Типологии америндских языков

Краткие фонетико-грамматические сведения по индейским языкам
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Здесь представлены краткие справки по фонетике и грамматике языков Америндской макросемьи, взятые с проекта глобальной этимологической базы данных "Вавилонская башня" Сергея Старостина. Эти сведения будут затем размещаться в каждом праязыковом этимологическом словнике.

Всего здесь представлено X языковых систем америндской филы (происходящей из праамериндского языка, распределённых по 10 семьям:

  1. Обзоры языков Алмосанской семьи (Almosan)
  2. Обзоры языков семьи Кересиу (Keresiouan)
  3. Обзоры языков Пенутийской семьи (Penutian)
  4. Обзоры языков семьи Хока (Hokan)
  5. Обзоры Центрально-америндских языков (Tanoan, Uto-Aztecan, Oto-Manguean)
  6. Обзоры языков семьи Чибча (Chibchan)
  7. Обзоры языков семьи Паэс (Paezan)
  8. Обзоры языков Андской семьи (Andean)
  9. Обзоры языков семьи Макро-пано (Macro-Panoan)
  10. Обзоры языков семьи Макро-же (Macro-Ge)


Краткие типологические обзоры языков Алмосанской семьи

Number: 4684
Language: Kutenai
Location: W Canada (Alberta)
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Kutenai Grammar: Canestrelli, Philippo. 1927. "Grammar of the Kutenai Language," IJAL 4,1-84. Garvin, Paul L.1948. "Kutenai I-II," IJAL 14, 37-42 & 87-90.
Other Sources: Boas, Franz. 1927. "Additional Notes on the Kutenai Language," IJAL 4, 85-104. Garvin, Paul. 1953. "Short Kutenai Texts," IJAL 19, 305-11. Haugen, Einar. 1956. "Syllabification in Kutenai," IJAL 22, 196-201. Haas, Mary R. 1965. "Is Kutenai Related to Algonquian," Canadian Journal of Linguistics 10, 77-92.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ s x h m n (l) ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)CV(C)(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,4)/N-POSS(2,3,5,6) D+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4685
Language: Wiyot
Location: NW California
Population: extinct (1962)
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Ritwan Grammar: Teeter, Karl V. 1964a. The Wiyot Language. UCPL 37.
Other Sources: Teeter, Karl V. 1964b. "Wiyot and Yurok: A Preliminary Study," in SCL, 192-8.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ (ʔ) t̪s t̪sh č čh s̪ š h β ɣ m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh kʷ khʷ (ʔ) Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh Fricatives: β s̪ š ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C) Stress: pitch accent (hi, lo) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/(SOV) NA GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4686
Language: Yurok
Location: NW California
Population: 20 (1958)
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Ritwan Grammar: GD: Robins, R. H. 1958. The Yurok Language. UCPL 15.
Other Sources: Teeter, Karl V. 1964b. "Wiyot and Yurok: A Preliminary Study," in SCL, 192-8. Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ č čʔ s (š) (x) h ɣ m n̪ l ɬ ɹ̣ Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s (š) (x) ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ǝ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Diphthongs: ej ǝj oj uj iǝ eǝ aǝ oǝ uǝ ǝw ew ow āj āw ōj
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s (p) [a small number of nouns have a separate pl form] Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3hH *6hHN [3H=6H] h=human H=non-human
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4687
Language: Proto-Algonquian
Location: Montana
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian Grammar: Goddar, Ives. 1979. "Comparative Algonquian," in LNA, 70-132.
TextBooks: Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.
Other Sources: Goddard, Ives. 1974. "An Outline of the Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina," IJAL 40,102-16. Kaye, Jonathan. 1978. "Rule Mitosis: The Historical Development of Algonquian Palatalization," in LSNC, 143-56. CTIL 3,144.
Consonant system: p t k (kʷ) č θ s š h m n l Stops: p t k (kʷ) Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4688
Language: Beothuk
Location: E Canada (Newfoundland)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian
Other Sources: Hewson, John. 1968. "Beothuk and Algonquian: Evidence Old and New," IJAL 34, 85-93.
Consonant system: p t k č θ s š h m n Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s š h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 4689
Language: Blackfoot
Location: Montana
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Blackfoot Grammar: Uhlenbeck, C. C. 1938. A Concise Blackfoot Grammar. Amsterdam: North-Holland. [Reprinted 1978 by AMS Press, New York] Frantz, Donald G. 1971. Toward a Generative Grammar of Blackfoot. SIL 34.
Other Sources: Frantz. Donald G. 1966. "Person Indexing in Blackfoot," IJAL 32, 50-8. Frantz, Donald G. 1978. "Copying from Complements in Blackfoot," in LSNC, 89-109.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s x m n Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: pitch accent
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 4690
Language: Cheyenne
Location: Montana
Population: 3,500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper Grammar: Petter, Rodolphe. 1952. Cheyenne Grammar. Newton, Kansas: Mennonite Publication Office.
Other Sources: Frantz, Donald G. 1972. " Cheyenne Distinctive Features and Phonological Rules" IJAL 38, 6-13. Davis, Irvine. 1962. "Phonological Function in Cheyenne," IJAL 28, 36-42.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s š x h β m n Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: β s š x h Nasals: m n
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(h, ʔ) Nˈ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 4691
Language: Arapaho
Location: Wyoming
Population: 1000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Salzmann, Zdeněk. 1956-65. "Arapaho I-IV," IJAL 22, 49-56, 151-8, 266-72, 27,151-5; 31, 39-49, 136-51. Goddard, Ives. 1974. "An Outline of the Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina," IJAL 40,102-16.
Consonant system: b t̪ k ʔ č θ s x h (m) n̪ Stops: b t̪ k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s x h Nasals: (m) n̪ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS 3i)
Number: 4692
Language: Arapaho Dialect: Atsina
Location: Wyoming
Population: 1000 (<10)
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Salzmann, Zdeněk. 1969. "Salvage Phonology of Gros Ventre (Atsina)," IJAL 35, 307-14. Goddard, Ives. 1974. "An Outline of The Historical Phonology of Arapaho and Atsina," IJAL 40, 102-16.
Consonant system: b t k ʔ ̌ ts č θ s h n Stops: b t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: θ s h Nasals: n Modified Consonants: cj b t Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ū ɔ̄
Number: 4693
Language: Cree Dialect: Swampy
Location: E Canada (Ontario)
Population: 62,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper Dictionary: Faries, Richard, ed. 1938. A Dictionary of the Cree Language. Toronto: Anglican Church of Canada.
TextBooks: Ellis, C. Douglas. 1962. Spoken Cree. Toronto: The Anglican Church of Canada. Wolfart, H. Christoph and Janet F. Carroll. 1973. Meet Cree: A Practical Guide to the Cree Language. Edmonton: Univ of Alberta Press.
Consonant system: p hp t ht k hk ts hts s (ṣ̌) h m n (l) Stops: p hp t ht k hk Affricates: ts hts Fricatives: s (ṣ̌) h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɐ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ ī ē ā ō Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 6 *near/far distinction
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 4694
Language: Cree Dialect: Plains
Location: E Canada (Ontario)
Population: 62,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Todd, Evelyn M. 1972. "Ojibwa Syllabic Writing and Its Implications for a Standard Ojibwa Alphabet," AL 14, 357-60.
Consonant system: p hp t ht k hk č hč s m n Stops: p hp t ht k hk Affricates: č hč Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels:
Number: 4695
Language: Cree Dialect: Moose
Location: E Canada (Ontario)
Population: 62,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Ellis, C. Douglas. 1971. "Cree Verb Paradigms," IJAL 37, 76-95.
Consonant system: p t k ts s h m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan
Syntax: GN POSS-N
Number: 4696
Language: Ojibwa
Location: E Canada (Ontario)
Population: 45,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper Grammar: GD: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1956. Eastern Ojibwa. Ann Arbor: Univ of Michigan Press.
Other Sources: Fiero, Charles E. 1967. Ojibwa Assimilation. Freeport, PA: Fountain Press.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s š m n Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č s š Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ a Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4697
Language: Potawatomi
Location: Kansas
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Hockett, Charles F. 1948. "Potawatomi I-III," IJAL 14, 1-10, 63-73, 139-49.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s š (h) m n Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š (h) Nasals: m n Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č š s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 4698
Language: Menominee
Location: NE Wisconsin
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper Grammar: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1962. The Menomini Language. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s h m n Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ɛ̄ ā ū ō Stress: non-phonemic
Number: 4699
Language: Fox
Location: Wisconsin
Population: 1000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Bloomfield, Leonard. 1925-27. Notes on the Fox Language," IJAL 3, 219-32; 4,181-219. Walker, Willard. 1974. "The Winnebago Syllabary and The Generative Model," AL 16, 393-414.
Consonant system: p t k č s š h m n Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ɑ Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: u ɑ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ō ɑ̄
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ai 6ai
Syntax: SVO AN GN ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4700
Language: Fox Dialect: Kickapoo
Location: S Wisconsin
Population: 1000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper Grammar: Voorhis, Paul H. 1974. Introduction to the Kickapoo Language. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Jones, Linda K. and Ned R. Coleman. 1979. "Towards a Discourse Perspective of Modes and Tenses in Kickapoo Narratives," DSML, 69-95.
Consonant system: p t k č (f) θ s h m n (l) (ɾ) (ɹ̣) Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) θ s h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: (ɾ) (ɹ̣) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: antepenult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3ai *6ai + indef
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4701
Language: Illinois
Location: C Illinois
Population: 20
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 4702
Language: Shawnee
Location: Tennessee
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper
Other Sources: Voegelin, C. F. 1935. "Shawnee Phonemes," Lg 11, 23-37. Miller, Wick R. 1959. "An Outline of Shawnee Historical Phonology," IJAL 25, 16-21. Hickerson, Nancy P. 1959. "An Acoustic Analysis of Shawnee: IV," IJAL 25, 97-104.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ č θ š m n l Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4703
Language: Micmac
Location: E Canada (Nova Scotia)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern Dictionary: Rand, Silas Tertius. 1888. Dictionary of the Language of the Micmac Indians. Halifax: Nova Scotia Printing Co. [Reprinted 1972 by Johnson Reprint Corp., NY] Grammar: Maillard, Antoine S. 1864. Grammaire de la langue mikmaque. New York: Cramoisy Press. [Reprinted 1970 by AMS Press, NY]
Other Sources: Hewson, John. 1973. "Proto-Algonkian Reflexes in Micmac," AL15, 151-64. Fidelholtz, James L. 1978. "Micmac Intransitive Verb Morphology," in LSNC, 67-87.
Consonant system: p t k č s (χ) m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s (χ) Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3ai *6ai
Syntax: NA NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 4704
Language: Passamaquoddy
Location: N Maine
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern Grammar: Teeter, Karl V. 1971. "The Main Features of Malecite-Passamaquoddy Grammar," in SAIL, 191-249.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ č s h m n l Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ s only ? hc p t k č Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4705
Language: Eastern Abenaki Dialect: Penobscot
Location: Maine
Population: 70
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern Dictionary: Day, Gordon M. 1964. "A St. Francis Abenaki Vocabulary," IJAL 30, 371-92.
Other Sources: Speck, Frank G. 1918. "Penobscot Transformer Tales," IJAL 1, 187-244.
Consonant system: p̄ t̄ k̄ b d ɡ s̄ h z m n l Stops: p̄ b t̄ d k̄ ɡ Fricatives: s̄ z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: w
Vowel system: i ǝ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ɔ̃
Syllable:
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 *5 3 6 *two forms: (1) for definite (known) number of people; (2) for indef (unknown) number of people
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4706
Language: Western Abenaki
Location: New Hampshire
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4707
Language: Loup A
Location: C Massachusetts
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4708
Language: Loup B
Location: C Massachusetts
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4709
Language: Massachusett
Location: E Massachusetts
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Other Sources: Silver, Shirley. 1960. "Natick Consonants in Reference to Proto-Central Algonquian: I," IJAL 26, 112-9.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ č s š h m n Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ? ṽ
Number: 4710
Language: Narragansett
Location: E Massachusetts
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4711
Language: Mohegan
Location: E Connecticut
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4712
Language: Quiripi
Location: SC Connecticut
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4713
Language: Unquachog
Location: SC Connecticut
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4714
Language: Mahican
Location: SE New York
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4715
Language: Munsee
Location: Canada (S Ontario)
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern Grammar: Voegelin, C. F. 1946. "Delaware, an Eastern Algonquian Language," in Linguistic Structures of Native America, Cornelius Osgood, ed., Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No 6, 130-157.
Consonant system: p t k č s š x h m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ all but s š x j Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: (ǝ̃̄)
Number: 4716
Language: Unami
Location: Delaware
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4717
Language: Nanticoke
Location: E Maryland
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4718
Language: Powhatan
Location: E Virginia
Population: extinct (c. 1800)
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Other Sources: Wolfart, H. Christoph. 1977. "Another Algonquian Contribution to Historical Linguistics: Siebert's Powhatan," IJAL 43,162-5.
Consonant system: p t k ts s h m n r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4719
Language: Carolina
Location: E North Carolina
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Algic: Algonquian: Algonquian Proper: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4720
Language: Proto-Mosan
Location: SW Canada
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1953. "Mosan I: A Problem of Remote Common Origin," IJAL 19, 26-44.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ G Gʷ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ dz dl ɡ̌ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h v ʔv z ʔz ʁ ʁʷ ʔʁ ʔʁʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G qʷ qʔʷ Gʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: v ʔv s z ʔz š x xʷ χ ʁ χʷ ʁʷ ʔʁ ʔʁʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4721
Language: Proto-Chimakuan
Location: Washington
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Chimakuan
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1953. "Mosan I: A Problem of Remote Common Origin," IJAL 19, 26-44. Jacobsen, William H., Jr. 1979. "Chimakuan Comparative Studies," in LNA, 792-802.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h m mʔ n nʔ l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Stress: phonemic
Number: 4722
Language: Chemakum
Location: W Washington
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Chimakuan
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1955. "Chemakum Lexicon Compared with Quileute," IJAL 21, 60-72.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4723
Language: Quileute
Location: Washington
Population: 20
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Chimakuan
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris.1955. "Chemakum Lexicon Compared with Quileute," IJAL 21, 60-72. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h l ɬ (There are no nasal stops: m>b, n>d) Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: (There are no nasal stops: m>b, n>d) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4724
Language: Proto-Wakashan
Location: SW Canada
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1953. "Mosan I : A Problem of Remote Common Origin," IJAL 19, 26-44.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ G Gʷ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ dz dl s x xʷ χ χʷ h ɣ ʔɣ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G qʷ qʔʷ Gʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl Fricatives: s x ɣ ʔɣ xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4725
Language: Heiltsuk Dialect: Bella Bella
Location: W Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Northern
Other Sources: Kortlandt, F. H. H. 1975. "Tones in Wakashan," Linguistics 146, 31-4. WALS
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qh qʔ qʷ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ s x xʷ χ χʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qh qʔ qʷ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ Fricatives: s x xʷ χ χʷ Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi low
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4726
Language: Haisla
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 850
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Northern
Other Sources: Bach, Emmon and Reed Bates. 1971. " Some Notes on Xa'isla," Sacramento Anthropological Society, Paper 11, 1-11.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qh qʔ qʷ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ s x χ h m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ q qh qʔ qʷ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlh tlʔ Fricatives: s x χ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4727
