Типологии койсанских (палеоафриканских) языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по бушмено-готтентотским языкам
Главная > Словари праязыков > Типы языков бушменов и готтентотов
Праязыки: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | Й | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я

Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Койсанской макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено 42 (№№ 1-42) палеоафриканских языковых систем, распределённых по семьям:

  1. Северо-койсанская
  2. Центрально-койсанская
  3. Южно-койсанская


Number: 1
Language: Hadza
Location: N Tanzania (Kondoa)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Khoisan
TextBooks: Bleek, D. F. 1931. "The Hadzapi or Watindega of Tanganyika Territory," Africa 4, ??
Other Sources: Sands, Bonny, Ian Maddieson and Peter Ladefoged. 1996. "The Phonetic Structures of Hadza," Studies in African Linguistics 25: 171-?. Sands, Bonny. 1998. Eastern and Southern African Khoisan. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. Tucker, A. N., M. A. Bryan and James Woodburn. 1977. "The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison," in Zur Sprachgeschicte und Ethnohistorie in Africa, ed. by W. Möhlig, F. Rottland and B. Heine, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer, 300-22.
Consonant system: p ph (pʔ) mph t th nth k kh kʔ ŋkh kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ b mb d nd ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ts tsʔ nts tl tlʔ č čʔ dz ndz ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ f s š ɦ m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ l ɬ Stops: p ph (pʔ) mph b mb t th nth d nd k kh kʔ ŋkh ɡ ŋɡ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ nts dz ndz tl tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Laterals: l ɬ Clicks: (ʘʔ) / /ʔ /h n/ n̥/ || ||ʔ ||h n|| n̥|| ! !ʔ !h n! n̥! Woodburn describes (ʘʔ) as "archaic, very rare and replaceable by /." Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ē ō
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi mid lo fall ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4mfc 2mfc 5mf 3mf 6mf c=common
Syntax: VSO
Number: 2
Language: Sandawe
Location: N Tanzania (Kondoa)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Khoisan
Other Sources: Dempwolff, Otto. 1916. Die Sandawe, linguistisches und ethnographisches Material aus Deutsch-Ostafrika. Hamburg. Tucker, A. N., M. A. Bryan and James Woodburn. 1977. "The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison," in Zur Sprachgeschicte und Ethnohistorie in Africa, ed. by W. Möhlig, F. Rottland and B. Heine, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer, 300-22. Kagaya, Ryohei. 1993. A Classified Vocabulary of the Sandawe Language. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Sands, Bonny. 1998. Eastern and Southern African Khoisan. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʔ ʔ b d̪ ɡ tsʔ tl tlʔ č čh dl ɡ̌ f s̪ x h m n̪ ŋ l ɬ r Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ tl tlʔ dl č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s̪ x h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Clicks: / /h /ʔ n/ ɡ/ || ||h ||ʔ n|| ɡ|| ! !h !ʔ n! ɡ! Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: i̥ u̥
Syllable: (C)V(C) [no VC]
Tones: hi lo ris fall Stress: usually root initial
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POSTn\n

Краткие типологические обзоры языков северо-койсанской семьи

Number: 3
Language: Qxû Alternate Name: !Kung
Location: NE Namibia
Population: 30,000
Classification: Khoisan: Northern Grammar: Snyman, J. W. and ||Wãnasi /X'aeše. 1969. !Xʋ̃. Namibia: Admistration of South West Africa. Snyman, J. W. 1970. An Introduction to the !Xũ (!Kung) Language. Cape Town: A. A. Balkema.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsx tsʔ tx txʔ č čh čx kxʔ dzɣ dɣ ɡɣ s š x ɦ β z ž m mʔ n ŋ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: ts tsh tsx tsʔ dzɣ tx txʔ dɣ č čh čx ɡɣ kxʔ Fricatives: β s z š ž x ɦ Nasals: m mʔ n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Clicks: / /h /ʔ /ʔh ɡ/ ɡ/x ɡ/kxʔ ɡ/ʔh /x /xʔ n/ n̥/h n/ʔh ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ǂʔh ɡǂ ǂx ɡǂkxʔ ɡǂʔh ǂx ǂxʔ nǂ n̥ǂh nǂʔh || ||h ||ʔ ||ʔh ɡ|| ɡ||x ɡ||kxʔ ɡ||ʔh ||x ||xʔ n|| n̥||h n||ʔh ! !h !ʔ !ʔh ɡ! ɡ!x ɡ!kxʔ ɡ!ʔh !x !xʔ n! n̥!h n!ʔh Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but e Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e (v̄̃) Modified Vowels: v̰ æ ɔ v̰̄ æ ɔ ṽ̰ æ ɔ (ṽ̰̄) (v̰ are 'pressed' vowels produced with pharyngeal friction.) Diphthongs: diphthongs
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-lev ris fall Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmfn 6mfn
Syntax: SVO NA
Number: 4
Language: Qxû Alternate Name: !Kung Dialect: Dz̪u/'oãsi
Location: NE Namibia
Population: 30,000 (400)
Classification: Khoisan: Northern
TextBooks: Maingard, L. F. 1958. "Three Bushman Languages," African Studies 16: 37-71 & 17: 100-15.
