
Population: 70,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Yao
Consonant system:
Number: 1134
Language: Makua
Location: Mozambique
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua Dictionary: Matos, Alexandre Valente de. 1974. Dicionário Português-Macua. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações Cientı́ficas do Ultramar. Grammar: Sacramento, José Vicente do. 1906. Apontamentos soltos da Lı́ngua Macúa. Lisbon: Typographia Universal.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh (b) (d) ts č ɡ̌ (f) s š h m n ñ r Stops: p ph (b) t th (d) k kh Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 6 (5 pl) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1135
Language: Lomwe
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua
Consonant system:
Number: 1136
Language: Ngulu2
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua
Consonant system:
Number: 1137
Language: Ngulu2
Population: 65,500
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua
Consonant system:
Number: 1138
Language: Ngulu2
Location: Tanzania
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua
Consonant system:
Number: 1139
Language: Chuabo
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone P: Makua
Consonant system:
Number: 1140
Language: South Mbundu
Location: C Angola
Population: 1.7 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: South Mbundu Dictionary: Le Guennec, Grégoire and José Francisco Valente. 1972. Dicionário Português-Umbundu. Luanda: Instituto de Investigação Cientı́fica de Angola. Grammar: Valente, José Francisco. 1964. Gramática Umbundu. Lisbon: Junta de Investigacões do Ultramar.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ č ñ̃ɡ̌ f s h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñ̃ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(G)V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 (12 pl) (human, animate, inanimate, instruments, abstract, diminutives, large objects) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND NUM-N/N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1141
Language: Ndombe
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: South Mbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 1142
Language: Nyaneka
Population: 40,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: South Mbundu
Consonant system:
Number: 1143
Language: Nkumbi
Location: Angola
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: South Mbundu
Other Sources: Westphal, E. O. J. 1961. "Oluŋhkumbi Vocabulary," ALS 2, 49-63.
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ f s h β m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ f s h cj p t nd β s l cʷ p mb t nd k s š ç l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 18 Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: N-NUM N-POSS
Number: 1144
Language: Kwanyama
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: Ndonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1145
Language: Ndonga
Location: N Namibia
Population: 350,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: Ndonga
Other Sources: Baucom, Kenneth L. 1972. "The Wambo Languages of South West Africa and Angola," JAL 11, 45-73. WALS
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ ts ñɡ̌ f θ s š x h v ð z ñz ̌ ɣ m n n̥ ñ l ʎ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Affricates: ts ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f v θ ð s z š ñž x ɣ h Nasals: m n n̥ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Modified Consonants: Nc p b d k ɡ ɡ̌ v ž Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo downstep upstep
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO
Number: 1146
Language: Kwambi
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: Ndonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1147
Language: Ngandyera
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: Ndonga
Consonant system:
Number: 1148
Language: Herero
Location: Namibia
Population: 40,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone R: Herero Dictionary: Brincker, H. 1886. Wörterbuch und kurzgefasste Grammatik des Otji-Herero. Leipzig. [Reprinted 1964 by Gregg Press, Ridgewood, NJ] Grammar: Viehe, G. 1897. Grammatik des Otjiherero. Stuttgart: W. Spemann.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6*
Number: 1149
Language: Shona
Location: Zimbabwe
Population: 2 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona Dictionary: Hannan, M. 1974. Standard Shona Dictionary. Salisbury: Rhodesia Literature Bureau. Grammar: GD: Biehler, E. 1950. A Shona Dictionary. Salisbury: The Jesuit Fathers. Fortune, G. 1955. An Analytical Grammar of Shona. London: Longmans.
TextBooks: Fortune, G. 1967. Elements of Shona. Salisbury: Longmans.
Other Sources: Jones, Daniel. 1911. The Pronunciation and Orthography of the Chindau Language. London: Univ of London.