Language: Kwakwala Alternate Name: Kwakiutl
Location: W Canada (SW British Columbia)
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Northern Dictionary: Grubb, David McC. 1977. A Practical Writing System and Short Dictionary of Kwakw'ala (Kwakiutl). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Grammar: Boas, Franz. 1947. Kwakiutl Grammar with a Glossary of the Suffixes. TAPS 37, 200-377.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ b d ɡ G ts tsʔ tl tlʔ dz dl m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ G ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Modified Consonants: cʷ kh kʔ ɡ qh qʔ G x χ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 (+ a visible/invisible distinction for all three)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4728
Language: Makah
Location: Washington
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Southern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4729
Language: Nitinat
Location: SW Canada (Vancouver Island)
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Southern
Other Sources: Sapir, Edward. 1924. "The Rival Whalers, A Nitinat Story," IJAL 3, 76-102. Swadesh, Mary Haas and Morris Swadesh. 1932. "A Visit to the Other World, A Nitinat Text," IJAL 7, 195-208.
Consonant system: p t ťʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h l ɬ (There are no nasal stops: m>b, n>d) Stops: p b t tʔ d k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: (There are no nasal stops: m>b n>d) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u æ ɔ a Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Articles: def
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 4730
Language: Nootka Alternate Name: Nuu Chah Nulth
Location: W Canada (Vancouver Is)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Wakashan: Southern
Other Sources: Swadesh Morris. 1938. "Nootka Internal Syntax," IJAL 9, 77-102. Sapir, Edward and Morris Swadesh. 1939. Nootka Texts. Philadelphia: LSA. [Reprinted 1978 by AMS Press, NY] Sapir, Edward and Morris Swadesh. 1955. Native Accounts of Nootka Ethnography. IJAL 21:4, Part II. Jacobsen, William H., Jr. 1969. "Origin of the Nootka Pharyngeals," IJAL 35, 125-53.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ m ʔm n ʔn ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ ī ǣ ā ū ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: VSO AN GN/NG NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4731
Language: Proto-Salish
Location: Washington
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish
Other Sources: Thompson, Laurence C. "Salishan and the Northewest," in LNA, 692-765. Swadesh, Morris. 1953. "Mosan I: A Problem of Remote Common Origin," IJAL 19, 26-44. SPG
Consonant system: (p) (pʔ) t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ s x χ h ʁ ʁʔ ʕ ʕʔ (m) (mʔ) n ʔn ŋ l ʔl ɬ (r) (rʔ) Stops: (p) (pʔ) t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s x χ ʁ ʁʔ ʕ ʕʔ h Nasals: (m) (mʔ) n ʔn ŋ Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Vibrants: (r) (rʔ) Modified Consonants: cʷ k kʔ q qʔ x χ ʁ ʁʔʷ ŋ ŋʔ Glides: j jʔ w wʔ
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4732
Language: Bella Coola
Location: W Canada (SW British Columbia)
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Bella Coola
Other Sources: Newman, Stanley. 1947. "Bella Coola I: Phonology," IJAL 13, 129-34. Newman, Stanley. 1969a. "Bella Coola Paradigms," IJAL 35, 299-307. Newman, Stanley. 1969b. "Bella Coola Grammatical Processes and Form Classes, " IJAL 35, 175-9. Newman, Stanley. 1971. "Bella Coola Reduplication," IJAL 37, 34-8. Saunders, Ross and Philip W. Davis. 1975. "The Internal Syntax of Lexical Suffixes in Bella Coola," IJAL 41, 106-13. Davis, Philip W. and Ross Saunders. 1978. "Bella Coola Syntax," in LSNC, 37-65. SPG
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʷʔ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ s x xʷ χ χʷ (h) m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ kʷ kʷʔ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s x xʷ χ χʷ (h) Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ē ā ō Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3: near/far visible/far invisible Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG ND N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Speakers over 55 speak Bella Coola well; speakers between 35-55 speak speak Bella Coola broken; speakers under 35 hardly speak Bella Coola at all (1980).
Number: 4733
Language: Comox
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Other Sources: Davis, John H. 1971. "Notes on Mainland Comox Phonology," Sacramento Anthropological Society, Paper 11, 12-31.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ɡ tl tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ t tʔ k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tl tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Number: 4734
Language: Pentlatch
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4735
Language: Seshelt
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4736
Language: Squamish
Location: SW Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central Grammar: GD: Kuipers, Aert H. 1967, 1969. The Squamish Language, 2 vols. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ (k) (kʔ) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s̪ š xʷ χ χʷ h m n̪ l Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ (k) (kʔ) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s̪ š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: Nˈ Lˈ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6) D+Num+N
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Spoken only by older people.
Number: 4737
Language: Nooksack
Location: Washington
Population: 5
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4738
Language: Halkomelem Dialect: Chilliwack
Location: W Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central Grammar: Galloway, Brent Douglas. 1977. A Grammar of Chilliwack Halkomelem. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: Elmendorf, William W. and Wayne Suttles. 1960. "Pattern and Change in Halkomelem Salish Dialects," AL 2:7, 1-32.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ (k) (kʔ) khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ tθʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m (n) l ɬ Stops: ph pʔ th tʔ (k) (kʔ) khʷ kʔʷ qh qʔ qhʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tθʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m (n) Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: v̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ o æ a Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Syllable: (s)(C)CV(C)(C)(C)(s)
Tones: hi mid low Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f unspecified Demonstratives: 3: present visible/near & not visible/remote Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfu 6mfuk (masc fem u=unspecified k=unspecified by known)
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: All speakers are bilingual in English. In the Chilliwack dialect [n] only occurs in a few Enɡlish words.
Number: 4739
Language: Clallam
Location: NW Washington
Population: 7
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central Grammar: Thompson,Laurance C. and M. Terry Thompson. 1971. "Clallam: A Preview," in SAIL, 251-94.
Other Sources: Thompson, Laurance C. and M. Terry Thompson. 1969. "Metathesis as a Grammatical Device," IJAL 35, 213-9.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m n ŋ (l) ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) ɬ Modified Consonants: v̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3,4)
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: All speakers are old.
Number: 4740
Language: Northern Straits Dialect: Saanich
Location: NW Washington
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Other Sources: Thompson, Laurence C., M. Terry Thompson and Barbara S. Efrat. 1974. "Some Phonological Developments in Straits Salish," IJAL 40, 182-96.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ (tθ) tθʔ tlʔ č č̌ʔ θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: (tθ) tθʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: θ s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e ǝ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a
Number: 4741
Language: Northern Straits Dialect: Lummi
Location: NW Washington
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Other Sources: Thompson, Laurence C., M. Terry Thompson and Barbara S. Efrat. 1974. "Some Phonological Developments in Straits Salish," IJAL 40, 182-96.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ (ts) tsʔ tlʔ č č̌ʔ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ (k) kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: (ts) tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e ǝ o Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: o
Number: 4742
Language: Lushootseed Alternate Name: Puget Sound Salish Dialect: Northern
Location: NW Washington
Population: 15
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central Dictionary: Hess, Thom. 1976. Dictionary of Puget Salish. Seattle: Univ of Washington.
Other Sources: Hess, Thomas M. 1966. "Snohomish Chameleon Morphology," IJAL 32, 350-6. Hess, Thom. 1973. "Agent in a Coast Salish Language," IJAL 39, 89-94. Hukari, Thomas E. 1976. "Person in a Coast Salish Language," IJAL 42, 305-18.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ dz ɡ̌ ̌ s š x χʷ h (m) (n) l ɬ m and n are limited to prayer, talkinɡ to children and quotinɡ speech of animals and supernatural beinɡs. Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ̌s š x χʷ h Nasals: (m) (n) (m and n are limited to prayer, talkinɡ to children and quotinɡ speech of animals and supernatural beinɡs.) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4743
Language: Lushootseed Alternate Name: Puget Sound Salish Dialect: Southern
Location: NW Washington
Population: 15
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Other Sources: Ransom, Jay Ellis. 1945. "Notes on Duwamish Phonology and Morphology," IJAL 11, 204-10. Reichard, Gladys A. 1958-60. "A Comparison of Five Salish Languages: I-VI," IJAL 24, 293-300; 25, 8-15, 90-6, 154-67, 239-53; 26, 50-61. Snyder, Warren A. 1968. Southern Puget Sound Salish. Sacramento Anthropological Society. Paper 8. SPG
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d (ɡ) ɡʷ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ dz ɡ̌ ̌ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h (m) (n) l ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ (ɡ) kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ̌s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: (m) (n) Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: fem non-fem Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4744
Language: Twana
Location: NW Washington
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Central
Other Sources: Drachman, Gaberell. 1969. Twana Phonology. Working Papers in Linguistics, Nol 5. Columbus: Ohio State Univ.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ b d (ɡ) (ɡʷ) ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ (dz) (ɡ̌) s š (x) xʷ χ χʷ h (m) (n) l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ (ɡ) kʷ kʔʷ (ɡʷ) q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ (dz) tlʔ č čʔ (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s š (x) xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: (m) (n) Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: e o ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o ɔ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4745
Language: Tillamook
Location: NW Oregon
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Coast: Tillamook Dictionary: Frachtenberg, Leo J. 1917. "A Siletz Vocabulary," IJAL 1, 45-6. Grammar: Edel, May M. 1939a. The Tillamook Language. New York: J. J. Augustin. Edel, May M. 1939b. "The Tillamook Language," IJAL 10, 1-57.
Other Sources: Reichard, Gladys A. 1958-60. "A Comparison of Five Salish Languages: I-VI," IJAL 24, 293-300; 25, 8-15, 90-6, 154-67, 239-53; 26, 50-61. Thompson, Laurence C.and M. Terry Thompson. 1966. "A Fresh Look at Tillamook Phonology," IJAL 32, 313-9. SPG
Consonant system: (p) t th ťʔ k kh ǩʔ kʷ khʷ ǩʔʷ q qh q̌ʔ qʷ qhʷ q̌ʔʷ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ tl tlʔ čh čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h (m) n l ɬ Stops: (p) t th ťʔ k kh ǩʔ kʷ khʷ ǩʔʷ q qh q̌ʔ qʷ qhʷ q̌ʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ tl tlʔ čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: (m) n Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ ch analyzed as clusters by some scholars. Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ǝ æ ɑ Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ɑ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: fem non-fem Demonstratives: 4: present/absent visible/distant/absent invisible Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6)
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4746
Language: Upper Chehalis
Location: Washington
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Tsamosan Grammar: Kinkade, M. Dale. 1963-64. "Phonology and Morphology of Upper Chehalis: I-IV," IJAL 29,181-95, 345-56; 30, 32-61, 251-60.
Other Sources: Boas, Franz. 1935. "A Chehalis Text," IJAL 8,103-10. Kinkade, M. Dale. 1966. "Vowel Alternation in Upper Chehalis," IJAL 32, 343-9.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: e ǝ o æ a Front Vowels: e æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ǣ ā ɔ̄ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: fem non-fem Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6)
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4747
Language: Cowlitz
Location: Washington
Population: 2
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Tsamosan
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale. 1973. "The Alveopalatal Shift in Cowlitz Salish," IJAL 39, 224-31.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h m mʔ n nʔ l lʔ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ Laterals: l lʔ Glides: j jʔ w wʔ
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ǣ ā ɔ̄ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4748
Language: Quinault
Location: Washington
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Tsamosan
Consonant system:
Number: 4749
Language: Lower Chehalis
Location: Washington
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Tsamosan
Consonant system:
Number: 4750
Language: Lillooet
Location: W Canada (British Columbia)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Northern
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ s x xʷ χ χʷ h z zʔ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ t k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s z zʔ x xʷ χ χʷ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4751
Language: Thompson
Location: SW Canada (S British Columbia)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Northern
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48.
Consonant system: p pʔ t k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ s x xʷ χ χʷ h z zʔ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ t k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s z zʔ x xʷ χ χʷ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Number: 4752
Language: Shuswap
Location: SW Canada (S British Columbia)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Northern Grammar: GD: Kuipers, Aert H. 1974. The Shuswap Language. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ t̪lʔ č čʔ š x xʷ χ χʷ h ɣ ʔɣ ʕ (ʕʔ) ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ l̪ ʔl̪ ɬ̪ Stops: p pʔ t̪ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪lʔ č čʔ Fricatives: š x ɣ ʔɣ xʷ χ χʷ ʕ (ʕʔ) ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ Laterals: l̪ ʔl̪ ɬ̪ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 + that invisible Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)N-POSS(3-5)
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Young people no longer speak Shuswap, only English.
Number: 4753
Language: Columbian
Location: Washington
Population: 85
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Southern
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale. 1967.. "Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants in Interior Salish," IJAL 33, 228-34. Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts ts ʔ tlʔ s x xʷ χ χʷ ħ (ħʷ) h ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ r ʔr Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s x xʷ χ χʷ ħ (ħʷ) ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4754
Language: Okanagan
Location: SW Canada (S British Columbia)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Southern
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ tlʔ č čʔ š x xʷ χ χʷ h ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ r ʔr Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: š x xʷ χ χʷ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4755
Language: Kalispel Dialect: Spokane
Location: E Washington
Population: 900
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Southern Grammar: Carlson, Barry F. 1972. " A Grammar of Spokane," Univ of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics 4.
Other Sources: Carlson, Barry F. 1976. "The N Shift in Spokane Salish," IJAL 42, 133-9.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š xʷ χ χʷ h ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ r ʔr Stops: p pʔ t tʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e (ǝ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4756
Language: Kalispel
Location: W Montana
Population: 900
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Southern Dictionary: Giorda, Joseph. 1879. A Dictionary of the Kalispel or Flathead Indian Language, 2 vols. Montana: St. Ignatius Mission. Grammar: Vogt, Hans. 1940. The Kalispel Language. Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi.
Other Sources: Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ s š xʷ χ χʷ h m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6) D+NUM+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4757
Language: Coeur d'Alene
Location: N Idaho
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Almosan: Mosan: Salish: Interior: Southern
Other Sources: Reichard, Gladys A. 1958-60. " A Comparison of Five Salish Languages: I-VI, " IJAL 24, 293-300; 25, 8-15, 90-6,154-67, 239-53; 26, 50-61. Kinkade, M. Dale and Clarence Sloat. 1972. "Proto-Eastern Interior Salish Vowels," IJAL 38, 26-48.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ (b) d ɡʷ ts tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ s š xʷ χ χʷ h ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ r ʔr Stops: p pʔ (b) t tʔ d kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š xʷ χ χʷ ʕ ʕʔ ʕʷ ʕʔʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Vibrants: r ʔr Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ (ɔ) a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: u (ɔ) Demonstratives: 4 (+ remote general)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: POSS-N(1,2)/N-POSS(3-6)
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Кересиуанской семьи