Other Sources: NBL
Consonant system: t k kh ʔ b d ɡ tsʔ čʔ kxʔ dzʔ β s š x h z ž m n ñ ŋ ɾ̣ Stops: b t d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ dzʔ čʔ kxʔ Fricatives: β s z š ž x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Clicks: / /h /ʔ ɡ/ /x /xʔ n/ ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ɡǂ ǂx ǂxʔ nǂ || ||h ||ʔ ɡ|| ||x ||xʔ n|| ! !h !ʔ ɡ! !x !xʔ n! Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5
Language: Qxû Alternate Name: !Kung Dialect: Ju/'hoan
Location: NE Namibia
Population: 30,000
Classification: Khoisan: Northern Dictionary: Dickens, Patrick. 1994. English-Ju/'hoan Ju/'hoan-English Dictionary. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
Consonant system: p ph bph t th tx txʔ dth k kh kxʔ ɡkh ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsx dtsh dtsʔ č čh čx čʔ dčʔ ɟčʔ ɟčh f s š x v z dzx ž džh džx ɦ m n l r Stops: p ph b bph t th tx txʔ dth d k kh kxʔ ɡkh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsx dtsh dtsʔ č čh čx čʔ dčʔ ɟčʔ ɟčh Fricatives: f v s z dzx š ž džh džx x ɦ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Clicks: / /h /x ɡ/ ɡ/x ɡ/kxʔ /xʔ n/ n̥/h /ʔ ǂ ǂh ǂx ɡǂ ɡǂx ɡǂkxʔ ǂxʔ nǂ n̥ǂh ǂʔ ! !h !x ɡ! ɡ!x ɡ!kxʔ !xʔ n! n̥!h !ʔ || ||h ||x ɡ|| ɡ||x ɡ||kxʔ ||xʔ n|| n̥||h ||ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̤ (breathy) all v̰ (creaky) all ṽ̤ all ṽ̰ all
Syllable:
Tones: (very-hi) hi lo very-lo
Noun Classes: 5
Syntax: SVO
Number: 6
Language: Qxû Alternate Name: !Kung Dialect: Dikundu
Location: NE Namibia
Population: 30,000
Classification: Khoisan: Northern Grammar: Köhler, Oswin. 1981. "Les langues khoisan," in Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne, ed. by Jean Perrot, Paris, Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 455-615.