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ɓ d̪ ɗ ɡ pf t̪s č bv d̪z ɡ̌ f s̪ sʷ š β v z̪ zʷ ž ɦ m n̪ ñ ŋ (v̊) r Stops: p b ɓ t̪ d̪ ɗ k ɡ Affricates: pf bv t̪s d̪z č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s̪ z̪ sʷ zʷ š ž ɦ Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Vibrants: (v̊) r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ ɡ̌ v z cʷ s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi lo downdrift Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS N+Num+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1150
Language: Zezuru
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona
Consonant system:
Number: 1151
Language: Manyika
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona
Consonant system:
Number: 1152
Language: Karanga
Location: SE Zimbabwe (Victoria)
Population: 750,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona Grammar: Marconnès, Francisque. 1931. A Grammar of Central Karanga. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k b ʔb d ʔd ɡ pf ts č bv dz ɡ̌ f s s ̌ x β v z ž ɣ ɦ m n ŋ (l) r Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ Affricates: pf bv ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z š ž x ɣ ɦ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: Nc b d ɡ v z cʷ s z Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN/ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1153
Language: Ndau
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona
Consonant system:
Number: 1154
Language: Kalanga
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Shona
Consonant system:
Number: 1155
Language: Venda
Location: NE South Africa (Transvaal)
Population: 150,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Venda Dictionary: Marole, L. T. and F. J. de Gama. 1954. English-Venda Vocabulary. Sibasa, South Africa: Marole Book Depot. Wentzel, P. J. and T. W. Muloiwa. 1976. Venda-Afrikaans-English. Pretoria: Univ of South Africa. Grammar: Ziervogel, D., P. J. Wentzel and T. N. Makuya, eds. 1972. A Handbook of the Venda Language. Pretoria: Univ of South Africa.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h t th k kh b d̪ d ɡ pf pfh ts tsh č čh bv dz ɡ̌ ɸ f s š x β v z ž ɣʷ ɦ m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ r ɹ̣ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: pf pfh bv ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β f v s z š ž x ɣʷ ɦ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: r ɹ̣ Modified Consonants: cj d k cʷ p ph b č čh ɡ̌ s z ɣ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 18 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1156
Language: Tswana
Location: N South Africa
Population: 852,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Sotho-Tswana Dictionary: Brown, J. Tom. 1962. Secwana Dictionary. Lobatsi, South Africa: Bechuanaland Book Centre. Grammar: Cole, Desmond T. 1955. An Introduction to Tswana Grammar. London: Longmans.
TextBooks: Cole, Desmond T. and Dingaan Mpho Mokaila. 1962. A Course in Tswana. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ Press.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ b tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ kxh ɡ̌ ɸ s š x h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ kh kʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ kxh Fricatives: ɸ s š x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Clicks: ʘ / n/ ! || n|| (clicks are all rarely used) Modified Consonants: cʷ many Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ lˈ rˈ
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (persons,trees, animals) Demonstratives: 4 (3 + this here)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1157
Language: Northern Sotho Alternate Name: Ndebele
Location: NE South Africa (Transvaal)
Population: 800,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Sotho-Tswana Dictionary: Ziervogel, D. and P. C. Mokgokong. 1975. Comprehensive Northern Sotho Dictionary. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik. Grammar: Ziervogel, D. , D. P. Lombard and P. C. Mokgokong. 1969. A Handbook of the Northern Sotho Language. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ b d psh pšh pšʔ tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ kxh bž ɸs f f š s š x β (v) (z) ž ɣ (ɦ) m n ñ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ Affricates: psh pšh pšʔ bž tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ kxh Fricatives: ɸs β f f š (v) s (z) š ž x ɣ (ɦ) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: / ǂ || Modified Consonants: cʷ t th k kh ɡ ts tl čh s š x n ñ ŋ l ɬ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ lˈ
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 15 (persons, natural phenomena, trees, instruments, animals, fruits, abstract) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1158
Language: Southern Sotho Alternate Name: Sesotho
Location: Lesotho
Population: 3 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Sotho-Tswana Dictionary: Kriel, T. J. 1958. The New English-Sesotho Dictionary. Johannesburg: Afrikaanse Pers-Bookhandel. Mabille, A. and H. Dieterlen. 1961. Sourthern Sotho-English Dictionary. Morija: Morija Sesuto Book Depot. Grammar: Guma, Samson Mbizo. 1971. An Outline Structure of Southern Sotho. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter and shooter.
TextBooks: Doke, C. M. and S. M. Mofokeng. 1957. Textbook of Southern Sotho Grammar. London: Longmans. Demuth, Katherine and Tholoana Sekhesa. 1978. Basic Sesotho - An Oral Approach. Bloomington: African Studies Program, Indiana Univ.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ b d pšh pšʔ tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ kxh bž ɡ̌ f f š s š x (v) ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ Affricates: pšh pšʔ bž tsh tsʔ tlh tlʔ čh čʔ ɡ̌ kxh Fricatives: f f š (v) s š x ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: ! !h n! (in interjections and ideophones also: / /h n/ || ||h n||) Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Syllable: (C)V Nˈ lˈ
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 7 (persons, proper names, kinship terms, animals, trees, plants) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1159
Language: Lozi
Location: S Zambia
Population: 230,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Sotho-Tswana Dictionary: Jalla, A. 1936a. Dictionary of the Lozi Language. London: United Society for Christian Literature. Grammar: Jalla, A. 1936b. Elementary Grammar of the Lozi Language. London: United Society for Christian Literature.