Number: 4758
Language: Eastern Keres Dialect: Santa Ana
Location: NC New Mexico
Population: 4,600 (230)
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Keresan Grammar: GD: Davis, Irvine. 1964. "The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo," BAEB 191, 53-190.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ ṭs ṭsh ṭsʔ č čh čʔ s sʔ ṣ ṣʔ š šʔ h m ʔm n ʔn ɾ ʔɾ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ ṭs ṭsh ṭsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s sʔ ṣ ṣʔ š šʔ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Vibrants: ɾ ʔɾ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̥ all
Syllable: (s)(C)V(ʔ) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4759
Language: Western Keres Dialect: Acoma
Location: New Mexico
Population: 3,400 (1,700)
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Keresan Grammar: Miller, Wick R. 1965. Acoma Grammar and Texts. UCPL 40.
Other Sources: Boas, Franz. 1923. "A Keresan Text," IJAL 2, 171-80. Spencer, Robert F. 1946. "The Phonemes of Keresan," IJAL 12, 229-36.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ c ch cʔ k kh kʔ ʔ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ ṭs ṭsh ṭsʔ č čh čʔ s̪ s̪ʔ ṣ ṣʔ š šʔ h m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ɾ ʔɾ Stops: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ c ch cʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ ṭs ṭsh ṭsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s̪ s̪ʔ ṣ ṣʔ š šʔ h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ Vibrants: ɾ ʔɾ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)CV
Tones: hi fall glott
Noun
Number: s p (pl optional) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: that-far is often used as a definite article
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO/SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4760
Language: Yuchi
Location: Georgia
Population: 35
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Yuchi
Other Sources: Wolff, Hans. 1948. "Yuchi Phonemes and Morphemes with Special Reference to Person Markers," IJAL 14, 240-3. Crawford, James M. 1973. "Yuchi Phonology, " IJAL 39, 173-9. WALS
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d ɡ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ č čʔ čh d̪z ɡ̌ ɸ ɸʔ s̪ s̪ʔ š šʔ n̪ ʔn̪ l̪ ʔl̪ ɬ̪ ɬ̪ʔ Stops: p ph pʔ b t̪ t̪h tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ d̪z č čʔ čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ ɸʔ s̪ s̪ʔ š šʔ Nasals: n̪ ʔn̪ Laterals: l̪ ʔl̪ ɬ̪ ɬ̪ʔ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e o æ a (ɒ) Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o (ɒ) Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɒ̄ Nasal Vowels: (Ĩ) ɛ̃ (æ̃) (ʋ̃) ɔ̃ (ɒ̃)
Syllable: (C)CV Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV
Prep/Post: PREP/POST Comments: All speakers are old.
Number: 4761
Language: Proto-Siouan
Location: C North America
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan
Other Sources: Wolff, Hans. 1950. "Comparative Siouan I-III," IJAL 16, 61-6,113-21,168-78. Matthews, G. H. 1970. "Some Notes on the Proto-Siouan Continuants," IJAL 36, 98-109.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s x h m n ɾ r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4762
Language: Catawba
Location: South Carolina
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Catawba
Other Sources: Matthews, G. Hubert and Red Thunder Cloud. 1967. "Catawba Texts," IJAL 33, 7-24. CS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d g č s h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ǝ Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4763
Language: Woccon
Location: E North Carolina
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Catawba
Consonant system:
Number: 4764
Language: Mandan
Location: North Dakota
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mandan Grammar: Kennard, Edward. 1936. "Mandan Grammar," IJAL 9, 1-43.
Other Sources: CS
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ s̪ š x h m n r Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Fricatives: s̪ š x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef def
Pronouns: 1 4 2
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N/(N-POSS[6])
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4765
Language: Crow
Location: S Montana
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Northern Plains Dictionary: Lowie, Robert H. 1960a. Crow Word Lists. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Other Sources: Kaschube, Dorothea. 1954. "Examples of Tone in Crow," IJAL 20, 34-6. Lowie, Robert H.1960b. Crow Texts. Berkeley: Univ of California Press. Gordon, Raymond G. Jr. 1972. "Pitch Accent in Crow," IJAL 38, 191-200. CS
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) č s š x h m n r Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: all but h w Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo fall Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4766
Language: Hidatsa
Location: North Dakota
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Northern Plains
Other Sources: Robinett, Florence M. 1955. "Hidatsa I: Morphophonemics," IJAL 21, 1-7. CS WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts š x h (m) (n) r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: š x h Nasals: (m) (n) Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k ts š x h Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ia ua ui Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4767
Language: Dakota Dialect: Assiniboine
Location: NE Montana
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley Grammar: Levin, Norman Balfour. 1964. The Assiniboine Language. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Lowie, Robert H. 1960. "A Few Assiniboine Texts," AL 2:8,1-31. Hollow, Robert C. Jr. 1970. "A Note on Assiniboine Phonology," IJAL 36, 296-8.
Consonant system: ph pʔ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ čh čʔ ɡ̌ s sʔ š šʔ x xʔ h z ž ɣ m n̪ Stops: ph pʔ b t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sʔ z š šʔ ž x xʔ ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ Stress: on second syllable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N N+NUM+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4768
Language: Dakota Alternate Name: Lakhota Dialect: Teton
Location: South Dakota
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley Dictionary: Buechel, Eugene. 1970. A Dictionary of the Teton Dakota Sioux Language. Pine Ridge, South Dakota: Red Cloud Indian School. Grammar: Buechel, Eugene. 1939. A Grammar of Lakota. St. Francis, South Dakota.
Other Sources: Boas, Franz and Ella Deloria. 1932. "Notes on the Dakota, Teton Dialect, "IJAL 7, 97-121. Stark, Donald S. 1962. "Boundary Markers in Dakota," IJAL 28, 19-35. Chambers, J. K. 1978. "Dakota Accent," in LSNC, 3-18.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ kh kʔ b d ɡ čh čʔ ɡ̌ s sʔ š šʔ x χ χʔ h z ž ɣ m n l Stops: ph pʔ b th tʔ d kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sʔ z š šʔ ž x ɣ χ χʔ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ o a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ o Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ʋ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: on second syllable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN/NG DN N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4769
Language: Dakota Dialect: Santee
Location: C Canada (S Manitoba)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley
Other Sources: CS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d č s š x h z ž ɣ m n Stops: p b t d k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s z š ž x ɣ h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4770
Language: Omaha Alternate Name: Dhegiha
Location: Nebraska
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley
Other Sources: CS WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č θ s š x h z ž m n Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4771
Language: Osage Alternate Name: Dhegiha
Location: Missouri
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley
Other Sources: Wolff,Hans. 1952. "Osage I :phonemes and Historical Phonology," IJAL 18, 63-8. Wolff, Hans. 1958. "An Osage Graphemic Experiment," IJAL 24, 30-5. CS WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts s š x h ð z ž m n l br Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: ð s z š ž x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: br Modified Consonants: ? cʔ p k č CS includes b d ɡ θ. Glides: w
Vowel system: i u ɛ o ɑ Front Vowels: i ɛ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã õ
Syllable: (C)(C)V Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4772
Language: Quapaw
Location: E Arkansas
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley
Consonant system:
Number: 4773
Language: Kansa
Location: Oklahoma
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley
Consonant system:
Number: 4774
Language: Chiwere
Location: Missouri
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley Grammar: Whiteman, William. 1947. "Descriptive Grammar of Ioway-Oto," IJAL 13, 233-48.
Other Sources: CS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ θ s x h ð m n ŋ ľ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: θ ð s x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ǝ̃ ũ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Number: 4775
Language: Winnebago
Location: Wisconsin
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Mississippi Valley Grammar: Lipkind, William. 1945. Winnebago Grammar. Morningside Heights, NY: King's Crown Press.
Other Sources: Sebeok, Thomas A. 1947. "Two Winnebago Texts," IJAL 13, 167-70. Walker, Willard. 1974. "The Winnebago Syllabary and the Generative Model," AL 16, 393-414. CS WPF
Consonant system: ph pʔ th kh kʔ ʔ b d ɡ čh čʔ ɡ̌ s sʔ š šʔ x xʔ h z ž ɣ m n ɾ Stops: ph pʔ b th d kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: čh čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sʔ z š šʔ ž x xʔ ɣ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def,indef
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6 These are verbal affixes: "No really independent personal pronouns are found."
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS /POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4776
Language: Tutelo
Location: Virginia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Southeast
Other Sources: CS WALS
Consonant system: p t k č s š x h m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4777
Language: Biloxi
Location: SE Mississippi
Population: extinct (c.1935)
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Southeast Grammar: Einaudi, Paula Ferris. 1976. A Grammar of Biloxi. New York: Garland.
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1968. "The Last Words of Biloxi," IJAL 34, 77-84.
Consonant system: p t k (b)d č s x h m n Stops: p (b) t d k Affricates: č Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o ɔ Long Vowels: ē ɛ̄ ā ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: Ĩ ã ɔ̃ Ĩ̄ ã̄ ɔ̃̄
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM N-POSS/POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4778
Language: Biloxi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Southeast
Consonant system:
Number: 4779
Language: Ofo
Location: Mississippi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Siouan-Yuchi: Siouan: Southeast
Other Sources: CS
Consonant system: p t k č f s š x h m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ã ũ õ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4780
Language: Proto-Caddoan
Location: C North America
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan
Other Sources: Taylor, Allan R. 1963. "Comparative Caddoan," IJAL 29,113-31. Chafe, Wallace L. 1979. "Caddoan,"in LNA, 213-35.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts s h n r Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Number: 4781
Language: Adai
Location: W Louisiana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan
Consonant system:
Number: 4782
Language: Caddo
Location: NE Texas
Population: 350
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan: Southern
Other Sources: Chafe, Wallace L. 1976. The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan Languages. The Hague: Mouton. Taylor, Allan R. 1963. "Comparative Caddoan," IJAL 29, 113-31.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n ŋ Stops: p b t tʔ d k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ a Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: aj aw
Tones: hi lo falling
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 Ergative: erg ["The language is at least in part of the ergative type." Chafe, p. 65.
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4783
Language: Wichita
Location: S Kansas
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan: Northern Grammar: Rood, David S. 1976. Wichita Grammar. New York: Garland.
Other Sources: Garvin. Paul L. 1950. "Wichita I: Phonemics," IJAL 16, 179-84. Rood, David S. 1975. "The Implications of Wichita Phonology," Lg 51, 315-37.
Consonant system: t k kʷ ʔ ts s h (n) ɾ (n is an allophone of /ɾ/.) Stops: t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: (n) (n is an allophone of ǀɾǀ.) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: (n) is an allophone of /ɾ/ c̄ s ts n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: v̄̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 There are no free pronouns; the pronominal system reflected here is found in verb inflection.
Syntax: SOV/OVS NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N (Rood claims OVS is most common, but this may be the order for sentences with pronominal S and O; SOV is "less common" though perhaps basic for nominal S ad O. Cf. sentences 55, 65, p. 267.
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: "The language has neither prepositions nor postpositions." Rood, p. ?.
Number: 4784
Language: Kitsai
Location: Oklahoma
Population: extinct (c.1930)
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan: Northern
Other Sources: Bucca, Salvador and Alexander Lesser. 1969. "Kitsai Phonology and Morphophonemics," IJAL 35, 7-19.
Consonant system: t k ʔ s h n ɾ Stops: t k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Number: 4785
Language: Pawnee
Location: Nebraska
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan: Northern Grammar: Parks, Douglas R. 1976. A Grammar of Pawnee. New York: Garland.
Other Sources: Weltfish, Gene. 1936. "The Vision Story of Fox-Boy, a South Band Pawnee Text," IJAL 9, 44-75. Taylor, Allan R. 1963. "Comparative Caddoan," IJAL 29, 113-31.
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) ts s h ɾ ("Pawnee . . . has no nasal consonants . . . neither phonetically nor phonemically." Parks, p. 19. Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: (Pawnee . . . has no nasal consonants . . . neither phonetically nor phonemically.ı Parks, p. 19. Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɐ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: initial in nouns
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3: this/that (not now)/that yonder + this now
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3* 6d 6 These pronouns are prefixes on the verb and 3 is usually realized as zero.
Syntax: SOV NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST Comments: "Pawnee is not a spoken language today. It is occasionally used by a few older people, but in most situations English is always used." Parks, p. 2.
Number: 4786
Language: Arikara
Location: North Dakota
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Caddoan: Northern
Other Sources: Taylor, Allan R. 1963. "Comparative Caddoan," IJAL 29, 113-31.
Consonant system: p t k č s š x h n r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4787
Language: Laurentian
Location: SE Canada (S Quebec)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4788
Language: Huron
Location: SE Canada (SE Ontario)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4789
Language: Susquehannock
Location: SE New York
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations
Consonant system:
Number: 4790
Language: Mohawk
Location: N New York
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations Dictionary: Bonvillain, Nancy and Beatrice Francis. 1972. Mohawk and English Dictionary. Albany: New York States Education Dept. Michelson, Gunther. 1973. A Thousand Words of Mohawk. Ottawa: National Museum of Man. Grammar: Bonvillain Nancy. 1973. A Grammar of Akwesasne Mohawk. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.
Consonant system: t k ʔ ɡ̌ f s š h n ɾ Stops: t k ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā Nasal Vowels: ǝ̃ ũ ǝ̃̄ ũ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Tones: falling Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6dmf 6mf 3f has two forms: (1) fem & neuter, (2) fem & indef These are verbal prefixes.
Syntax: NA NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4791
Language: Oneida
Location: Wisconsin
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations
Other Sources: Lounsbury, Floyd G. 1953. Oneida Verb Morphology. New Haven: Yale Univ Press.
Consonant system: t k ʔ ɡ̌ s h n l Stops: t k ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ǝ̃ ũ ǝ̃̄ ũ̄
Number: 4792
Language: Onondaga
Location: New York
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations
Other Sources: Woodbury, Hanni. 1975. "Onondaga Noun Incorporation: Some Notes on the Interdependence of Syntax and Semantics," IJAL 41,10-20.
Consonant system: t k ʔ s h n Stops: t k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ũ ɛ̃̄ ũ̄
Syntax: SVO/(SOV[with incorporation]) NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4793
Language: Seneca
Location: W New York
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations Dictionary: Chafe, Wallace L. 1967. Seneca Morphology and Dictionary. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Press. Grammar: Chafe, Wallace L. 1963. Handbook of the Seneca Language. Albany: New York Education Dept. Preston, W. D. and C. F. Voegelin. 1949. "Seneca I," IJAL 15, 23-44. Holmer, Nils M. 1952-53. "Seneca II-III," IJAL 18, 217-22; 19, 281-9.
Other Sources: Chafe,Wallace L. 1959. "Internal Reconstruction in Seneca," Lg 35, 477-95. Chafe, Wallace L. 1960-61. "Seneca Morphology I-VIII," IJAL 26, 11-22, 123-9, 224-33, 283-9; 27, 42-5, 114-8, 223-5, 320-8.
Consonant system: (b) t k ʔ dz s h (m) n Stops: (b) t k ʔ Affricates: dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: (m) n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ɛ̃ ɔ̃ ɛ̃̄ ɔ̃̄
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f n Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mfn 6dmM 6mM
Syntax: SOV NA NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4794
Language: Cayuga
Location: W New York
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Five Nations
Consonant system:
Number: 4795
Language: Tuscarora
Location: E North Carolina
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Tuscarora Grammar: Williams, Marianne Mithun. 1976. A Grammar of Tuscarora. New York: Garland.
Consonant system: ʔt̪ k kʷ ʔ tsʔ θ s h n̪ ʔn̪ r Stops: ʔt̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ Fricatives: θ s h Nasals: n̪ ʔn̪ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɑ Front Vowels: I ɛ Back Vowels: ʋ ɑ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ū ɑ̄ Nasal Vowels: ǝ̃ ǝ̃̄
Tones: ? hi lo fall Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mfH 6dmfH 6mfH fem includes those of unspecified sex These are verbal prefixes.
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST Comments: All speakers are over age 50. (1976)
Number: 4796
Language: Nottoway
Location: SE Virginia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Northern: Tuscarora
Consonant system:
Number: 4797
Language: Cherokee
Location: W North Carolina
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Keresiouan: Iroquoian: Southern Dictionary: Alexander, J. T. 1971. A Dictionary of the Cherokee Indian Language.
Other Sources: Bender, Ernest and Zellig S. Harris. 1946. "The Phonemes of North Carolina Cherokee," IJAL 12, 14-21. Bender, Ernest. 1949. "Cherokee II," IJAL 15, 223-8. Krueger,John R. 1963. "Two Early Grammars of Cherokee," AL 5:3, 1-57.
Consonant system: t k kʷ d ɡ ts tl dl s h (m) n l Stops: t d k ɡ kʷ Affricates: ts tl dl Fricatives: s h Nasals: (m) n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ǝ̃ Diphthongs: ai au iu
Syllable: (C)V
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan
Syntax: SOV AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Пенутийской семьи