Consonant system: p ph pɦ t th tɦ tx txʔ k kh ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsɦ tsx tsʔ č čh čx čʔ kxʔ dz dzɦ s sh š šh x h β z zɦ ž žɦ ɦ m mɦ mɒ ʔm mb n nɦ ñ ŋ ʔŋ ṛ Stops: p ph pɦ b t th tɦ tx txʔ d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsɦ tsx tsʔ dz dzɦ č čh čx čʔ kxʔ Fricatives: β s sh z zɦ š šh ž žɦ x h ɦ Nasals: m mɦ mɒ ʔm mb n nɦ ñ ŋ ʔŋ Vibrants:Clicks: / /ʔ /ɦ /h /x /xʔ ɡ/ n/ɦ ɡ/n ǂ ǂʔ ǂɦ ǂh ǂx ǂxʔ ɡǂ nǂɦ ɡǂn ! !ʔ !ɦ !h !x !xʔ ɡ! n!ɦ ɡ!n || ||ʔ ||ɦ ||h ||x ||xʔ ɡ|| n||ɦ ɡ||n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Modified Vowels: ḭ ḛ a̰ ṵ o̰ i̤ a̤ ṳ o̤ aɒ oɒ ãɒ õɒ ã̰ õ̰ Diphthongs: ia ei au ao ai ae oi oe oa ui ua ḛḭ a̰ṵ a̰o̰ a̰ḛ o̰ḛ o̰a̰ ṵḭ aoɒ aeɒ oiɒ ãũ ãı̃ õã ũã ũı̃ ã̰ṵ̃ ã̰ı̰̃ õ̰ã̰ ãũɒ ãı̃ɒ õı̃ɒ
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi mid lo lo-ris mid-ris mid-fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 4 Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4mie 4fie 4cie 2 5d 5mfc 3 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SVO NA GN(inalienable)/NG(alienable) ND POSS-N(inalienable)/N-POSS(alienable)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 7
Language: ǂAu.||eı̂ Alternate Name: Auen
Location: Namibia
Population: 5,000
Classification: Khoisan: Northern
Other Sources: NBL
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3fc 6dfc 6fc c=common
Syntax: SVO
Number: 8
Language: Maligo
Location: South Angola
Classification: Khoisan: Northern
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 9
Language: Ekoka
Location: Namibia
Population: 5,000
Classification: Khoisan: Northern
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO

Краткие типологические обзоры языков центрально-койсанской семьи

Number: 10
Language: Proto-Central Khoisan
Location: Southern Africa
Classification: Khoisan: Central
Other Sources: Baucom, Kenneth L. 1974. "Proto-Central Khoisan," in Third Annual Conference on African Linguistics, ed. by E. Voeltz, Bloomington, Indiana University Publications, pp. 3-37.
Consonant system: p t th k kh b d ɡ ts dz s x h m n r Stops: p b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Clicks: / /ʔ /x /h /kxʔ n/ ! !ʔ !x !kxʔ n! + +ʔ +x +kxʔ n+ || ||ʔ ||x ||kxʔ n|| ǂ ǂʔ ǂx ǂkxʔ nǂ + is a front lateral click; || is a back lateral click. According to Baucom, "it should be noted that the distinction between front lateral and back lateral clicks does not occur in any modern Central languae. But the evidence demands a fifth click position in the proto-language. The Southern languages have a fifth labial position, and a few of the Northern languages appear to have the front lateral/back lateral contrast given here. The choice of a front lateral position over a labial position is somewhat arbitrary. It might well be that the empty front lateral with pharyngeal release will prove to be filled by the aspirated dental click." (pp. 4-5) There is no IPA symbol for a front lateral click. Modified Consonants: cɒ t d h kx m
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 11
Language: Nama Alternate Name: Khoekhoe
Location: South Africa
Population: 234,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Nama Grammar: Hagman, R. 1977. Nama Hottentot Grammar. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Beach, D. M. 1938. The Phonetics of Hottentot Language. Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons. DKS
Consonant system: p t̪ (c) k ʔ t̪sh kxh (f) s x h (v) m n̪ (l) r Stops: p t̪ (c) k ʔ Affricates: t̪sh kxh Fricatives: (f) (v) s x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Clicks: / /h /ʔ /x n/ ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ǂx nǂ ! !h !ʔ !x n! || ||h ||ʔ ||x n||
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oa ui ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-ris hi-fall mid-ris mid-fall lo-mid-lev lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmie 4dfie 4dcie 4mie 4fie 4cie 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfc 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 12
Language: Dama Alternate Name: Damara
Location: Namibia
Population: 105,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Nama
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 13
Language: !Ora Alternate Name: Korana
Location: S South Africa
Population: extinct
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Nama Grammar: Maingard, L. F. 1962. Korana Folktales. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand Univ. Press.
TextBooks: Beach, D. M. 1938. The Phonetics of the Hottentot Language. Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons.