Consonant system: p t k b č (ɡ̌) f s š (v) z m n ŋ l (r) Stops: p b t k Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: f (v) s z š Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ ɡ̌ s Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (persons, trees, abstract, contempt, animals, diminutive, nouns derived from verbs) Demonstratives: 4 (3+ that over there)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1160
Language: Xhosa
Location: S South Africa
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Nguni Dictionary: McLaren, J. 1963. A New Concise Xhosa- English Dictionary. Cape Town: Longmans. Jennings, Lionel E. 1967. The Concise Trilingual Dictionary in English, Xhosa, Afrikaans. Lovedale, South Africa: The Lovedale Press. Grammar: Bennie, W. G. 1953. A Grammar of Xhosa. Lovedale, South Africa: The Lovedale Press. McLaren, J. 1955. A Xhosa Grammar. Cape Town: Longmans.
TextBooks: Jordan, A. C. 1966. A Practical Course in Xhosa. Capetown: Longmans.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ ch cʔ kh kʔ b ɓ d ɟ ɡ pfʔ tsh tsʔ č čh kxʔ bv dz ɡ̌ f s š x h v z ɣ (ɦ) m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r Stops: ph pʔ b ɓ th tʔ d ch cʔ ɟ kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: pfʔ bv tsh tsʔ dz č čh ɡ̌ kxʔ Fricatives: f v s z š x ɣ h (ɦ) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r Clicks: /h /ʔ ɡ/ n/ ŋ/ ŋ/ɡ ||h ||ʔ ɡ|| n|| ŋ|| ŋ||ɡ !h !ʔ ɡ! n! ŋ! ŋ!ɡ Modified Consonants: Nc pʔ b tʔ d cʔ ɟ kʔ ɡ tsh dz tl dl čh ɡ̌ f v Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV mˈ
Tones: hi lo fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 10 (persons trees plants) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1161
Language: Zulu
Location: E South Africa
Population: 3 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Nguni Dictionary: Doke, C. M. and B. W. Vilakazi. 1953. Zulu-English Dictionary. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press. Doke, C. M. , D. M. Malcolm and J. M. A. Sikakana. 1958. English- Zulu Dictionary. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ Press. Grammar: Malcolm, D. M. 1966. A New Zulu Manual. Johannesburg: Longmans.
TextBooks: Doke, Clement M. 1961. Textbook of Zulu Grammar. Cape Town: Longmans. Ziervogel, D., J. A. Louw and P. C. Taljaard. 1976. A Handbook of the Zulu Language. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ k kh kʔ b ɓ d ɡ mpfʔ tsʔ ntlʔ (č) čʔ klʔ mbv ndl ɡ̌ f s š (x) h v z ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ (r) Stops: ph pʔ b ɓ th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: mpfʔ mbv tsʔ ntlʔ ndl (č) čʔ ɡ̌ klʔ Fricatives: f v s z š (x) h ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: (r) Clicks: / /h ɡ/ n/ ŋ/ɡ || ||h ɡ|| n|| ŋ||ɡ ! !h ɡ! n! ŋ!ɡ Modified Consonants: Nc pfʔ bv tsʔ dz tlʔ dl čʔ ɡ̌ klʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: mˈ rˈ
Tones: hi lo fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1162
Language: Swati
Location: Swaziland
Population: 1.3 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Nguni Grammar: Ziervogel, D. 1976. A Grammar of the Swati Language. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ b ɓ d ɡ tsh tɸh č kxʔ dz dl dβ ɡ̌ f s š x v z ž ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: ph pʔ b ɓ th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: tsh dz dl tɸh dβ č ɡ̌ kxʔ Fricatives: f v s z š ž x ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: / /h n/ n/h ɡ/ ŋ/ ŋ/ɡ (|| and ! are used only in foreiɡn words) Modified Consonants: Nc ph pʔ b t d kh kʔ ɡ dl ts dz tɸ dβ č ɡ̌ kxʔ f v s z š ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Tones: hi lo fall Stress: on root & penult syllable
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 13 (6 pl) (persons, relatives, natural phenomena, fruit, birds, foodstuffs, flat objects) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1163
Language: Ndebele
Location: S Zimbabwe
Population: 700,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Nguni Dictionary: Pelling, J. N. 1966. A Pratical Ndebele Dictionary. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: Daystar. Grammar: Ziervogel, D. 1959. A Grammar of Northern Transvaal Ndebele. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɓ d ɡ ts tsh kl dl ɡ̌ f s h v z m n ŋ l ɬ (r) Stops: p ph b ɓ t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts tsh dl ɡ̌ kl Fricatives: f v s z h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (r) Clicks: / /h ɡ/ n/ n/h || ||h ɡ|| n|| n||h ! !h ɡ! n! n! n!h Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable:
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (persons, names, natural phenomena, instruments) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/DN N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1164
Language: Ngoni
Population: 103,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Nguni
Consonant system:
Number: 1165
Language: Tswa
Population: 500,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Tswa-Ronga
Consonant system:
Number: 1166
Language: Tonga3
Location: Zambia
Population: 450,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Tswa-Ronga Grammar: Hapgood, C. R. 1940. Tonga Grammar. London: Longmans. Collins, B. 1962. Tonga Grammar. London: Longmans.