Number: 4798
Language: Tsimshian Alternate Name: Gitksan, Gitxsan
Location: W Canada (N British Columbia)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Canadian Grammar: Schulenburg, A. C. Graf von der. 1894. Die Sprache der Zimshı̄an-Indianer. Braunschweig: Richard Sattler. [Reprinted 1972 by Martin Sändig, Wiesbaden]
Other Sources: Rigsby, Bruce. 1975. "Nass-Gitksan: An Analytic Ergative Syntax," IJAL 41, 346-54. Hoard, James E. 1978. "Obstruent Voicing in Gitksan: Some Implications for Distinctive Feature Theory," LSNC, 111-9. WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ G ts tsʔ tlʔ s x xʷ χ h m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ q qʔ G ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ Fricatives: s x xʷ χ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN N-POSS Ergative: erg
Number: 4799
Language: Lower Chinook
Location: SW Washington
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Washington
Other Sources: WALS E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mfn 6d 6
Syntax: VOS [According to E this language is SVO/VSO.] Ergative: Erg
Number: 4800
Language: Upper Chinook
Location: SW Washington
Population: 20
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Washington
Other Sources: Jacobs, Melville. 1958-59. Clackamas Chinook Texts, 2 vols. IJAL 24:2, Part II; 25:2, Part II.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Diphthongs: aj aw iw Ergative: erg
Number: 4801
Language: Takelma
Location: W Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Takelman
Other Sources: Sapir, Edward. 1909. Takelma Texts. Philadelphia: University Museum. Shipley, William. 1969. "Proto-Takelman" IJAL 35, 226-30. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ s x h m n l Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi-ris lo-fall
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N/N-POSS Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4802
Language: Santiam
Location: NW Oregon
Population: 2
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Takelman
Other Sources: Jacobs, Melville. 1945. Kalapuya Texts. Seattle: Univ of Washington.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ɡ G f s š x χ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ q qʔ G ʔ Fricatives: f s š x χ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4803
Language: Tfalati
Location: NW Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Takelman
Consonant system:
Number: 4804
Language: Yonkalla
Location: NW Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Takelman
Consonant system:
Number: 4805
Language: Coos
Location: W Oregon
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Coast
Other Sources: Pierce, Joe E. 1971. "Hanis (Coos) Phonemics," Linguistics 75, 31-42. WPF
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʷʔ q qʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ G ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ dz dl ɡ̌ s š x xʷ χ h hʷ ɣ m n l ɬ Stops: p b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʷʔ ɡʷ q qʔ G Affricates: ts tsʔ dz tl tlʔ dl č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š x ɣ xʷ χ h hʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 6d 6
Syntax: VOS/OVS AN GN Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4806
Language: Alsea
Location: NW Oregon
Population: extinct (c.1940)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Coast
Other Sources: Frachtenberg, Leo J. 1917. "Myths of the Alsea Indians of Northwestern Oregon," IJAL 1, 64-75.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ c cʔ k kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ d ɟ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ s ç x h hʷ m n l ɬ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ d c cʔ ɟ k kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ Fricatives: s ç x h hʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I u ɛ ǝ ɔ æ Front Vowels: I ɛ æ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ǝ v̄̃ all but ǝ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Number: 4807
Language: Siuslaw
Location: Oregon
Population: 2
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Oregon: Coast
Other Sources: Hymes, Dell. 1966. "Some Points of Siuslaw Phonology," IJAL 32, 328-42. WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s š x h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ā ū
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VOS/OVS Ergative: erg
Number: 4808
Language: Klamath
Location: SW Oregon
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau Dictionary: Barker, M. A. R. 1963. Klamath Dictionary. UCPL 31. Grammar: Barker, M. A. R. 1964. Klamath Grammar. UCPL 32.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ č čh čʔ s h m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn l ʔl ɬ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn Laterals: l ʔl ɬ Glides: j j̥ ʔj w w̥ ʔw
Vowel system: I o ɛ ɐ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ǣ ō ɑ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p [pl suffixes only for kinship nouns] Demonstratives: 3 + ref Articles: SVO/SOV AN/(NA) GN DN/(ND) NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) [NA ND N-POSS]less common
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4809
Language: Sahaptin
Location: NE Oregon
Population: 2,750
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau
Other Sources: Aoki, Haruo. 1962. "Nez Perce and Northern Sahaptin: A Binary Comparison," IJAL 28, 172-82. Aoki, Haruo. 1963. "On Sahaptin-Klamath Linguistic Affiliations," IJAL 29, 107-12 WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷq qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ tθʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: tθʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ
Vowel system: i u ǝ æ a Front Vowels: i æ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ǣ ǝ̄ ā ū ɔ̄
Syntax: VSO Ergative: erg
Number: 4810
Language: Sahaptin Dialect: Colombia River
Location: N Oregon
Population: 2,750
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau
Other Sources: Rigsby, Bruce J. 1965. "Continuity and Change in Sahaptin Vowel Systems," IJAL 31, 306-11. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷq qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ s š x xʷ χ χʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ q qʔ qʷ qʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x xʷ χ χʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Syntax: VSO Ergative: erg
Number: 4811
Language: Nez Perce
Location: Idaho
Population: 750
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau Grammar: Aoki, Haruo. 1970. Nez Perce Grammar. UCPL 62.
Other Sources: Aoki, Haruo. 1979. Nez Perce Texts. UCPL 90.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ s x χ h m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ l̪ ɬ̪ ʔl̪ Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s x χ h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ ʔl̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t ts q s m n j w l only Glides: j ʔj w̥ ʔw
Vowel system: I ʋ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: I æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ǣ ā ū ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 [5=6]
Syntax: VSO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST Comments: "The favored order in a sentence, on the surface, is VSO." P.1 Aoki 1979. Examples seem to show SOV also. MR
Number: 4812
Language: Molale
Location: W Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau
Other Sources: Rigsby, Bruce J. 1966. "On Cayuse-Molale Relatability," IJAL 32, 369-78.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ tl f s h m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tl Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: N-POSS
Number: 4813
Language: Cayuse
Location: NE Oregon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Plateau
Consonant system:
Number: 4814
Language: Nomlaki
Location: N California
Population: 5
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Wintun
Consonant system:
Number: 4815
Language: Patwin
Location: N California
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Wintun
Other Sources: Callaghan, Catherine A. 1964. "Phonemic Borrowing in Lake Miwok," in SCL, 46-53.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d tlʔ č čʔ s h m n l ɬ r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4816
Language: Wintun
Location: N California
Population: 25
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Wintun
Other Sources: Broadbent, Sylvia M. and Harvey Pitkin. 1964. "A Comparison of Miwok and Wintun," in SCL, 19-45.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d tlʔ č čʔ s x χ h m n l ɬ r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s x χ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4817
Language: Proto-Maiduan
Location: N California
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Maiduan
Other Sources: Ultan, Russell. 1964. "Proto-Maiduan Phonology," IJAL 30, 355-70.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d tsʔ s h m n l Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: CV(C)
Number: 4818
Language: Mountain Maidu Alternate Name: Maidu (Northeast)
Location: N California
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Maiduan Dictionary: Shipley, William F. 1963. Maidu Texts and Dictionary. UCPL 33. Grammar: Shipley, William F. 1964. Maidu Grammar. UCPL 41.
Other Sources: Shipley, William. 1956. "The Phonemes of Northeastern Maidu," IJAL 22, 233-7.
Consonant system: ph pʔ th tʔ ch cʔ kh kʔ ʔ ɓ ɗ s h m n l Stops: ph pʔ ɓ th tʔ ɗ ch cʔ kh kʔ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: (a rare dual, no plural) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4819
Language: Northwest Maidu Alternate Name: Konkow
Location: N California
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Maiduan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4820
Language: Southern Maidu
Location: C California
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Maiduan Dictionary: Uldall, Hans Jørgen and William Shipley. 1966. Nisenan Texts and Dictionary. UCPL 46.
Other Sources: Paul, Joan S. 1967. "Phonemic Analysis of Auburn Nisenan: a Dialect of Maidu," AL 9:9, 12-24. WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ɓ ɗ ts tsʔ s h m n l Stops: p pʔ ɓ t tʔ ɗ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4821
Language: Foothill North Yokuts Dialect: Wikchamni
Location: C California
Population: 15
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Yokuts Grammar: Gamble, Geoffery. 1978. Wikchamni Grammar. UCPL 84.
Other Sources: Beeler, Madison S. 1971. "Noptˈintˈe Yokuts," in SAIL, 11-76.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ (ṭ) ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ č čh čʔ s š x h m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ŋ (ʔŋ) l ʔl Stops: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ (ṭ) ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ ŋ (ʔŋ) Laterals: l ʔl Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: I ʉ ʋ ɛ ɵ ɔ ɐ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ʉ ɵ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ʉ̄ ɵ̄ ā ū ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: penult Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV/VSO AN(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS) D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4822
Language: Foothill South Yokuts
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Yokuts
Consonant system:
Number: 4823
Language: Valley Yokuts Dialect: Chauchila
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Yokuts Dictionary: Sitjar, Buenaventura. 1861. Vocabulario de la lengua de los naturales de la Mission de San Antonio, Alta California. New York: Cramoisy. [Reprinted 1970 by AMS Press, NY] Grammar: Newman, Stanley. 1944. Yokuts Language of California. New York: Viking Fund.
Other Sources: Newman, Stanley S. 1932. "The Yawelmani Dialect of Yokuts," IJAL 7, 85-9. Hockett, Charles F. 1967. "The Yawelmani Basic Verb," Lg 43, 208-22.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ č čh čʔ s̪ ṣ x h m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ l ʔl Stops: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sh t̪sʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s̪ ṣ x h Nasals: m ʔm n̪ ʔn̪ Laterals: l ʔl Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 This/that
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4824
Language: Ohlone
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4825
Language: San Jose
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Northern
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4826
Language: San Francisco
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4827
Language: Santa Cruz
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 4828
Language: Rumsen
Location: WC California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Southern
Other Sources: Broadbent, Sylvia M. 1957. "Rumsen I: Methods of Reconstitution," IJAL 23, 275-80. Okrand, Marc. 1980. "Rumsen II. An Evaluation of Reconstitution," in American Indian and Indoeuropean studies, ed. by Kathryn Klar, Margaret Langdon and Shirley Silver, The Hague, Mouton, 169-82. WPF
Consonant system: p t ṭ k ʔ ts č s ṣ š x m n l r Stops: p t ṭ k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s ṣ š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 6
Number: 4829
Language: Mutsun
Location: C California
Population: extinct (c.1930)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Southern Dictionary: Arroyo de la Cuesta, Felipe. 1862. A Vocabulary or Phrase Book of the Mutsun Language. New York: Cramolsy. Grammar: Okrand, Marc. 1977. Mutsun Grammar. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Consonant system: p t ṭ c k ʔ ts č s š h m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p t ṭ c k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO AN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4830
Language: Soledad
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 4831
Language: Monterey
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Costanoan: Southern
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4832
Language: Coast Miwok Dialect: Bodega
Location: California
Population: 1
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Western Dictionary: Callaghan, Catherine A. 1970. Bodega Miwok Dictionary. UCPL 60.
Consonant system: p t̪ ṭ k ʔ (b) (d̪) (ɡ) č (f) (s̪) ṣ h m n l (ɾ) Stops: p (b) t̪ (d̪) ṭ k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) (s̪) ṣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4833
Language: Lake Miwok
Location: C California
Population: 8
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Western Dictionary: Callaghan, Catherine A. 1965. Lake Miwok Dictionary. UCPL 39. Grammar: Freeland, L. S. 1947. "Western Miwok Texts with Linguistic Sketch," IJAL 13, 31-46.
Other Sources: Callaghan, Catherine A. 1964. "Phonemic Borrowing in Lake Miwok," in SCL, 46-53. Broadbent, Sylvia M. and Catherine A. Callaghan. 1960. "Comparative Miwok: A Preliminary Survey," IJAL 26, 301-16. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ (f) s ṣ h m n l ɬ (r) Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s ṣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3hn 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4834
Language: Central Sierra Miwok
Location: California
Population: 5
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Eastern Dictionary: Freeland, L. S. and Sylvia M. Broadbent. 1960. Central Sierra Miwok Dictionary. UCPL 23.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p t ṭ k ʔ č ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ l Stops: p t ṭ k ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5 3 6h
Syntax: SOV NG NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 4835
Language: Southern Sierra Miwok
Location: C California
Population: 20
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Eastern Grammar: GD: Broadbent, Sylvia M. 1964. The Southern Sierra Miwok Language. UCPL 38.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k ʔ (b) (d) (g) č (ɡ̌) (f) s š h m n ŋ l (ɹ̣) Stops: p (b) t̪ t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɹ̣) Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɨ ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: i e ɨ u o a Nasal Vowels: ī ē ɨ̄ ū ō ɑ̄
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: on first long syllable
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5 *3 *6 4de=4e
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST Comments: No speakers below middle age. (1964)
Number: 4836
Language: Northern Sierra Miwok
Location: California
Population: 25
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Eastern
Other Sources: Callaghan, Catherine A. 1971. "Saclan: A Reexamination," AL 13, 448-56. WPF
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č s h m n ŋ l Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: on first long syllable
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6h
Number: 4837
Language: Plains Miwok
Location: C California
Population: 1
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: California: Miwok-Costanoan: Miwok: Eastern
Other Sources: Broadbent, Sylvia M. and Catherine A. Callaghan. 1960. "Comparative Miwok: A Preliminary Survey," IJAL 26, 301-16.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k ʔ ts s h m n l Stops: p t ṭ k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4838
Language: Zuni
Location: New Mexico
Population: 3,500
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: New Mexico Dictionary: Newman, Stanley. 1958. Zuni Dictionmary. IJAL 24:1, Part II. Grammar: Newman, Stanley. 1965. Zuni Grammar. Albuquerque: Univ of New Mexico Press.
Other Sources: Walker, Willard. 1966. "Inflectional Class and Taxonomic Structure in Zuni," IJAL 32, 217-27. Walker, Willard. 1972. "Toward the Sound Pattern of Zuni," IJAL 38, 240-59.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ ts č s š h m n̪ l ɬ Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV NA POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4839
Language: Chitimacha
Location: S Louisiana
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Tunica-Chitimacha
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1933. "Chitimacha Verbs of Derogatory or Abusive Connotation with Parallels from European Languages," Lg, 192-201. Swadesh, Morris. 1946. "Phonologic Formulas for Atakapa-Chitimacha," IJAL 12, 113-32. Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī ǣ ā ū ō Stress: final
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SOV NA
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4840
Language: Tunica
Location: Louisiana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Tunica-Chitimacha Dictionary: Haas, Mary R. 1953. Tunica Dictionary. UCPL 6, 175-332. Grammar: Haas, Mary R. 1940. Tunica. New York: J. J. Augustin. Swanton, John R. 1921. "The Tunica Language," IJAL 2, 1-39.
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1950. Tunica Texts. UCPL 6, 1-173.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) č (f) s š h m n l r Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2mf 5mf 3mf 6dm 6mf
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4841
Language: Atakapa
Location: E Texas
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Tunica-Chitimacha Grammar: Swanton, John R. 1929. "A Sketch of the Atakapa Language," IJAL 5, 121-49.
Other Sources: Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. Swadesh, Morris. 1946. "Phonologic Formulas for Atakapa-Chitimacha," IJAL 12, 113-32.
Consonant system: p t k ts š h m n l ɬ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: NA/(AN) GN DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4842
Language: Yuki
Location: C California
Population: 1 (1970)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Yuki-Wappo
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5
Number: 4843
Language: Wappo
Location: C California
Population: 1 (1970)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Yuki-Wappo Dictionary: Sawyer, Jesse O. 1965. English-Wappo Vocabulary. UCPL 43.
Other Sources: Elmendorf, William W. 1968. "Lexical and Cultural Change in Yukian," AL 10:7, 1-41. Li, Charles N., Sandra A. Thompson and Jesse O. Sawyer. 1977. "Subject and Word Order in Wappo," IJAL 43, 85-100.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ ṭ ṭʔ k kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl Stops: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ ṭ ṭʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3hH *6hH h=hum H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4844
Language: Natchez
Location: Mississippi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Natchez
Other Sources: Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia. Haas, Mary R. 1956. "Natchez and the Muskogean Languages," Lg 32, 61-72. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts š h m m̥ n n̥ l ɬ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: š h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: i u e (ø) o a Front Vowels: i e (ø) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C)
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4845
Language: Proto-Muskogean
Location: SE USA
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean
Other Sources: Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.
Consonant system: p t k b ts f s š h m n l ɬ Stops: p b t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4846
Language: Choctaw
Location: Mississippi
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Western
Other Sources: IJAL 23, 85-93. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɡ č f θ s š x h m n l Stops: p b t k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f θ s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4847
Language: Muskogee Dialect: Creek, Seminole
Location: Alabama
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Eastern Grammar: Nathan, Michele. 1977. Grammatical Description of the Florida Seminole Dialect of Creek. New Orleans: Tulane Univ Diss.
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1940. "Ablaut and Its Funciton in Muskogee," Lg 16, 141-50. Haas, Mary R. 1951. "Interlingual Word Taboos," American Anthropologist 53, 338-44. Haas, Mary R. 1956. "Natchez and the Muskogean Languages," Lg 32, 61-72.
Consonant system: p t̪ k č ɸ š h m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Modified Consonants: c̄ all but l w Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ (e) ɐ Front Vowels: I (e) Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ā ō Nasal Vowels: ı̃̄ ã̄ ȭ
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Tones: hi-level fall ris
Noun
Number: s p (p usually restricted to human nouns) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4848
Language: Mikasuki Alternate Name: Hitchiti
Location: Florida
Population: 700
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Eastern
Other Sources: West, John David. 1962. "The Phonology of Mikasuki," Studies in Linguistics 16, 77-91. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b č f š h m n ŋ l ɬ Stops: p b t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: f š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid lo extra-hi mid-fall hi-fall mid-ris
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4849
Language: Apalachee
Location: NW Florida
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Eastern
Consonant system:
Number: 4850
Language: Alabama
Location: Alabama
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Eastern
Other Sources: Rand, Earl. 1968. "The Structural Phonology of Alabaman, a Muskogean Language," IJAL 34, 94-103.
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh b č ɸ s h m n̪ l ɬ Stops: ph b t̪h kh Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ a Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ē ā ō
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Number: 4851
Language: Koasati
Location: SW Louisiana
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Gulf: Natchez-Muskogean: Muskogean: Eastern
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1944. "Men's and Women's Speech in Koasati," Lg 20, 142-9. CTIL 3, 125. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ k b ts f s h m n̪ l̪ ɬ̪ Stops: p b t̪ k Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l̪ ɬ̪ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɐ Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ē ā ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Tones: hi fall
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4852
Language: Huave
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Huave Grammar: Smith, Buckingham. 1861. Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language. New York: Cramoisy. [Reprinted 1970 by AMS Press, New York]