Other Sources: DKS
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h k kh ʔ b d̪ ɡ (tsʔ) kxʔ s x h m n̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: (tsʔ) kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n̪ Vibrants: ɾ Clicks: / /h /ʔ /x n/ ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ǂx nǂ ! !h !ʔ !x n! || ||h ||ʔ ||x n|| Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ʋ̃ õ Diphthongs: ai ei au oa ou oe ue
Syllable: (C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-ris mid-lev lo-mid-fall
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f c (common) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1mf 4dmie 4dfie 4dcie 4mie 4fie 4cie 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfc 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D-Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 14
Language: Xiri
Location: South Africa
Population: extinct
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Nama
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 15
Language: Hai.n||um
Location: Namibia
Population: 16,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Hai.n||um
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 16
Language: Kwadi
Location: South Angola
Population: 15,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Kwadi
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 17
Language: G||abake Dialect: Kua
Location: EC Botswana
Population: 9,360
Classification: cKhoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northeast Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CTIL 7, 404. CBH
Consonant system: p t th tʔ tx c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ kj q ʔ b d dj ɟ ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tʔ tx d dj c ch cʔ cx ɟ k kh kʔ kj ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n /x ɡ/x /h /ʔ n/x ǂ ɡǂ ǂh ! n! !x !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ɡ||x ||h ||ʔ n||x [n/x is prenasalized] Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oi oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfc 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 18
Language: G||abake Dialect: Tsua
Location: EC Botswana
Population: 9,360
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northeast Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CTIL 7, 404. CBH
Consonant system: p t th tʔ tx c cʔ cx k kh kʔ kj q ʔ b d dj ɟ ɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tʔ tx d dj c ch cʔ cx ɟ k kh kʔ kj ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ ɡ/n q/ /x ɡ/x /h /ʔ ǂ ǂx ǂh ! !x !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ɡ||x ||h ||ʔ Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oi oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 19
Language: G||abake Dialect: Cua
Location: EC Botswana
Population: 9,360
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northeast Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CTIL 7, 404. CBH
Consonant system: t c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ tsx s h z m n nj ŋ r Stops: b t d c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: ts tsʔ tsx Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n nj ŋ Vibrants: r Clicks: / ɡ/ /x /ʔ || ||x ||ʔ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ao au oe ui õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 20
Language: Kwee
Location: South Africa
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northeast
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 21
Language: Ganade
Location: South Africa
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: North-Central
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 22
Language: Shua Dialect: Cara
Location: NE Botswana
Population: 6,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: North-Central Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system: p t th tʔ tx c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ q ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tʔ tx d c ch cʔ cx ɟ k kh kʔ ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n q/ /x /h /ʔ ǂʔ ! ɡ!n !h || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ||h ||ʔ Glides: j ʔj (w)
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfn 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 23
Language: Shua Dialect: /Xaise
Location: NE Botswana
Population: 6,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: North-Central Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system: p t th tʔ c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ ʔ b d dj ɟ ñɟ ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tʔ d c ch cʔ cx ɟ k kh kʔ ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n /x /h /ʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ||h ||ʔ Glides: j ʔj
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oi oe oa ui ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 24
Language: Danisin Alternate Name: Danisi
Location: NE Botswana
Population: 100