TextBooks: Hapgood, C. R. 1953. A Practical Introduction to Tonga. London: Longmans.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ f s β v z m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f v s z Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ č ɡ̌ f vʷ sʷ z zj cʷ many cj b t s z nz m l Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)(C)V Nˈ
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 9 (men & animals, abstract, nouns derived from infinitives, small thin objects, nouns derived from verbs) Demonstratives: 4 (3+ near both speaker and person spoken to)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM/(NUM-N) N-POSS N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1167
Language: Tsonga
Location: NE South Africa (Transvaal)
Population: 1.5 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Tswa-Ronga Dictionary: Cuenod, R. 1967. Tsonga-English Dictionary. Johannesburg: Swiss Mission in South Africa. Grammar: Ribeiro, Armando. 1965. Gramática Changana (Tsonga). Caniçado: Editorial Evangelizar.
TextBooks: Ouwehand, M. 1964. Everday Tsonga. Johannesburg: Swiss Mission in South Africa.
Other Sources: Baumbach, E. J. M. 1974. Introduction to the Speech Sounds and Speech Sound Changes of Tsonga. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ pf ts tsh ṭs ṭsh tl tlh č čh bv dz ḍz dl ɡ̌ f s š v z ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: pf bv ts tsh dz ṭs ṭsh ḍz tl tlh dl č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f v s z š ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: (/ n/ g/) Modified Consonants: Nc ? cj ? cʷ k kh ɡ ṭs n ñ ŋ l c̤ (aspirated) b d ɡ ɡ̌ m n r Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 (people, plants, animals, fruit, abstract, instruments) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3* 6* 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM/NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1168
Language: Ronga
Location: Mozambique
Population: 1 million
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Tswa-Ronga Dictionary: Quintão, José Luı́s. 1951a. Dicionários Xironga-Português e Português-Xironga. Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colónias. Sá Nogueira, Rodrigo de. 1960. Dicionário Ronga-Português. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar. Grammar: Junod, Henri A. 1896. Grammaire ronga. Lausanne: Georges Bridel. Quintão, José Luı́s. 1951b. Gramática de Xironga (Landim). Lisbon: Agência Geral das Colónias.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k b d̪ ḍ ɡ ps t̪s tl č (bz) d̪z dl ɡ̌ f s̪ š h (β) v z̪ ž m n̪ ŋ l̪ ɬ̪ ṛ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ṭ ḍ k ɡ Affricates: ps (bz) t̪s d̪z tl dl č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (β) f v s̪ z̪ š ž h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Vibrants: ṛ Modified Consonants: Nc cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 5 (3 + that further on, that very far)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1169
Language: Chopi
Location: Mozambique
Population: 200,000
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Chopi Dictionary: Santos, Luı́s Feliciano dos. 1950. Dicionário Português-Chope e Chope-Português. Lourenço Marques: Imprensa Nacional. Grammar: Santos, Luiz Feliciano dos. 1941. Gramática da Lı́ngua Chope. Lourenço Marques: Imprensa Nacional. Junod, Henri Philippe. n.d. Éléments de grammaire tchopi. Lisbon: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ɓ (d) ɗ ɡ pf ts tsh č (bv) dz ɡ̌ s š h m n ñ ŋ l r Stops: p ph b ɓ t th (d) ɗ k kh ɡ Affricates: pf (bv) ts tsh dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Clicks: || ! Modified Consonants: Nc p b t d k ɡ pf ts dz č ɡ̌ s cj cʷ Glides: j w
Vowel system: Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable:
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 8 Demonstratives: 4 (3 + very far)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3 & 6 vary with noun class
Syntax: SVO NA NG ND/(DN) N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 1170
Language: Tonga-Inhambane
Location: Mozambique
Classification: Niger-Kordofanian: Niger-Congo: South Central: Eastern: Benue-Zambesi: Nyima: Wel: Bantoid: Broad Bantu: Narrow Bantu: Central: Zone S: Chopi
Consonant system:

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