Other Sources: Radin, Paul. 1929. "Huave Texts," IJAL 5, 1-56. Stairs, Emily F. and Barbara Erickson Hollenbach. 1969. "Huave Verb Morphology," IJAL 35, 38-53. Suarez, Jorge A. 1975. Estudios Huaves. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č s š h m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4853
Language: Totonac Dialect: Zacatlan
Location: SC Mexico (Puebla)
Population: 63,800
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Totonacan
Other Sources: Aschmann, Herman P. 1946. "Totonac Phonemes," IJAL 12, 34-43. Bishop, Ruth G. 1979. "Tense-Aspect in Totonac Narrative Discourse," in DSML, 31-68. WPF
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts č s š h m n l ɬ Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̤ all (larynɡealized) v̤̄ all
Tones: 0 Demonstratives: ref Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4854
Language: Totonac Dialect: Villa Juarez
Location: SC Mexico (Puebla)
Population: 63,800
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Totonacan
Other Sources: Reid, Aileen A. Ruth G. Bishop, Ella M. Button and Robert E. Longacre. 1968. Totonac: From Clause to Discourse. Norman: SIL. WALS
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts tl č s š x χ m n l ɬ Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š x χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: 0
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4855
Language: Tepehua
Location: Mexico (Hidalgo)
Population: 14,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Totonacan
Other Sources: Bower, Bethel and Barbara Erikson. 1967. "Tepehua Sentences," AL 9:9, 25-37. E
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4856
Language: Proto-Mixe-Zoque
Location: S Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: Wonderly, William L. 1949. "Some Zoquean Phonemic and Morphophonemic Correpondences," IJAL 15, 1-11. Kaufman, Terrence. 1980. "Pre-Colombian Borrowing involving Huastec," in American Indian and Indoeuropean Studies, ed. by Kathryn Klar, Margaret Langdon & Shirley Silver, The Hague, Mouton, 101-12.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts s h m n Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 4857
Language: Mixe
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque Grammar: Van Haitsma, Julia Dieterman and Willard Van Haitsma. 1976. A Hierarchical Sketch of Mixe. SIL 44.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) ts (dz) (f) (s) š h (z) (ž) m n ŋ (l) (ɾ) (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts (dz) Fricatives: (f) (s) (z) š (ž) h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Modified Consonants: cj all Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ short mid lonɡ v̰ checked interrupted aspriated "There are six contrastive syllable nuclei which distinguish three degrees of length (short mid long) and three kinds of glottalization (checked, interrupted, aspriated)." p.9
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4858
Language: Mixe Dialect: Tlahuitoltepec
Location: S Mexico (NE Oaxaca)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: Lyon, Shirley. 1967. "Tlahuitoltepec Mixe Clause Structure," IJAL 33, 25-33. Lyon, Don D. 1967. "Tlahuitoltepec Mixe Verb Syntagmemes," IJAL 33, 34-45. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts s š h m n l Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV/VOS POSS-N
Number: 4859
Language: Mixe Dialect: Totontepec
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 35,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque Grammar: Crawford, John Chapman. 1963. Totontepec Mixe Phonotagmemics. SIL 8.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ d̪ ɡ ts v s ṣ̌ h ẓ̌ m n (l) (r) Stops: p t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s ṣ̌ ẓ̌ h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ ʋ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)(C) Stress: root initial Articles: def
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 4860
Language: Oluta
Location: S Mexico (S Vera Cruz)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Consonant system:
Number: 4861
Language: Sayula
Location: SE Mexico (Veracruz)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: Clark, Lawrence E. 1959. "Phonemes Classes in Sayula Popoluca," Studies in Linguistics 14, 25-33. Clark, Lawrence. 1961. Sayula Popoluca Texts. SIL 6. Clark, Lawrence. 1962. "Sayula Popoluca Morpho-Syntax," IJAL 28, 183-99.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č s š h m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4862
Language: Sierra Popoluca
Location: Mexico (S Vera Cruz)
Population: 11,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: Elson, Ben. 1947. "Sierra Popoluca Syllable Structure," IJAL 13, 13-17. Elson, Ben. 1948. "Sierra Popoluca Personal Names," IJAL 14, 191-3. Elson, Ben. 1960. "Sierra Popoluca Morphology," IJAL 26, 206-223. Lind, John O. 1964. "Clause and Sentence Level Syntagmemes in Sierra Popoluca," IJAL 30, 341-54. WPF
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ts č s š h m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO(SVO) AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 4863
Language: Texixtepec
Location: Mexico (Vera Cruz)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Consonant system:
Number: 4864
Language: Zoque Dialect: Chimalapa
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: WALS
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4865
Language: Zoque Dialect: Soteapan
Location: S Mexico (Vera Cruz)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: WALS
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4866
Language: Zoque Dialect: Copainalá
Location: S Mexico (N Chiapas)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mixe-Zoque
Other Sources: Wonderly, William L. 1946. "Phonemic Acculturation in Zoque," IJAL 12, 92-5. Wonderly, William L. 1951-52. "Zoque I-VI," IJAL 17, 1-9, 105-23,137-62, 235-51; 18, 35-48,189-202. WALS
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ (b) (d) (ɟ) (ɡ) ts č (ɡ̌) (f) s š h m n ñ ŋ l (ɾ) (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) c (ɟ) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts č (ɡ̌) Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ t only Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4867
Language: Proto-Mayan
Location: S Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan
Other Sources: Olson, Ronald D. 1964. "Mayan Affinities with Chipaya of Bolivia I: Correpondences," IJAL 30, 313-24. Kaufman, Terrence. 1969. "Teco - A New Mayan Language," IJAL 35, 154-74. CTIL 4, 324. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: p ʔb t̪ t̪ʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x h m n ŋ l r Stops: p ʔb t̪ t̪ʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: VOS/(VSO)
Number: 4868
Language: Huastec
Location: SE Mexico (Veracruz)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Huastecan
Other Sources: Larsen, Raymond S. and Eunice Victoria Pike. 1949. "Huasteco Intonations and Phonemes," Lg 25, 268-77. McQuown, Norman A. 1976. "A Huastec Autobiographical Text," NATS 1:1, 3-20. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86. WALS E
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b (d) (ɡ) ts tsʔ č čʔ (f) θ (s) š h m n l (ɾ) Stops: p b t tʔ (d) k kʔ (ɡ) kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) θ (s) š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: non-phonemic Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO/VSO/VOS DN NUM-N POSS-N [WALS and E give SVO; Englund reports VSO/VOS.]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4869
Language: Chicomuceltec
Location: Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Huastecan
Consonant system:
Number: 4870
Language: Yucatec
Location: SE Mexico (Yucatan)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Yucatecan Grammar: Tozzer, Alfred M. 1921. A Maya Grammar. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univ, vol 9. [Reprinted 1977 by Dover Publications, New York]
Other Sources: Bowman, Elizabeth. 1959. "An Attempt at an Analysis of Modern Yucatec from a Small Corpus of Recorded Speech," AL 1:4, 43-86. Straight, H. Stephen. 1976. The Acquisition of Maya Phonology. New York: Garland.
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ ʔb (d̪) (ɡ) t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ (f) s̪ š (x) h m n̪ l̪ (r) Stops: p pʔ ʔb t̪ t̪ʔ (d̪) k kʔ (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s̪ š (x) h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo fall
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d(ie) 4(ie) 2 5 3 6 inclusive/exclusive only in possessive pronouns
Syntax: SVO/VOS AN NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4871
Language: Itza
Location: N Guatemala
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Yucatecan
Other Sources: Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS
Number: 4872
Language: Lacandon
Location: N Guatemala
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Yucatecan
Other Sources: Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86. E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS [Englund gives VOS; E gives SVO.]
Number: 4873
Language: Mopan Alternate Name: Maya
Location: N Guatemala
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Yucatecan Grammar: Ulrich, Matthew and Rosemary Ulrich. 1966. "Mopan Maya," in LG, 251-71.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ʔb d ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n ŋ l r Stops: p pʔ ʔb t tʔ d k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ɨ Stress: final Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS AN NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4874
Language: Chol Dialect: Tumbalá
Location: S Mexico (Chiapas)
Population: 33,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan
Other Sources: Aulie, Wilbur. 1957. "High-Layered Numerals in Chol (Mayan)," IJAL 23, 281-3. Whittaker, Arabelle and Viola Warkentin. 1965. Chol Texts on the Supernatural. SIL 13. Warkentin, Viola and Arabelle Whittaker. 1970. "Tumbala Chol Clause Structure," Linguistics 60, 74-110. Warkentin, Viola M. and Ruth M. Brend. 1974. "Chol Phonology," Linguistics 132, 87-101. E WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ (t) tj tʔ k kʔ ʔ mb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l ɾ Stops: p pʔ mb (t) tj tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VOS AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4875
Language: Chontal
Location: S Mexico (E Tabasco)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan
Other Sources: Keller, Kathryn. 1955. "The Chontal (Mayan) Numeral System," IJAL 21, 258-75. Keller, Kathryn. C. 1959. "The Phonemes of Chontal (Mayan)," IJAL 25, 44-53. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ b (d̪) (g) ts tsʔ č čʔ (f) s š h m n l ɾ (r) Stops: p pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ (d̪) k kʔ (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SVO/VSO AN NUM-N Num+A+N [WALS gives SVO; E gives VSO.]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4876
Language: Cholti
Location: NE Guatemala
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan
Consonant system:
Number: 4877
Language: Chorti
Location: SE Guatemala (Chiquimula)
Population: 33,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan Grammar: Oakley, Helen. 1966. "Chorti," in LG, 235-50.
Other Sources: Fought, John G. 1972. Chorti (Mayan) Texts 1. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Press. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86. WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x m n l r Stops: p pʔ ʔb t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4878
Language: Tzeltal
Location: S Mexico (Chiapas)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan Dictionary: Slocum, Marianna C. and Florencia L. Gerdel. 1965. Vocabulario tzeltal de Bachajon. Mexico City: SIL. Grammar: Kaufman, Terrence. 1971. Tzeltal Phonology and Morphology. UCPL 61.
Other Sources: Slocum, Marianna C. 1948. "Tzeltal (Mayan) Noun and Verb Morphology," IJAL 14, 77-86. Berlin, Brent. 1963. "Some Semantic Features of Reduplication in Tzeltal," IJAL 29, 211-8. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86. E WPF
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ k kʔ ʔ (b) ʔb (d̪) (ɡ) t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ (f) s̪ š h m n̪ l̪ ɾ (r) Stops: p pʔ (b) ʔb t̪ t̪ʔ (d̪) k kʔ (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: t̪s t̪sʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,3)/(N-POSS (for 4,5,6: {1,2,3} + N + pl)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4879
Language: Tzotzil
Location: S Mexico (Chiapas)
Population: 65,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Tzeltalan Grammar: Schuller, Rudolf. 1925. "La Lengua ts'ots'il," IJAL 3, 193-218.
Other Sources: Weathers, Nadine. 1947. "Tsotsil Phonemes with Special Reference to Allophones of B," IJAL 13, 108-11. Weathers, Nadine. 1950. "Morphological Analysis of a Tzotzil (Mayan) Text," IJAL 16, 91-8. Delgaty, Colin C. 1960. "Tzotzil Verb Phrase Structure," in MSI, 9-79. Hopkins, Nicholas A. 1967. "A Short Sketch of Chalchihuitán Tzotzil," AL 9:4, 9-25. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t̪ tʔ k kʔ ʔ ɓ ts tsʔ č čʔ v s š h m n̪ l̪ (ɾ) Stops: p pʔ ɓ t̪ tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4(ie) 2 5 *3 *6 inclus/exclus only in verb suffixes
Syntax: VOS/SVO AN NG NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,3)/N-POSS(for 4,5,6: {123} + N + pl)
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4880
Language: Tojolabal
Location: S Mexico (Chiapas)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan Grammar: Furbee-Losee, Louanna. 1976. The Correct Language: Tojolabal. New York: Garland.
Other Sources: Supple, Julia and Celia M. Douglass. 1949. "Tojolabal (Mayan): Phonemes and Verb Morphology," IJAL 15, 168-74.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ ʔ (b) ɓ (d) (ɡ) ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l ɾ Stops: p (b) ɓ t tʔ (d) k kʔ (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS ND NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: ERG
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4881
Language: Chuj Dialect: San Sebastian, San Mateo
Location: NW Guatemala
Population: 14,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan Grammar: Williams, Kenneth and Barbara Williams. 1966. "Chuj," in LG, 219-34.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x m n ŋ l r Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ā Stress: final Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N N+A+D [The San Sebastian dialect is VSO; the San Mateo dialect is VSO/VOS.]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4882
Language: Mocho
Location: S Mexico (S Chiapas)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan
Other Sources: Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO/VOS
Number: 4883
Language: Kanjobal Alternate Name: Q'anjob'al
Location: N Guatemala
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan
Other Sources: Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4884
Language: Acatec Alternate Name: Akateko
Location: W Guatemala (Huehuetenango)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan
Other Sources: Dakin, Karen. 1976. "Acateco [Kanjobal] Texts," NATS 1:1, 123-36. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: p t k kʔ q qʔ ʔ bʔ ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ s ṣ̌ š x h m n l ɾ Stops: p bʔ t k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final Demonstratives: 2 Articles: VSO NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Syntax: VSO/VOS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4885
Language: Jacaltec
Location: NW Guatemala
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Greater Kanjobalan Grammar: Church, Clarence and Kay Church. 1966. "Jacaltec Grammar," in LG, 206-18. Day, Christopher. 1973. The Jacaltec Language. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Craig, Colette Grinevald. 1977. The Structure of Jacaltec. Austin: Univ of Texas Press.
Other Sources: Church, Clarence and Katherine Church. 1960. "The Jacaltec Noun Phrase," in MSI, 157-70. Day, Christopher. 1976. "Someone Else's Dog: A Jacaltec Story," NATS 1:1, 98-104. Craig, Colette Grinevald. 1979. "Jacaltec: Field Work in Guatemala," in LTS, 2-57.
Consonant system: ph th tʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ ʔb tsh tsʔ č̣h č̣ʔ čh čʔ ɸ s ṣ̌ š χ h m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: ph ʔb th tʔ kh kʔ qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsh tsʔ č̣h č̣ʔ čh čʔ Fricatives: ɸ s ṣ̌ š χ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS [3]) Num+N+A+D Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4886
Language: Teco Alternate Name: Tekiteko
Location: W Guatemala
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Mamean
Other Sources: Kaufman, Terrence. 1969. "Teco - A New Mayan Language," IJAL 35, 154-74. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: p t (tʔ) k kʔ q qʔ ʔ (b) ʔb (d) ts tsʔ ṭs ṭsʔ č čʔ (f) s ṣ (š) (x) χ m n l (ɾ) (r) Stops: p (b) ʔb t (tʔ) (d) k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ ṭs ṭsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s ṣ (š) (x) χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: final
Syntax: VSO
Number: 4887
Language: Mam
Location: NW Guatemala (San Macros)
Population: 350,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Mamean Grammar: Sywulka, Edward. 1966. "Mam Grammar," in LG, 178-95.
Other Sources: England, Nora C. 1976. "Mam Text," NATS 1:1, 88-97.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ s ṣ̌ š x m n l r Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but o Stress: final
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4888
Language: Aguacatec Alternate Name: Awakateko
Location: NW Guatemala (Huehuetenango)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Mamean Grammar: McArthur, Harry and Lucille McArthur. 1966. "Aguacatec," in LG, 140-65.
Other Sources: McArthur, Harry and Lucile McArthur. 1956. "Aguacatec (Mayan) Phonemes within the Stress Group," IJAL 22, 72-6. McArthur, Harry S. 1979. "The Role of Aspect in Distinguishing Aguacatec Discourse Types," in DSML, 97-121. McArthur, Lucille E. 1979. "Highlighting in Aguacatec Discourse," in DSML, 219-44. WPF
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ɓ ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ s ṣ̌ š h m n l (ɾ) Stops: p ɓ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ o Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: final Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 polite/familiar: 2
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4889
Language: Ixil Dialect: Nebaj, Chajul, Cotzal
Location: NW Guatemala (Quichй)
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Mamean Grammar: Elliot, Raymond and Helen Elliot. 1966. "Ixil," in LG, 125-39.
Other Sources: Elliott, Ray. 1960. "Ixil (Mayan) Clause Structure," in MSI, 129-54. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: ph t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ ɓ ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ s ṣ̌ š x m n l ɾ Stops: ph ɓ t̪h t̪ʔ kh kʔ qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č̣ č̣ʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final Articles: def
Syntax: VSO/VOS AN NG ND NUM-N POSS-N [VSO in the Nebaj and Chajul dialects; VOS in the Cotzal dialect]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4890
Language: Uspantec
Location: C Guatemala
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean
Consonant system: Stress: final Articles: indef
Syntax: SVO/VOS AN/NA NG NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4891
Language: Kekchi
Location: N Guatemala
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean Dictionary: Rosales Ponce, Emilio. 1965. Vocabulario espanol-qquecchi. Cobán, Alta Verapaz: El Norte. Grammar: Haeserijn V., Esteban. 1966. Ensayo de la Gramatica del k'ekchi'. Purulha, B.V.: Imprenta Suquinay. Eachus, Francis and Ruth Carlson. 1966. "Kekchi," in LG, 110-24.
Other Sources: Freeze, Ray. 1976. "K'ekchi' Texts," NATS 1:1, 21-31. E
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x h m n l r Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VSO AN/NA NG ND/DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4892
Language: Quiche Alternate Name: K'iche'
Location: Guatemala (Quichй)
Population: 315,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean Dictionary: Edmonson, Munro S. 1965. Quiche-English Dictionary. New Orleans: Middle American Research Institute, Tulane Univ. Teletor, Celso Narciso. 1959. Diccionario castellano-quiche y voces Castellano-Pocomam. Guatemala City. Grammar: Fox, David. 1966. "Quiche Grammatical Sketch," in LG, 60-86.
TextBooks: Fox, David G. 1965. Lecciones elementales en quiché. Guatemala City: Ministerio de Educación.
Other Sources: Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x m n l r Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VSO/VOS AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N [E gives SVO; Englund gives VSO/VOS.]
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: Most numerous Indian language in Guatemala.
Number: 4893
Language: Achi
Location: Guatemala
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean Grammar: Shaw, Mary and Helen Neuenswander. 1966. "Achi," in LG, 15-48
Other Sources: E
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x m n l r Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO AN/NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N Num+A+N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4894
Language: Sacapultec
Location: S Guatemala (Quichй)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean
Consonant system:
Number: 4895
Language: Sipacapa
Location: S Guatemala (San Marcos)
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean
Consonant system:
Number: 4896
Language: Tzutujil
Location: Guatemala
Population: 50,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean
Other Sources: Carlin, Ramon A. 1970. "Tzutujil (Mayan) Clause Nuclei," AL 12, 103-11. Butler, James H. and Ilah Fleming. 1976. "Tzutujil Texts," NATS 1:1, 61-71. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ɓ ɗ ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l r Stops: p ɓ t tʔ ɗ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɐ ɔ Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Syntax: VSO/VOS AN/NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N [According to Englund the San Juan and Santiago dialects are VOS; the San Pedro dialect is VSO/VOS. According to E the Western dialect is SVO.]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4897
Language: Cakchiquel Alternate Name: Kaqchikel
Location: Guatemala (Chimaltenango)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean Grammar: Townsend, W. Cameron. 1960. "Cakchiquel Grammar," in MSI, 9-79.
Other Sources: Grimes, James L. 1968. "The Linguistic Unity of Cakchiquel-Tzutujil," IJAL 34, 104-14. Englund, Nora C. 1991. "Changes in Basic Word Order in Mayan Languages," IJAL 57: 446-86. WALS
Consonant system: p t (tʔ) k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ɓ (d) (ɡ) ts tsʔ č čʔ (f) s š h m n l r Stops: p ɓ t (tʔ) (d) k kʔ (ɡ) q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO/VSO/VOS AN/(NA) D-N-D(DN/ND) NUM-N POSS-N [E gives SVO for all dialects; WALS gives VOS; Englund gives VSO/VOS.]
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4898
Language: Pocomam
Location: EL Salvador
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean
Other Sources: Smith-Stark, Thomas C. 1976. "Jilotepequeño Pocomam Texts," NATS 1:1, 72-87.
Consonant system: p t k kʔ q qʔ ʔ č čʔ s š x h m mʔ n l ɾ Stops: p t k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m mʔ n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w wʔ
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: final Articles: def
Syntax: SVO AN/NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4899
Language: Pocomchi
Location: N Guatemala
Population: 37,000
Classification: Amerind: Penutian: Mexican: Mayan: Eastern: Greater Quichean Grammar: Mayers, Marvin K. and Marilyn A. Mayers. 1966. "Pocomchi," in LG, 87-109.
Other Sources: Mayers, Marvin. 1957. "Pocomchi Verb Structure," IJAL 23, 165-70. Mayers, Marvin. 1958. Pocomchı́ Texts. SIL 2. Mayers, Marvin K. 1960. "The Phonemes of Pocomchi," AL 2:9, 1-39.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ ʔb ts tsʔ č čʔ s š x h m n l ɾ Stops: p ʔb t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C), but no CCVCC Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS AN NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Хоканской семьи