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: North-Central Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system: p t th tʔ tx c ch cʔ cx k kh q ʔ b d dj ndj ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx kxʔ dz s x h ɣ m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tʔ tx d dj ndj c ch cʔ cx k kh ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz kxʔ Fricatives: s x ɣ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n q/ /x /xʔ /h /ʔ n/x qǂ ! ɡ! !x !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n q|| ||x ɡ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ n||x [n/x = prenasalized] Glides: j ʔj w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 25
Language: Deti
Location: NE Botswana
Population: 6,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Central Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system: p t th c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ ʔ b d ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th d c ch cʔ cx k kh kʔ ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n /x /h /ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ||h ||ʔ Glides: j ʔj (w)
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV
Number: 26
Language: Kxoe
Location: NE Namibia
Population: 10,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Central Grammar: Köhler, Oswin. 1981. "Les langues khoisan," in Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne, ed. by Jean Perrot, Paris, Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 455-615. DKS
Consonant system: p ph t th tʔ k q ʔ b d ɡ ŋɡ tsʔ tx č čx kx kxʔ ɡ̌ ç h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p ph b t th tʔ d k ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: tsʔ tx č čx ɡ̌ kx kxʔ Fricatives: ç h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / /h /x ɡ/ ɡ/n /xʔ n/ /ʔ q/ ǂ ǂh ǂx ɡǂ ɡǂn ǂxʔ nǂ ǂʔ qǂ ! !h !x ɡ! ɡ!n !xʔ n! !ʔ q! || ||h ||x ɡ|| ɡ||n ||xʔ n|| ||ʔ q||
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ei eu ae ao oe oɛ oa ui ue uɛ ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Syllable: (C)V(N)
Tones: hi hi-fall-mid hi-fall-lo mid-ris-hi1 mid-ris-hi2 lo-ris1 lo-ris2
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfn 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 27
Language: Buka Alternate Name: Buga Dialect: ?dialect of Kxoe
Location: NE Namibia
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northwest Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH WPF
Consonant system: p t th tʔ tx k kh b (mb) d (nd) ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx kxʔ dz s x h m (n) (ñ) ŋ Stops: p b (mb) t th tʔ tx d (nd) k kh ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m (n) (ñ) ŋ Clicks: / /h /x ɡ/ n/n /xʔ n/ /ʔ q/ ǂ ǂh ǂx ɡǂ nǂn ǂxʔ nǂ ǂʔ qǂ ! !h !x ɡ! n!n !xʔ n! !ʔ q! || ||h ||x ɡ|| n||n ||xʔ n|| ||ʔ q|| n/n = voiced nasal Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oɛ oa ui ue uɛ ua uo ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall lo-ris lo-lev
Pronouns: 1mf 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 28
Language: Handa Alternate Name: /Anda
Location: NE Namibia
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northwest Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system: p (mph) t th tʔ tx k kh b (mb) d (nd) ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx kxʔ dz s x h m (n) (ñ) ŋ Stops: p (mph) b (mb) t th tʔ tx d (nd) k kh ɡ ŋɡ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m (n) (ñ) ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n / n/n q/ /x /xʔ /h /ʔ ! ɡ! n! n!n q! !x !xʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| n||n q|| ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ ǂ ɡǂ nǂ nǂn qǂ ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au ɛu oe oɛ oa ui ue uɛ ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃ ũã
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall lo-ris lo-lev
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV
Number: 29
Language: Xû Alternate Name: Kxoe Dialect: ||Ani
Location: Angola
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northwest Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: Vossen, Rainer. 1986. "Zur Phonologie der ||Ani-Sprache," in Contemporary Studies on Khoisan 2, ed. by Rainer Vossen and Klaus Keuthmann, Hamburg, Helmut Buske, 321-45. CBH
Consonant system: p t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ t̪x k kh q ʔ b d̪ d̪x ɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx kxʔ dz dzx s x h ɣ m n ŋ Stops: p b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ t̪x d̪ dx k kh ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz dzx kxʔ Fricatives: s x ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n q/ /x /xʔ /h /ʔ n/x ! ɡ! n! ɡ!n q! !x !xʔ !h !ʔ n!x || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n q|| ||x ɡ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ n||x ǂ ɡǂ nǂ ɡǂn qǂ ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ nǂx Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Diphthongs: ae ai ao au oa oe oɛ ua ue uɛ ãı̃ ãũ õã ũã ũı̃
Tones: hi-lev hi-fall lo-ris lo-lev Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Number: 30
Language: G||ana Alternate Name: ||Ana
Location: W Botswana
Population: 2,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northwest Dictionary: Tanaka, Jiro. 1978. A San Vocabulary of the Central Kalahari. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Grammar: DKS
Consonant system: p t th tʔ k kh kʔ q ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsx tsʔ kx kxʔ dz s x h m n Stops: p b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsx tsʔ dz kx kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n q/ /x /xʔ /h /ʔ ǂ ɡǂ nǂ ɡǂn qǂ ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ ! ɡ! n! ɡ!n q! !x !xʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n q|| ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ã ũ Modified Vowels: aɒ oɒ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃ aiɒ oaɒ aɒo oɒi oɒa [oaɒ=pharyngealized; oɒa=partially pharyngealized]
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 31
Language: G||ana Alternate Name: ǂHaba
Location: W Botswana
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Northwest Dictionary: Tanaka, Jiro. 1978. A San Vocabulary of the Central Kalahari. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Grammar: DKS
Consonant system: p t th tx k kh kʔ q ʔ b d ɡ ŋɡ ts tsh tsx tsʔ kxʔ dz s x h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t th tx d k kh kʔ ɡ ŋɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsx tsʔ dz kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n /x /xʔ /h /ʔ ǂ ɡǂ nǂ ɡǂn ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ ! ɡ! n! ɡ!n !x !xʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ Modified Vowels: iɒ aɒ uɒ oɒ ãɒ ũɒ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au oe oɛ oa ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃ aiɒ aeɒ auɒ oaɒ uiɒ ueɒ ãı̃ɒ ũı̃ɒ
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 32
Language: G/wi
Location: W Botswana
Population: 2,500
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Southwest Dictionary: Tanaka, Jiro. 1978. A San Vocabulary of the Central Kalahari. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa. Grammar: DKS
Consonant system: p t th tx tʔ k kh kʔ q ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsx tsʔ kx kxʔ dz s x h m n ŋ Stops: p b t th tx tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsx tsʔ dz kx kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n q/ /x /xʔ /h /ʔ ǂ ɡǂ nǂ ɡǂn qǂ ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ ! ɡ! n! ɡ!n q! !x !xʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n q|| ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ã ũ Modified Vowels: eɒ aɒ oɒ Diphthongs: ai ae ao au ei oe oa ui ue ua ãı̃ ãũ õã ũı̃ oɒi õãɒ [oaɒ=pharyngealized; oɒa=partially pharyngealized]
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc c=common
Syntax: SOV AN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 33
Language: Naron Alternate Name: Naro
Location: W Botswana
Population: 14,000
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Southwest Grammar: DKS
Other Sources: CBH NBL
Consonant system: p t th tx k kh q ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh tsʔ tsx kxʔ dz s x h m (n) Stops: p b t th tx d k kh ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tsx dz kxʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m (n) Clicks: / ɡ/ n/ ɡ/n /x /xʔ /h /ʔ ! ɡ! n! ɡ!n !x !xʔ !h !ʔ || ɡ|| n|| ɡ||n ||x ||xʔ ||h ||ʔ ǂ ɡǂ nǂ ɡǂn ǂx ǂxʔ ǂh ǂʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ã ũ ãɒ ũɒ Modified Vowels: vɒ (pharynɡealized) all Diphthongs: ai ae ao au (ei) ɛi oe oa ui ue ãı̃ ãũ õã aiɒ aeɒ auɒ oaɒ uiɒ uaɒ aɒo (partially pharyngealized) oɒa ãı̃ɒ ãũɒ
Tones: lo-lev hi-lev hi-fall lo-ris
Pronouns: 1 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mf 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV
Number: 34
Language: G||ani
Location: Namibia
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Southwest
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 35
Language: N/hain.tse
Location: Botswana
Classification: Khoisan: Central: Tshu-Khwe: Southwest
Other Sources: CBH
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1mf 4dmfc 4mfc 2mf 5dmfc 5mfc 3mfn 6dmfc 6mfc
Syntax: SOV

Краткие типологические обзоры языков южно-койсанской семьи

Number: 36
Language: !Ô
Location: Botswana
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: Ta'a
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 37
Language: ǂHû Alternate Name: ǂHua
Location: W Botswana
Population: 1,000
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: Ta'a
TextBooks: Maingard, L. F. 1958. "Three Bushman Languages," African Studies 16: 37-71.
Other Sources: Traill, A. 1974. "Agreement Systems in !xõ," Limi 2:2, 12-27. CBH
Consonant system: (p) t k ʔ b d ɡ tsʔ čʔ kxʔ dz s š x h β m n ñ ŋ l ɾ̣ Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ dz čʔ kxʔ Fricatives: β s š x h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Clicks: ʘ ʘh ʘʔ ɡʘ ʘx nʘ / /h /ʔ ɡ/ /x /xʔ n/ ! !h !ʔ ɡ! !x !xʔ n! || ||h ||ʔ ɡ|| ||x ||xʔ n|| ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ɡǂ nǂ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 38
Language: N/amani Alternate Name: !Xóõ
Location: SW Botswana
Population: 4,200
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: Ta'a Dictionary: Traill, Anthony. 1994. A !Xóo Dictionary. Köln: Rudiger Köppe Verlag.