Number: 4900
Language: Karok
Location: NW California
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern Grammar: Bright, William. 1957. The Karok Language. UCPL 13.
Other Sources: Harrington, J. P. 1931. "Karuk Texts," IJAL 6,121-61. Augulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1931. "Karuk Texts," IJAL 6,194-226. Jacobsen, William H. Jr. 1958. "Washo and Karok: An Approach to Comparative Hokan," IJAL 24,195-212.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č f θ s (š) x h β m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β f θ s (š) x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p t k č f θ s š x m n Glides: j
Vowel system: i ʋ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ʋ̄ ō Nasal Vowels: (ı̃) (ã)
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: p only for personal nouns Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 These are verbal prefixes.
Syntax: SOV/SVO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4901
Language: Shasta
Location: N California
Population: 2
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern Grammar: Silver, Shirley Kling. 1966. The Shasta Language. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: Silver, Shirley. 1964. "Shasta and Karok: A Binary Comparison," in SCL, 170-81. Silver, Shirley. 1980. "Shasta and Konomihu," in American Indian and Indoeuropean Studies," ed. by Kathryn Klar, Margaret Langdon and Shirley Silver, The Hague, Mouton, 245-63.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ s x h m n r Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but r j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: C(C)(w)V(G)(C)
Tones: hi-lev lo-lev Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4902
Language: Chimariko
Location: N California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern
Other Sources: Crawford, James M. 1976. "A Comparison of Chimariko and Yuman," in HS, 177-91.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t (th) tʔ ṭ (ṭh) ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ tsʔ č čh čʔ s š x χ h m n l Stops: p ph pʔ t (th) tʔ ṭ (ṭh) ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x χ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 4903
Language: Achumawi
Location: NE California
Population: 40
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Palaihnihan Dictionary: Olmsted, D. L. 1966. Achumawi Dictionary. UCPL 45. Grammar: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1931. "The Achumawi Language, " IJAL 6, 77-120.
Other Sources: Uldall, H. J. 1935. "A Sketch of Achumawi Phonetics," IJAL 8, 73-7. Olmsted, D. L. 1964. A History of Palaihnihan Phonology. UCPL 35. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ č čh čʔ s š x χ h m n l ɾ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x χ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī e: ā ū o:
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris fall Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3mf 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4904
Language: Atsugewi
Location: NE California
Population: 6 (1958)
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Palaihnihan
Other Sources: Olmsted, D. L. 1958. "Atsugewi Phonology," IJAL 24, 215-20. Olmsted, D. L. 1964. A History of Palaihnihan Phonology. UCPL 35. WPF
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ (tθ) ts č čʔ ɡ̌ s sʔ š x h z m ʔm n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t tʔ k kʔ q ʔ Affricates: (tθ) ts č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: s sʔ z š x h Nasals: m ʔm n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ p m n s l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Number: 4905
Language: Yana
Location: NC California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Yanan Dictionary: Sapir, Edward and Morris Swadesh. 1960. Yana Dictionary. UCPL 22.
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1964. "California Hokan," in SCL, 73-87. Nevin, Bruce E. 1976. "Transformational Analysis of Some Grammatical Morphemes in Yana," in HS, 237-50.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ s x h m n l r Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ui
Syllable: CV(C)(C)(C) Stress: on first heavy syllable; if no heavy syllables, initial
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl optional for many animate nouns, particularly kinship terms) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4906
Language: Yahi
Location: N California
Population: extinct (1916)
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Yanan
Other Sources: Kroeber, Theodora. 1961. Ishi in Two Worlds. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.
Consonant system:
Number: 4907
Language: Southeastern Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo Grammar: Moshinsky, Julius. 1974. A Grammar of Southeastern Pomo. UCPL 72.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: (p) pʔ t̪ t̪ʔ ṭ ṭʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ts tsʔ f s š x χ h m n l (ɾ) Stops: (p) pʔ b t̪ t̪ʔ d ṭ ṭʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: f s š x χ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Modified Consonants: c̄ t s Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl for animate nouns only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6 3m, 3f and 6 have displaced and non-displaced forms.
Syntax: SOV GN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4908
Language: Eastern Pomo
Location: N California
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo Grammar: McLendon, Sally. 1975. A Grammar of Eastern Pomo. UCPL 74.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ s š x h m m̥ n n̥ l l̥ r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ Laterals: l l̥ Vibrants: r Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: phonemic (often second)
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl for personal nouns only) Demonstratives: 2 + ref (+ that particular, that specific)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfc 6mfc 6m=6f + indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: There are no young speakers.
Number: 4909
Language: Northeastern Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 1
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo: Russian River
Other Sources: McLendon, Sally. 1973. Proto Pomo. UCPL 71. WPF
Consonant system: (p) t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d č čh čʔ f s š h m n l r Stops: (p) b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf
Number: 4910
Language: Northern Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 40
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo: Russian River
Other Sources: McLendon, Sally. 1973. Proto Pomo. UCPL 71. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d ts tsʔ č čʔ s š h m n l Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Number: 4911
Language: Southern Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 40
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo: Russian River
Other Sources: McLendon, Sally. 1973. Proto Pomo. UCPL 71. WPF
Consonant system: ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh ǩʔ ʔ b d ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ s š h m n ŋ l Stops: ph p̌ʔ b t th ťʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭ̌ʔ k kh ǩʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf
Number: 4912
Language: Central Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 40
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo: Russian River
Other Sources: McLendon, Sally. 1973. Proto Pomo. UCPL 71. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ b d ts tsh tsʔ s sʔ h m n l Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ Fricatives: s sʔ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf
Number: 4913
Language: Kashaya Alternate Name: Southwestern Pomo
Location: N California
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Northern: Pomo: Russian River
Other Sources: Oswalt, Robert L. 1964a. Kashaya Texts. UCPL 36. Oswalt, Robert L. 1964b. "A Comparative Study of Two Pomo Languages," in SCL,149-62. McLendon, Sally. 1973. Proto Pomo. UCPL 71.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ b d tsʔ č čh čʔ f s š h m n l (r) Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d ṭ ṭh ṭʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi low
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3mf
Number: 4914
Language: Washo
Location: NE California
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Washo Grammar: Jacobsen, William Horton, Jr. 1964. A Grammar of the Washo Language. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: Jacobsen, William H., Jr. 1958. "Washo and Karok: An Approach to Comparative Hokan," IJAL 24, 195-212. Lowie, Robert H. 1963. "Washo Texts, " AL 5:7, 1-30.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ b d ɡ tsʔ dz s š h m m̥ n ŋ ŋ̥ l l̥ Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ dz Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m m̥ n ŋ ŋ̥ Laterals: l l̥ Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: I ɨ ʋ ɛ o a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ǣ ɨ̄ ā ū ɔ̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (ʔ)CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl optional) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4915
Language: Salinan
Location: C California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Salinan-Chumash
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 4916
Language: Chumash Dialect: Barbareño
Location: WC California
Population: extinct (1965)
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Salinan-Chumash
Other Sources: Beeler, M. S. 1970. "Sibilant Harmony in Chumash," IJAL 36, 14-7. Beeler, M. S. 1976. "Barbareño Chumash Grammar: A Farrago," in HS, 251-69. WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ s sh sʔ š šh x xʔ h m ʔm n ʔn l ʔl Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s sh sʔ š šh x xʔ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ʔl Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: penult Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO(Island dialect)/VOS(Northern & Central dialects) NG DN POSS-N
Number: 4917
Language: Esselen
Location: C California
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Salinan-Chumash
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4918
Language: Seri
Location: NW Mexico (Sonora)
Population: few
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Seri Dictionary: Moser, Edward and Mary B. de Moser. 1961. Vocabulario Seri. Mexico: SIL.
Other Sources: Moser, Edward W. and Mary B. Moser. 1965. "Consonant Vowel Balance in Seri (Hokan) Syllables," Linguistics 16, 50-67. Turner, Paul R. 1967. "Seri and Chontal (Tequistlateco)," IJAL 33, 235-9. Moser, Edward and Mary Moser. 1976. "Seri Noun Pluralization Classes," in HS, 285-96. Moser, Mary B. 1978. "Switch-Reference in Seri," IJAL 44, 113-20. WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ ɸ s š x xʷ h m n̪ ŋ l ɬ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Fricatives: ɸ s š x xʷ h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w̥
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) (not all combinations occur) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def specific
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4919
Language: Kiliwa
Location: NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Population: 60
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Kiliwa
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. The Hague: Mouton. Mixco, M. 1976. "Historical Implications of Some Kiliwa Phonological Rules," in HS, 149-58. Mixco, Mauricio J. 1977. "The Innovation of /h,hw/ in Kiliwa," IJAL 43,167-75. WALS
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh kʷ khʷ q qh ʔ č čh s x xʷ h hʷ ɣ m n ñ l Stops: p ph t th k kh kʷ khʷ q qh ʔ Affricates: č čh Fricatives: s x ɣ xʷ h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: final
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4920
Language: Cocopa
Location: SW Arizona
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Delta-California
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. The Hague: Mouton. Crawford, James M. 1970. "Cocopa Baby Talk," IJAL 36, 9-13.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k kʷ ʔ ts s ṣ š x xʷ m n ñ l ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ r Stops: p t ṭ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s ṣ š x xʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: stem final
Number: 4921
Language: Diegueño Dialect: Northern
Location: S California
Population: 185
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Delta-California Dictionary: Couro, Ted And Christina Hutcheson. 1973. Dictionary of Mesa Grande Diegueño. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press. Grammar: Langdon, Margaret. 1970. A Grammar of Diegueño. UCPL 66.
TextBooks: Couro, Ted and Margaret Langdon. 1975. Let's Talk 'Iipay Aa. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.
Other Sources: Gorbet, Larry Paul. 1976. A Grammar of Diegueño Nominals. New York: Garland.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k kʷ (q) ʔ č s̪ s x xʷ β m n̪ n ñ l ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ (r) ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t k kʷ (q) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s̪ s x xʷ Nasals: m n̪ n ñ Laterals: l ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ Vibrants: (r) ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ǝ (ɔ) a Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ (ɔ) Long Vowels: ē ā ō (ɔ̄) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+Num+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4922
Language: Diegueño Alternate Name: Kumiai Dialect: Southern
Location: NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Population: 185
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Delta-California
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t ṭ k kʷ ʔ č s š x xʷ m n ñ l ɬ ʎ ɾ Stops: p t ṭ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x xʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ɬ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: stem final
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4923
Language: Mohave
Location: NW Arizona
Population: 2,800
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: River
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonatism. The Hague: Mouton. Munro, Pamela. 1976. Mojave Syntax. New York:Garland.
Consonant system: p t (ṭ) k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ č θ s (š) h hʷ v ð m n (ṇ) ñ l ʎ r Stops: p t (ṭ) k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v θ ð s (š) h hʷ Nasals: m n (ṇ) ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ e ǝ o ɐ Front Vowels: I e Central Vowels: ǝ ɐ Back Vowels: ʋ o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall Stress: stem final Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: "I have not heard anyone under forty converse fluently in the language, although many young Mojaves can understand their elders' speech." Munro, x.
Number: 4924
Language: Yuma1
Location: SE California
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: River
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 4925
Language: Maricopa
Location: SW Arizona
Population: 2,800
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: River
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. The Hague: Mouton. Sunn, Nick and Henny O. Harwell. 1976. "An Account of Maricopa Origins," NATS 1:3, 26-30. WPF
Consonant system: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ č s š x xʷ β ð m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β ð s š x xʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: stem final
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4926
Language: Paipai
Location: NW Mexico (N Baja California)
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Pai
Other Sources: Wares, Alan Cambell. 1968. A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ č s ṣ x xʷ χ β m n ñ l (ɬ) ʎ r Stops: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s ṣ x xʷ χ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l (ɬ) ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Number: 4927
Language: Walapai Alternate Name: Hualapai
Location: NW Arizona
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Pai
Other Sources: Redden, James E. 1966. "Walapai I: Phonology," IJAL 32, 1-16. Winter, Werner. 1966. "Yuman Languages II: Wolf's Son - A Walapai Text," IJAL 32, 17-40.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q ʔ č θ s̪ h v m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ̣ Stops: p t̪ k q ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v θ s̪ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V(C)(C)(C)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4: this close/this/that/that further away Articles: 4: the particular, that indefinite, that other indefinite, the former-non-present, no longer existing.
Syntax: SOV NA ND N-POSS/POSS-N Comments: All Walapai are bilingual in English.
Number: 4928
Language: Havasupai
Location: N Arizona
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Pai
Other Sources: Spier, Leslie. 1924. "Havasupai (Yuman) Texts," IJAL 3,109-16. Kozlowski, Edwin. 1976. "Remarks on Havasupai Phonology," IJAL 42,140-9.
Consonant system: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ č (f) θ s h hʷ v m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v θ s h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ (ǝ) ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: (ǝ) a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ā ū ɔ̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 4929
Language: Yavapai
Location: W Arizona
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Seri-Yuman: Yuman: Pai
Other Sources: Shaterian, A. V. 1976. "Yavapai [+ sonorant] Segments," in HS, 87-93. Kendall, Martha B. 1976. Selected Problems in Yavapai Syntax. New York: Garland.
Consonant system: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ č θ s (š) h hʷ v m n ñ l ṛ Stops: p t k kj kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v θ s (š) h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ a Stress: root final
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 8: this one nearby /this one/that one specific/that one/that one there (visible)/that one (distant)/that one (invisible or non-existent)/that other one
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: "Young Yavapais are almost entirely monolingual in English." Kendall, p. xii.
Number: 4930
Language: Waicuri
Location: NW Mexico (S Baja California)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Waicuri-Quinigua
Consonant system:
Number: 4931
Language: Maratino
Location: EC Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Waicuri-Quinigua
Consonant system:
Number: 4932
Language: Quinigua
Location: EC Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Waicuri-Quinigua
Consonant system:
Number: 4933
Language: Tonkawa
Location: C Texas
Population: 5
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Coahuiltecan Dictionary: Hoijer, Harry. 1949. An Analytical Dictionary of the Tonkawa Language. UCPL 5. Grammar: Hoijer, Harry. 1946. "Tonkawa," in LSNA, 289-311.
Other Sources: Haas, Mary R. 1959. "Tonkawa and Algonquian," AL 1:2, 1-6. Hoijer, Harry. 1972. Tonkawa Texts. UCPL 73.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ t̪s s̪ x xʷ h m n̪ l̪ Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪s Fricatives: s̪ x xʷ h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: I u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) Stress: non-phonemic Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND
Number: 4934
Language: Karankawa
Location: SE Texas
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Coahuiltecan
Consonant system:
Number: 4935
Language: Coahuiltec
Location: NE Mexico (Coahuila)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Coahuiltecan
Other Sources: Troike, Rudolph C. 1963. "A Contribution to Coahuilteco," IJAL 29, 295-9. Kaufman, Terrence. 1976. "Areal Linguistics and Middle America," in NLA 2, 63-87. WALS
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ ts č s š x xʷ m n l Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š x xʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: Troike adds tsʔ čʔ ʔl ʔ h o Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4936
Language: Cotoname
Location: EC Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Coahuiltecan
Consonant system:
Number: 4937
Language: Comecrudo
Location: EC Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Coahuiltecan
Other Sources: CTIL 11, 468
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ts s h hʷ m n l Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h hʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Modified Consonants: cʔ ? Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Number: 4938
Language: Tlamelula
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Tequistlatecan Grammar: Waterhouse, Viola Grace. 1962. The Grammatical Structure of Oaxaca Chontal. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
Other Sources: Turner, Paul R. 1969. "Proto-Chontal Phonemes," IJAL 35, 34-7.
Consonant system: p t c k kʔ ʔ b d ɡ pfʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ f s š x m ʔm n ʔn n̥ ñ ʔñ l ʔl ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ ɾ r Stops: p b t d c k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: pfʔ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn n̥ ñ ʔñ Laterals: l ʔl ɬ ʎ ʎ̥ Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j j̥ w w̥ ʔw
Vowel system: i u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: VSO AN GN/NG DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4939
Language: Tequistlatec Alternate Name: Chontal
Location: S Mexico (S Oaxaca)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Tequistlatecan
Other Sources: Waterhouse, Viola and May Morrison. 1950. "Chontal Phonemes," IJAL 16, 35-9. Turner, Paul R. 1967a. "Seri and Chontal (Tequistlateco)," IJAL 33, 235-9. Turner, Paul R. 1967b. "Highland Chontal Phrase Syntagmemes," IJAL 33, 282-6. Turner, Paul R. 1967c. "Highland Chontal Phonemes," AL 9:4, 26-32.
Consonant system: p t k kʔ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ f fʔ s š h m n n̥ ŋ l ɬ Stops: p b t d k kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ tlʔ č čʔ Fricatives: f fʔ s š h Nasals: m n n̥ ŋ Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C), but no CCCVCC Articles: def
Syntax: AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4940
Language: Jicaque Alternate Name: Tol
Location: NW Honduras
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Southern
Other Sources: Conzemius, Edward. 1923. "The Jicaques of Honduras," IJAL 2, 163-70. Greenberg, Joseph H. and Morris Swadesh. 1953. "Jicaque as a Hokan Language, " IJAL 19, 216-22. Fleming, Ilah and Ronald K. Dennis. 1977. "Tol (Jicaque): Phonology," IJAL 43, 121-7. Oltrogge, David. 1977. "Proto Jicaque-Subtiaba-Tequistlateco: A Comparative Reconstruction," in Two Studies in Middle American Comparative Linguistics, SIL 55, 1-52.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ ts tsh tsʔ s h β m n ŋ l Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j ɨ̯ w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: C(C)V(C) Stress: final Articles: indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4941
Language: Yurimangui
Location: W Colombia (Cauca)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 4942
Language: Tlapanec
Location: S Mexico (E Guerrero)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Southern: Tlapanecan Grammar: GD: Radin,Paul. 1935. "Notes on the Tlapanecan Language of Guerrero," IJAL 8, 45-72.
Other Sources: Weathers, Mark L. 1976. "Tlapanec 1975," IJAL 42, 367-71.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ s š h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi mid lo hi-mid-ris lo-mid-fall
Noun
Number: s d p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: VSO NA GN N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4943
Language: Subtiaba
Location: Nicaragua
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Hokan: Southern: Tlapanecan
Other Sources: Oltrogge, David. 1977. "Proto Jicaque-Subtiaba-Tequistlateco: A Comparative Reconstruction," in Two Studies in Middle American Comparative Linguistics, SIL 55, 1-52.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k b mb d ɡ s š χ h m n ñ ŋ l Stops: p b mb t tʔ d k ɡ Fricatives: s š χ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o