Consonant system: p ph pʔkxʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ t̪x dt̪h dt̪x k kh kʔ kxʔ ɡkh q qh qʔ Gqh ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ G ts dtsh tsx tsʔt̪ʔkxʔ dt̪ʔkxʔ dtsx tsʔ kxʔ dtsʔ kxʔ dz f s x h m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ñ l Stops: p ph pʔkxʔ b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ t̪x dt̪h dt̪x d̪ ɟ k kh kʔ kxʔ ɡkh ɡ q qh qʔ Gqh G ʔ Affricates: t̪ʔ kxʔ dt̪ʔ kxʔ ts dtsh tsx tsʔ dtsx tsʔ kxʔ dtsʔ kxʔ dz Fricatives: f s x h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ñ Laterals: l Clicks: ʘ ɡʘ ʘx ɡʘx ʘkxʔ ɡʘkxʔ qʘ Gʘ qʘh Gʘh qʘʔ ʘh n̥ʘ nʘ ʔnʘ ʘʔ / ɡ/ /x ɡ/x /kxʔ ɡ/kxʔ q/ G/ q/h G/h q/ʔ /h n̥/ n/ ʔn/ /ʔ ! ɡ! !x ɡ!x !kxʔ ɡ!kxʔ q! G! q!h G!h q!ʔ !h n̥! n! ʔn! !ʔ || ɡ|| ||x ɡ||x ||kxʔ ɡ||kxʔ q|| G|| q||h G||h q||ʔ ||h n̥|| n|| ʔn|| ||ʔ ǂ ɡǂ ǂx ɡǂx ǂkxʔ ɡǂkxʔ qǂ Gǂ qǂh Gǂh qǂʔ ǂh n̥ǂ nǂ ʔnǂ ǂʔ Glides: (w)
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (pharyngealized) all v̤ (breathy voice) all vʔ (laryngealized) all
Tones: lev fall
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 5
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N N-D-A
Number: 39
Language: ||Ng.!'e
Location: South Africa
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: Ta'a
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 40
Language: N/huki
Location: South Africa
Population: 20
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: !Wi Grammar: Lanham, L. W. and D. P. Hallowes, 1956. "An Outline of the Structure of Eastern Bushman," African Studies 15, 97-118.
Other Sources: Maingard, L. F. ????. "The ǂKhomani Dialect of Bushman: Its Morphology and Other Characteristics," in Bushman of the Southern Kalahari, 237-75. CTIL 7, 414. CBH
Consonant system: t c ch k b ɟ ɡ tsʔ kxʔ s š x β m ʔm n ŋ ʔŋ l Stops: b t c ch ɟ k ɡ Affricates: tsʔ kxʔ Fricatives: β s š x Nasals: m ʔm n ŋ ʔŋ Laterals: l Clicks: ʘ ʘh ʘɦ ʘʔ ɡʘ ʘx ʘxʔ nʘ nʘɦ / /h /ɦ /ʔ ɡ/ /x /xʔ n/ n/ɦ ǂ ǂh ǂɦ ǂʔ ɡǂ ǂx ǂxʔ nǂ nǂɦ || ||h ||ɦ ||ʔ ɡ|| ||x ||xʔ n|| n||ɦ ! !h !ɦ !ʔ ɡ! !x !xʔ n! n!ɦ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: tones
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 41
Language: ||Xekwi
Location: Namibia
Population: extinct
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: !Wi
Other Sources: CTIL 7, 415.
Consonant system: ph t th tʔ ch cʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ b d ɟ ɡ G ts tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ č čʔ kxʔ dz ɡ̌ β s š h z ž ɦ m n ñ ŋ l ɬ ɮ r ɹ Stops: ph b t th tʔ d ch cʔ ɟ k kh kʔ ɡ q qh qʔ G Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlh tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ kxʔ Fricatives: β s z š ž h ɦ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ ɮ Vibrants: r ɹ Clicks: ʘ ʘh ʘʔ ɡʘ nʘ nʘɦ / /h /ʔ ɡ/ n/ n/ɦ ǂ ǂh ǂʔ ɡǂ nǂ nǂɦ || ||h ||ʔ ɡ|| n|| n||ɦ ! !h !ʔ ɡ! n! n!ɦ Glides: j w
Vowel system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 42
Language: /Xam
Location: South Africa
Population: extinct
Classification: Khoisan: Southern: !Wi
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO

Словники языков: праязыков | древних | угасших | современных | модельных
Типологии праязыков: койсанских | конго-кордофанских | нило-сахарских | ностратических...
Лингвистические страницы: Языки мира | Письменности | Интерлингвистика | Основания языка | Компаративистика | Контактология | Экстралингвистика | Лексикология | Грамматика | Фонетика
Полезные страницы: История | Регионы | Карты | Энциклопедии

© «Lexicons.ru», Игорь Константинович Гаршин, 2012. Пишите письма (Письмо Игорю Константиновичу Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 14.09.2019
Метрика