Краткие типологические обзоры Центрально-америндских языков

Обзоры типов Таноанских языков

Number: 4944
Language: Kiowa
Location: Oklahoma
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Kiowa-Towa Dictionary: Harrington, John Peabody. 1928. Vocabulary of the Kiowa Language. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 84. Grammar: Trager, Edith Crowell. 1960. The Kiowa Language: A Grammatical Study. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Diss.
Other Sources: Harrington, John P. 1946. "Three Kiowa Texts," IJAL 12, 237-43. Crowell, Edith E. 1949. "A Preliminary Report on Kiowa Structure," IJAL 15, 163-7. Wonderly, William L., Lorna F. Gibson and Paul L. Kirk. 1954. "Number in Kiowa: Nouns, Demonstratives, and Adjectives," IJAL 20, 1-7. Sivertsen, Eva. 1956. "Pitch Problems in Kiowa," IJAL 22, 117-30. Merrifield, William R. 1959. "The Kiowa Verb Prefix," IJAL 25, 168-76.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ s h z m n l Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 + indef
Syntax: SOV NA DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4945
Language: Towa
Location: N New Mexico
Population: 1,250
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Kiowa-Towa
Consonant system:
Number: 4946
Language: Tewa
Location: N New Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa
Other Sources: Harrington, John P. 1946. "Three Tewa Texts," IJAL 13, 112-6. Hoijer, Harry and Edward P. Dozier. 1949. "The Phonemes of Tewa, Santa Clara Dialect," IJAL 15, 139-44. Dozier, Edward. 1953. "Tewa II: Verb Structure," IJAl 19, 118-27. Yegerlehner, John. 1959. "Arizona Tewa I: Phonemes," IJAL 25, 1-7.
Consonant system: p pʔ t (tj) tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ ɸ θ s š x xʷ h hʷ β m n nj ɾ Stops: p pʔ b t (tj) tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β θ s š x xʷ h hʷ Nasals: m n nj Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e (ɛ) ɔ a Front Vowels: i e (ɛ) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ī (ɛ̄) ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ĩ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɛ̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo falling weak Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 (4d)* 4 2 (5d)* 5 3 (6d)* 6 *occur in prefixed pronouns only, not in independent pronouns.
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Age Lgs >70 Bilingual: Tewa, Spanish 45-70 Trilingual: Tewa, Spanish, English 0-45 Bilingual: Tewa, English
Number: 4947
Language: Piro
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa: Tiwa-Piro
Number: 4948
Language: Taos
Location: N New Mexico
Population: 3,600
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa: Tiwa-Piro: Tiwa
TextBooks: Trager, George L. 1944. "Spanish and English Loanwords in Taos," IJAL 10, 144-58. Trager, George L. 1948. "Taos I: A Language Revisited," IJAL 14, 155-60. Trager, Geoger L. 1954. "Taos II: Pronominal Reference," IJAL 20, 173-80.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ts tsʔ s x xʷ h m n l ɬ ɾ Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ Fricatives: s x xʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ a ɒ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɒ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ũ ɔ̃ ɑ̃
Tones: hi mid lo
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 1=6d These are noun prefixes; the only independent pronouns are 1 and 2.
Syntax: POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Number: 4949
Language: Picuris
Location: N New Mexico
Population: 3,600
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa: Tiwa-Piro: Tiwa
Other Sources: Trager, Felicia Harben. 1971. "The Phonology of Pictures," IJAL 37, 29-33.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) č s x xʷ h m n l ɬ (r) Stops: p ph pʔ (b) t th tʔ (d) k kʔ (ɡ) kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s x xʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ia
Tones: hi mid lo Articles: SOV
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4950
Language: Isleta
Location: N New Mexico
Population: 3,600
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa: Tiwa-Piro: Tiwa
Other Sources: Leap, William L. 1971. "Who were the Piro," AL 13, 321-30.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ b d̪ ɡ t̪s s̪ x h m n̪ ɬ̪ r Stops: p ph pʔ b t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ d̪ k kh kʔ ɡ Affricates: t̪s Fricatives: s̪ x h Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: ɬ̪ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Number: 4951
Language: Sandia
Location: N New Mexico
Population: 3,600
Classification: Amerind: Central: Tanoan: Tewa-Tiwa: Tiwa-Piro: Tiwa
Other Sources: Brandt, Elizabeth. 1970. "On the Origins of Linguistic Stratification: The Sandia Case," AL 12, 46-50.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ kʔʷ b d ɡ č s š h hʷ m n l ɬ r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ kʷ kʔʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h hʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ia ie ǝa ue ua iẽ ǝã uã
Tones: hi mid lo

Обзоры типов Юто-ацтекских языков

Number: 4952
Language: Proto-Uto-Aztecan
Location: W North America
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan Grammar: Langacker, Ronald W. 1977. Studies in Uto-Aztezan Grammar, vol. 1: An Overview of Proto-Uto-Aztecan Gramar. Dallas: SIL.
Other Sources: Langacker, Ronald W. 1970. "The Vowels of Proto Uto-Aztecan," IJAL 36, 169-80. CTIL 4, 323.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts s h m n l Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p (anim nouns only) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6hH h=hum H=non-hum
Syntax: SOV AN/(NA) GN DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6) N-POSS(3 only) D+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST Comments: time depth: 5,000 B.P.
Number: 4953
Language: Northern Paiute
Location: SE Idaho
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Western
Other Sources: Liljeblad, Sven. 1950. "Bannack I: Phonemes," IJAL 16, 126-31. Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts dz ɡ̌ s h z m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ŋ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m m̥ ʔm n n̥ ʔn ŋ Modified Consonants: c̄ n Glides: j ʔj w w̥ ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV AN DN POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4954
Language: Mono
Location: E California
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Western Grammar: Lamb, Sydney M. 1958. Northfork Mono Grammar. Berkeley: Univ of California Diss.
Other Sources: Klein, Sheldon. 1959. "Comparative Mono-Kawaiisu," IJAL 25, 233-8. Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p t nt k kʷ q qʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ G Gʷ ts dz s x h m ʔm n ʔn Stops: p b t nt d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ q qʷ G Gʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s x h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Modified Consonants: c̄ n Glides: j j̥ ʔj w w̥ ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: non-phonemic (on syllable containing second mora from end of word) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4955
Language: Koso
Location: SE California
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 4956
Language: Shoshone
Location: Wyoming
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Central Dictionary: Tidzump, Malinda. 1970. Shoshone Thesaurus. Grand Forks, North Dakota: SIL.
Other Sources: Shimkin, D. B. 1949. "Shoshone, I-II," IJAL 15, 175-88 & 203-12. Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d hd ɡ ɡʷ ts dz s h z m m̥ n n̥ ŋʷ Stops: p b t d hd k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ŋʷ Modified Consonants: Nc p t k kʷ ts Glides: j j̥ w̥
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 5: very close/close/slightly removed/removed but in sight/out of sight Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4957
Language: Comanche
Location: W Texas
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Central
Other Sources: Riggs, Venda. 1949. "Alternate Phomemic Analyses of Comanche," IJAL 15, 229-31. Osborn, Henry and William A. Smalley. 1949. "Formulae for Comanche Stem and Word Formation," IJAL 15, 93-9. Casagrande, Joseph B. 1954. "Comanche Linguistic Acculturation," IJAL 20, 140-51. Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts s h β m n ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: hc p t k kʷ ts m n ɾ w Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̥ all
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic (but mostly initial)
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 this, that distant, that out of sight
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6
Syntax: SOV AN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4958
Language: Kawaiisu
Location: S California
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Southern
Other Sources: Klein, Sheldon. 1959. "Comparative Mono-Kawaiisu," IJAL 25, 233-8. Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p mp t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts dz s h m n Stops: p mp b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Modified Consonants: c̄ b m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Number: 4959
Language: Southern Paiute
Location: SW Utah
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Southern
Other Sources: Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40. Harms, Robert T. 1966. "Stress, Voice, and Length in Southern Paiute," IJAL 32, 228-35. WPF
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts č s m n ŋ ŋʷ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ q ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Modified Consonants: hc p t k kʷ q ts č s Nc p t k kʷ q ts č Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4 this/that near/ that far visible/that invisible Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN ND NUM-N/(N-NUM) N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4960
Language: Southern Paiute
Location: Utah
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Southern
Other Sources: Davis, Irvine. 1966. "Numic Consonantal Correspondences," IJAL 32, 124-40.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts s m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ʔŋ ŋʷ ʔŋʷ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ʔŋ ŋʷ ʔŋʷ Modified Consonants: Nc p t k kʷ ts Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̥ all Stress: phonemic
Number: 4961
Language: Chemehuevi
Location: S California
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Numic: Southern Grammar: GD: Press, Margaret L. 1979. Chemehuevi: A Grammar and Lexicon. UCPL 92.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts s h v ɣ ɣʷ m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ʔŋ (l) r Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s ɣ ɣʷ h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn ŋ ʔŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i ɨ u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ɨi ui oi ai ia ɨa ua oa aɨ au Stress: on second syllable
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3 this/that/that invisible
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 *3ai *6a
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/DND/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4962
Language: Tübatulabal
Location: California
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Tübatulabal Dictionary: Voegelin, C. F. 1958. "Working Dictionary of Tübatulabal," IJAL 24, 221-8.
Other Sources: SUAG I.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ š h m n ŋ l Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4963
Language: Gabrielino
Location: S California
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic
Consonant system:
Number: 4964
Language: Kitanemuk
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic
Number: 4965
Language: Serrano
Location: California
Population: 3
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic
Other Sources: SUAG I UACS WPF
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q ʔ ts ṭs s ṣ š x h v ß ð m n ŋ (l) Stops: p t k kʷ q ʔ Affricates: ts ṭs Fricatives: v ð s ṣ š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: (l) Glides: j j̥ w w̥
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ø a Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels:
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4966
Language: Luiseño
Location: S California
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic Dictionary: Bright, William. 1968. A Luiseño Dictionary. UCPL 51. Grammar: Kroeber, A. L. and George William Grace. 1960. The Sparkman Grammar of Luiseño. UCPL 16.
TextBooks: Hyde, Villiana. 1971. An Introduction to the Luiseño Language. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.
Other Sources: Malécot, André, 1963. "Luiseño, A Structural Analysis I-II," IJAL 29, 89-95 & 196-210. Bright, William. 1965. "Luiseño Phonemics," IJAL 31, 342-5. Dabis, John F. 1976. "Some Notes on Luiseño Phonology," IJAL 42, 192-216.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ č (f) s ṣ š x xʷ h v ð m n ŋ l ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v ð s ṣ š x xʷ h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō
Syllable: CV(C)(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6 + indef
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4967
Language: Cahuilla
Location: S California
Population: 12
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic
Other Sources: Bright, William. 1965. "The History of the Cahuilla Sound System," IJAL 31, 241-4.
Consonant system: p t̪ k q qʷ ʔ č s š x xʷ h v (ð) (ɣ) m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ (ɾ) Stops: p t̪ k q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v (ð) s š x (ɣ) xʷ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4968
Language: Cupeño
Location: California
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Takic
Other Sources: Hill, Jane H. and Rosinda Nolasquez, eds. 1973. Mulu'wetam: The First People. Cupeño Oral History and Language. Banning, CA: Malki Museum Press.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ č (f) s ṣ̌ š x xʷ h v (ð) (ɣ) m n ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ q qʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) v (ð) s ṣ̌ š x (ɣ) xʷ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ (o) a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī (ē) ā ū (ō) ǝ̄
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2: this/that + ref Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N N+Num+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4969
Language: Hopi
Location: NE Arizona
Population: 4,800
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Hopi Grammar: Whorf, Benjamin Lee. 1946. "The Hopi Language, Toreva Dialect," in LSNA, 158-83.
Other Sources: Kennard, Edward A. 1963. "Linguistic Acculturation in Hopi," IJAL 29, 36-41. Malotki, Ekkehart. 1979. Hopi-Raum. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. UACS
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ ts s h v m n ŋ l r Stops: p t k q ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj k ŋ cʷ k q ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ e ø o a Front Vowels: i e ø Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: vˑ (half-long) all? v̄ (long) all?
Syllable: CV(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5)/N-POSS(3,6) D+Num+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4970
Language: Pima Alternate Name: Tohono O'odham Dialect: Papago, Nevome
Location: S Arizona
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Pimic Dictionary: Saxton, Dean and Lucille Saxton. 1969. Dictionary: Papago & Pima to English, English to Papago & Pima. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press. Grammar: Mason, J. Alden. 1950. The Language of the Papago of Arizona. Philadelphia: The Univ Museum, Univ of Pennsylvania.
Other Sources: Saxton, Dean. 1963. "Papago Phonemes," IJAL 29, 29-35. Hale, Kenneth. 1965. "Some Preliminary Observations on Papago Morphophonemics," IJAL 31, 295-305. Alvarez, Albert and Kenneth Hale. 1970. "Toward a Manual of Papago Grammar: Some Phonological Terms," IJAL 36, 83-97.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ḍ ɡ č ɡ̌ s ṣ̌ h m n̪ ñ ľ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ ḍ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɔ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOC AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6)/N-POSS(3) D+Num+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4971
Language: Pima Bajo
Location: Mexico (SE Sonora)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Pimic Grammar: Smith, Buckingham, ed. 1862. Arte de la Lengua Névome. New York: Cramoisy.
Other Sources: Escalante Hernandez, Roberto. 1962. "El pima bajo," Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia (Mexico City), 349-52.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č s š h m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4972
Language: Tepecano
Location: Mexico (NE Jalisco)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Pimic
Other Sources: Mason, J. Alden. 1918. "Tepecano Prayers," IJAL 1, 91-153. SUAG I.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ (ts) (č) s š h v m n (ŋ) (l) ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (ts) (č) Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n (ŋ) Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̥ v m n ɾ w Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (ɛ) ǝ o a Front Vowels: i (ɛ) Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Articles: art
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6)/N-POSS(3) D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4973
Language: Northern Tepehuan
Location: Mexico (SW Chihuahua)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Pimic
Other Sources: Woo, Nancy. 1970. "Tone in Northern Tepehuan," IJAL 36, 18-30. UACS WALS
Consonant system: p t tj k b d dj ɡ č s š x v m n ñ (l) (ɾ) r Stops: p b t d tj dj k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: (ɾ) r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u (e) o a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: VSO POSS-N(1)/N-POSS(3)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4974
Language: Southern Tepehuan
Location: Mexico
Population: 1,800
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Pimic
Other Sources: UACS SUAG I E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ v s h m n l ɬ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: v s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Stress: phonemic
Syntax: VSO/VOS NA NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6)/N-POSS(3)
Number: 4975
Language: Tubar
Location: NW Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic
Consonant system:
Number: 4976
Language: Tarahumara
Location: NC Mexico (Chihuahua)
Population: 55,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic Dictionary: Hilton, K. Simón. 1959. Vocabulario tarahumara. Mexico City: SIL. Grammar: Lionnet, Andrés. 1972. Los elementos de la lengua tarahumara. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional Antóonoma de México.
Other Sources: Burgess, Don. 1979. "Verbal Suffixes of Prominence in Western Tarahumara Narrative Discourse,' in DSML, 171-88.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b ɡ ts s x m n̪ l ɾ Stops: p b t̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4977
Language: Guarijı́o Alternate Name: Huarijio
Location: NW Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 4978
Language: Yaqui Dialect: Arizona
Location: Arizona
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic
Other Sources: Fraenkel, Gerd. 1959. "Yaqui Phonemics," AL 1:5, 7-18. Crumrine, Lynne S. 1961. The Phonology of Arizona Yaqui, with Texts. Tucson: Univ of Arizona Press. Lindenfeld, Jacqueline. 1973. Yaqui Syntax. UCPL 76.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ (d) (ɡ) č (f) s h β m n l ɾ Stops: p t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β (f) s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic (but mostly on second syllable)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4979
Language: Yaqui Dialect: Mayo
Location: NW Mexico (Sonora)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic Dictionary: Collard, Howard and Elisabeth Scott Collard. 1962. Vocabulario mayo. Mexico City: SIL.
Other Sources: UACS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b bʷ č s x ɣʷ m n l ɾ Stops: p b bʷ t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s x ɣʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4980
Language: Opata Dialect: Eudeve
Location: NW Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 4981
Language: Cahita
Location: Mexico
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Taracahitic
Other Sources: CTIL 11, 468.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ bʷ č β s h m n l r Stops: p bʷ t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Tones: hi lo
Number: 4982
Language: Cora
Location: W Mexico (Nayarit)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Corachol Dictionary: McMahon, Ambrose and Maria Aiton de McMahon. 1959. Cora y español. Mexico City: SIL.
Other Sources: McMahon, Ambrose. 1967. "Phonemes and Phonemic Units of Cora," IJAL 33, 128-34. Casad, Eugene H. 1977 . "Location and Direction in Cora Discourse," AL 19, 216-41. WALS
Consonant system: p pʷ t k kʷ ʔ ts č s h β m mʷ n l ɾ Stops: p pʷ t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m mʷ n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO/VOS NG NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6) N-POSS(3) [According to E the Tepeuxila dialect is VSO and the El Nayar dialect is VSO/VOS.]
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4983
Language: Huichol
Location: WC Mexico (Jalisco)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Corachol
Other Sources: McIntosh, John B. 1945. "Huichol Phonemes," IJAL II, 31-5. Grimes, Joseph E. 1955."Style in Huichol Structure," Lg 31, 31-5. Grimes, Joseph E. 1959. "Huichol Tone and Intonation," IJAL 25, 221-32. Grimes, Joseph E. 1964. Huichol Syntax. The Hague: Mouton. Price, P. David. 1967. "Two Types of Taxonomy: A Huichol Ethnobotanical Example," AL 9:7, 1-28.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts h ẓ m n ɾ̣ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: ẓ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C), but no CCVC
Tones: hi lo Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N(1,2,4,5,6)/N-POSS(3)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4984
Language: Pochutla
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Boas, Franz. 1917. "El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca," IJAL 1, 9-44.
Consonant system: p t̪ k t̪s č s̪ š x m n̪ ñ l Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: s̪ š x Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Articles: art
Syntax: SVO DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4985
Language: Pipil
Location: El Salvador
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan Grammar: Geoffroy Rivas, Pedro. 1969. El nawat de Cuscatlán. San Salvador: Ministerio de Educacion.
Other Sources: Arauz, Prospero. 1960. El pipil de la region de los Itzalcos. San Salvador: Ministerio de Cultura.
Consonant system: p t̪ (t̪ʔ) k kʷ ts č s š h m n ɬ Stops: p t̪ (t̪ʔ) k kʷ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ʋ e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p (anim only) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/(NA) NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4986
Language: Classical Nahuatl
Location: S Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan Dictionary: Molina, Alonso de. 1571. Vocabulario en langua castellana y mexicana. Mexico City. Grammar: Rose, Jean, 1971. Précis de grammaire de nahuatl classique. Mexico City: Institut Français d'Amérique Latine. Anderson, Arthur J. O. 1973. Rules of the Aztec Language: Classical Nahuatl Grammar, 2 vols. Salt Lake City: Univ of Utah Press. Sullivan, Thelma D. 1976. Compendio de la gramática nahuatl. Mexico City: Univ Nacional Autónoma de México.
TextBooks: Andrews, J. Richard D. 1975. Introduction to classical Nahuatl, 2 vols. Austin: Univ of Texas Press.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ ts tl č s š m n̪ l Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Modified Consonants: c̄ p s š l (only at morphological boundaries) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai au ei
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p (anim only) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: art
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + indef
Syntax: SVO AN (GN)/NG DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4987
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Matlapa
Location: C Mexico
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Croft, Kenneth. 1951. "Practical Orthography for Matlapa Nahuatl," IJAL 17, 32-6.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ts tl č s š h m n l Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Number: 4988
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Orizaba
Location: S Mexico (Veracruz)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Goller, Theodore R., Patricia L. Goller and Viola G. Waterhouse. 1974. "The Phonemes of Orizaba Nahuatl," IJAL 40, 126-31.
Consonant system: ph th kh khʷ (ʔ) (b) ɡ ts tl č (f) s š h m n l̥ (ɾ) Stops: ph (b) th kh ɡ khʷ (ʔ) Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i (u) e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: (u) o Long Vowels: ī (ē) ā ō
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Number: 4989
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Tetelcingo
Location: Mexico (Morelos)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan Dictionary: Brewer, Forrest and John G. Brewer. 1962. Vocabulario mexicano de Tetelcingo. Mexico City: SIL. Grammar: Pittman, Richard S. 1954. A Grammar of Tetelcingo (Morelos) Nahuatl. Language Dissertation No. 50, Supplement to Lg 30.
Other Sources: Pittman, Richard S. 1961. "The Phonemes of Tetelcingo (Morelos) Nahuatl," in A Willaim Townsend, Mexico City, SIL, 643-51. WALS E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ (b) (d) (ɡ) ts tl č (f) s š h m n (ñ) l (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) kʷ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Diphthongs: ie Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 (+ honorific for 2 3 4 5)
Syntax: SVO/VSO/VOS(order of frequency) AN/NA DN POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4990
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Huasteca
Location: Mexico (Hidalgo)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Beller, Dick and Pat Beller. 1979. "Rank of Participants in Huasteca Nahuatl," in DSML, 247-68. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ (ɡ) ts tl č s š h m n l Stops: p t k (ɡ) kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Noun
Number: s p Articles: indef
Syntax: SVO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 4991
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Huauhtla
Location: Mexico
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Merlan, Francesca. 1976. "Noun Incorporation and Discourse Reference in Modern Nahuatl," IJAL 42, 177-91.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts tl č s š m n l Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: SVO DN POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 4992
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: North Puebla
Location: Mexico (N Puebla)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Brockway, Earl. 1963. "The Phonemes of North Puebla Nahuatl," AL 5:2, 14-8. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ ts tl č s š m n̪ l Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tl č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: l Glides: j w w̥
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ō
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SVO POSS-N
Number: 4993
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Sierra Nahuat
Location: S Mexico (N Puebla)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Key, Harold and Mary Key. 1953. "The Phonemes of Sierra Nahuat," IJAL 19, 53-6. Robinson, Dow Frederick. 1966. Sierra Nahuat Word Structure. HSL 18. Robinson, Dow F. 1969. "Puebla (Sierra) Nahuat Prosodies," in ASI, 15-32. E
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ (b) (d̪) ɡ ts č (f) s š h m n̪ (ñ) l̪ (ɾ)(r) Stops: p (b) t̪ (d̪) k ɡ kʷ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n̪ (ñ) Laterals:Vibrants: (ɾ)(r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4994
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Isthmus Nahuat
Location: S Mexico (S Veracruz)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Law, Howard W. 1958. "Morphological Structure of Isthmus Nahuat," IJAL 24, 108-29. Law, Howard W. 1966. Obligatory Constructions of Isthmus Nahuat Grammar. The Hague: Mouton. Wolgemuth, Carl. 1969. "Isthmus Veracruz (Mecayapan) Nahuat Laryngeals," in ASI, 1-14.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ts č s š h m n l Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Stress: phonemic, but usually penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN/NA GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 4995
Language: Nahuatl Alternate Name: Aztec Dialect: Michoacan Nahual
Location: S Mexico (Michoacan)
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Central: Uto-Aztecan: Aztecan
Other Sources: Robinson, Dow, F. and WilliaM R. Sischo. 1969. "Michoacán (Pómaro) Nahual Clause Structure," in ASI, 53-74. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ts č s š h m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Articles: def indef
Syntax: SVO/VSO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP

Обзоры типов языков Ото-манго

Number: 4996
Language: Proto-Oto-Manguean
Location: S Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean
Other Sources: Rensch, Calvin R. 1976. Comparative Otomanguean Phonology. Bloomington: Indiana University. CTIL 4, 335.
Consonant system: t nt k ŋk kʷ ŋkʷ ʔ s ns h m n nʷ l Stops: t nt k ŋk kʷ ŋkʷ ʔ Fricatives: s ns h Nasals: m n nʷ Laterals: l Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid low Stress: final syllable of stem
Number: 4997
Language: Amuzgo
Location: S Mexico (SE Guerrero)
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Amuzgo
Other Sources: Hart, Helen Long. 1957. "Hierarchical Structuring of Amuzgo Grammar," IJAL 23, 141-64. Bauernschmidt, Amy. 1965. "Amuzgo Syllable Dynamics," Lg 41, 471-83. Longacre, Robert E. 1966. "On Linguistic Affinities of Amuzgo," IJAL 32, 46-9. Rensch, Calvin R. 1977. "Classification of the Oto-Manguean Languages and the Position of Tlapanec," in Two Studies in Middle American Comparative Linguistics," by David Oltrogge and Calvin R. Rensch, SIL 55, 53-108.
Consonant system: (p) t c k kj kʷ ʔ ts č s š h (β) m (mp) n nt ñ̃ ñc ŋk l ɾ (r) Nc are "occluded nasals rather than prenasalized stops." Longacre, p. 46. Stops: (p) t c k kj kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (β) s š h Nasals: m (mp) n nt ñ ñc ŋk (Nc are "occluded nasals rather than prenasalized stops." Longacre, p. 46.) Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o æ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ẽ æ̃ ã õ ɔ̃
Syllable: Nˈ Lˈ
Tones: hi mid low hi-fall lo-ris mid-ris
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: VSO NA ND NUM-N N-POSS N+A+D
Number: 4998
Language: Chichimeca
Location: C Mexico (Guanajuato)
Population: 800
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Northern Grammar: Angulo, Jaime de. 1932. "The Chichimeco Language (Central Mexico)," IJAL ??, 152-94.
Other Sources: Romero Castillo, Moisés. 1960. "Los fonemas del chichimeco-jonaz," Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia 11, 289-99.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č s h z m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i y u e o æ a Front Vowels: i y e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 4999
Language: Pame Alternate Name: Alaquines
Location: EC Mexico (SE San Luis Potosн)
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Northern
Other Sources: Gibson, Lorna F. 1956. "Pame (Otomi) Phonemics and Morphophonemics," IJAL 22, 242-65. Olson, Donald. 1963. "Spanish Loan Words in Pame," IJAL 29, 219-21. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t k q ʔ b d ɡ ts č (f) s š h m n ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ q ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ʋ e ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo fall
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5000
Language: Mazahua
Location: SW Mexico (Michoacan)
Population: 100,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Central
Other Sources: Pike, Eunice V. 1951. "Tonemic-Intonemic Correlation in Mazahua," IJAL 17, 37-41. Spotts, Hazel. 1956. "Some Post-Conquest Changes in Mazahua," IJAL 22, 208-11. Spotts, Hazel. 1953. "Vowel Harmony and Consonant Sequences in Mazahua," IJAL 19, 253-9. Bartholomew, Doris. 1975. "Some Morphophonemic Rules in Mazahua," IJAL 41, 293-305. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts č s š h z ž m n ñ (l) r Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ǝ̃ ã ũ ɔ̃ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Tones: hi lo fall Stress: stem initial
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5001
Language: Otomi
Location: S Mexico
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Central
Other Sources: Hensey, Fritz G. 1972. "Otomi Phonology and Spelling Reform with Reference to Learning Problems," IJAL 38, 93-5. Bernard, H. Russell and Jesús Salinas Pedraza. 1976. Otomi Parables, Folktales and Jokes. NATS 1:2.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ ʔ b ʔb d ɡ ɡʷ ts š h z ž m ʔm m̥ n ʔn n̥ (l) r ʔɾ Stops: p ph pʔ b ʔb t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: z š ž h Nasals: m ʔm m̥ n ʔn n̥ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r ʔɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ ɑ̃
Tones: hi lo mid-fall
Number: 5002
Language: Otomi Dialect: Mezquital
Location: EC Mexico (Hidalgo)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Central
Other Sources: Sinclair, Donald E and Kenneth L Pike. 1948. "The Tonemes of Mesquital Otomi," IJAL 14, 91-8. Leon, Frances. 1962, "Revisión de la fonologı́a del Otomı́," Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia 15, 315-30. Hess, H. Harwood. 1968. The Syntactic Structure of Mezquital Otomi. The Hague: Mouton. Wallis, Ethel E. 1968. "The Word and the Phonological Hierarchy of Mezquital Otomi," Lg 44, 76-90. Lanier, Nancy. 1968. "Three Structural Layers in Mezquital Otomi Clauses," Linguistics 43, 32-85. Bernard, H. Russell. 1973. "Otomı́ Phonology and Orthography," IJAL 39, 180-4. WPF
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ ts (č) ɸ θ s s ̌ x h β ð z (ž) ɣ m n̪ ñ (l) r Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Affricates: ts (č) Fricatives: ɸ β θ ð s z š (ž) x ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã ũ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)CV(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo ris Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5003
Language: Otomi Dialect: Temoayan
Location: S Mexico (Mexico)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Central
Other Sources: Andrews, Henrietta. 1949. "Phonemes and Morphophonemes of Temoayan Otomi," IJAL 15, 213-22. E
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ s š h z ž m n ñ (l) r Stops: p ph pʔ b t th tʔ d k kh kʔ ɡ kʷ khʷ kʔʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃̃ ã ũ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo ris
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5004
Language: Otomi Dialect: Tenango
Location: Mexico (Hidalgo)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Central
Other Sources: Jenkins, Joyce. 1958. "Morphological Phoneme Sequences in Eastern Otomi," Phonetica 2, 1-11. Blight, Richard C. and Eunice V. Pike. 1976. "The Phonology of Tenango Otomi," IJAL 42, 51-7. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ (č) ɸ s š x h z m n (l) ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: (č) Fricatives: ɸ s z š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ s m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ æ̃ ã ũ
Tones: hi lo ris Articles: def
Syntax: VOS DN
Number: 5005
Language: Matlatzinca
Location: Mexico (Mexico)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 5006
Language: Ocuiltec
Location: Mexico (Mexico)
Population: few
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Otomian: Southern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5007
Language: Proto-Mixtecan
Location: Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Mak, Cornelia and Robert Longacre. 1960. "Proto-Mixtec Phonology," IJAL 26, 23-40.
Consonant system: t k kʷ nd ŋɡ ŋɡʷ θ x xʷ m n l Stops: t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ŋɡʷ Fricatives: θ x xʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɔ
Number: 5008
Language: Trique
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 8,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Longacre, Robert E. 1959. "Trique Tone Morphemics," AL 1:4, 5-42. Longacre, Robert E. 1966. "Trique Clause and Sentence: A Study in Contrast, Variation and Distribution," IJAL 32, 242-52. Hollenbach, Barbara E. 1974. "Reduplication and Anomalous Rule Ordering in Copala Trique," IJAL 40, 176-81. Hollenbach, Barbara E. 1976. "Tense-Negation Interplay in Copala Trique," IJAL 42, 126-32.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č̣ č s ṣ̌ š h z ž m n l ɾ̣ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: s z ṣ̌ š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l j w Glides: j w
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ē ā ū ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: lo-mid-fall mid-fall mid-lev mid-ris-to-hi-mid mid-ris-to-hi hi-mid-lev hi-fall
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5009
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Jicaltepec
Location: S Mexico (W Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan Grammar: Bradley, C. Henry. 1970. A Linguistic Sketch of Jicaltepec Mixtec. SIL 25.
Consonant system: p t̪ tj k kʷ ʔ mb nd ndj ŋɡ č (ɸ) s (sj) š (x) m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p mb t̪ tj nd ndj k ŋɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɸ) s (sj) š (x) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid low
Gender: m f animal inanimate sacred Demonstratives: 3: proximal/distal/indifferent to distance Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mfAir m f A=animal i=inanimate r=sacred polite/familiar: 1 2 4 5
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5010
Language: Mixtec Dialect: San Miguel
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan Dictionary: Dyk, Anne and Betty Stoudt. 1965. Vocabulario mixteco. Mexico City: SIL.
Other Sources: Pike, Kenneth L. 1944. "Analysis of a Mixteco Text," IJAL 10, 113-38. Dyk, Anne. 1959. Mixteco Texts. SIL 3.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ s ṣ̌ š x β ð ž m n ñ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð s ṣ̌ š ž x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but e
Tones: hi mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5011
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Ayutla
Location: S Mexico (Guerrero)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Pankratz, Leo and Eunice V. Pike. 1967. "Phonological Morphotonemics of Ayutla Mixtec," IJAL 33, 287-99. Hills, Robert and William R. Merrifield. 1974. "Ayutla Mixtec, Just in Case," IJAL 40, 283-91.
Consonant system: (p) t tj k kʷ ʔ (mb) d dj (ɡ) (ɡʷ) č s š (h) (hʷ) v m n ñ l (r) Stops: (p) (mb) t tj d dj k (ɡ) kʷ (ɡʷ) ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v s š (h) (hʷ) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ı̃ (ẽ) ã ũ v̄̃ Modified Vowels: ̃̄
Syllable: (C)(C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5012
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Molinos
Location: S Mexico (W Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Merrifield, William R. and Betty J. Stoudt. 1967. "Molinos Mixtec Clause Structure," Linguistic 32, 58-78. Hunter, Georgia and Eunice V. Pike. 1969. "The Phonology and Tone Sandhi of Molinos Mixtec," Linguistics 47, 24-40.
Consonant system: (p) t̪ k kʷ ʔ č s̪ š h β ð ž (ɣ) m n̪ ñ ŋ l (r) Stops: (p) t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β ð s̪ š ž (ɣ) h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (r)
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ı̃ (ẽ) ã ũ õ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid lo downdrift
Syntax: VSO NA N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5013
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Peñoles
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan Grammar: Daly, John P. 1973. A Generative Syntax of Peñoles Mixtec. SIL 42.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ ŋɡʷ č ñɡ̌ f s š h β ð ž m n ñ l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ŋɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β f ð s š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Tones: hi lo Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Articles: indef
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5014
Language: Mixtec Dialect: San Esteban
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Mak, Cornelia. 1950. "A Unique Tone Perturbation in Mixteco," IJAL 16, 82-6. Mak, Cornelia. 1953. "A Comparison of Two Mixtec Tonemic Systems," IJAL 19, 85-100.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ β ð s š h ž m n n̥ ñ l (ɾ) Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð s š ž h Nasals: m n n̥ ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo ?ris ?fall
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5015
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Eastern Jamiltepec
Location: S Mexico (W Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Pensinger, Brenda and Larry Lyman. 1975. "Some Eastern Jamiltepec Mixtec Phrase Constructions," IJAL 41, 158-61. WPF
Consonant system: p t tj k kj ʔ mb nd ndj ŋɡ θ s š v m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p mb t tj nd ndj k kj ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: v θ s š Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ v̄̃
Tones: hi mid lo Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5016
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Coatzospan
Location: S Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Small, Priscilla. 1979. "Prominence and Dominance in Coatzospan Mixtec Narrative," in DSML, 353-??.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ts č ndz ñɡ̌ s š x β ð ðj m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ŋɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts ndz č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð ðj s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND N-POSS N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5017
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Santo Tomás Ocotepec
Location: S Mexico
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Mak, Cornelia. 1958. "The Tonal System of a Third Mixtec Dialect," IJAL 24, 61-70.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ č ñɡ̌ s š h β ð z ž m n ñ l Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: β ð s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid lo
Syntax: VSO NA NG N-NUM N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5018
Language: Mixtec Dialect: Huajuapan
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 250,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Pike, Eunice V. and John H. Cowan. 1967. "Huajuapan Mixtec Phonology and Morphophonemics," AL 9:5, 1-15.
Consonant system: (p) t k kʷ (mb) nd (ŋɡ) č (ɸ) s š (h) (β) ð ž (ɣ) m n ñ l (ɾ) (r) Stops: (p) (mb) t nd k (ŋɡ) kʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: (ɸ) β ð s š ž (ɣ) (h) Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Glides: (w)
Vowel system: i y e o a Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but y
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: initial
Syntax: VSO NA NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 5019
Language: Cuicatec
Location: Mexico (NE Oaxaca)
Population: 12,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Mixtecan
Other Sources: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 &111-30. Needham, Doris and Marjorie Davis. 1946. "Cuicateco Phonology," IJAL 12, 139-46.
Consonant system: t̪h kh khʷ ʔ b d̪ čh s̪ x m n̪ (l̪) (r) Stops: b t̪h d̪ kh khʷ ʔ Affricates: čh Fricatives: s̪ x Nasals: m n̪ Laterals: (l̪) Vibrants: (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i ʋ e ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C), Nˈ
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: non-phonemic Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ha
Syntax: VSO NA NG NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5020
Language: Mazatec
Location: S Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Pike, Kenneth L. and Eunice Victoria Pike. 1947. "Immediate Contitutents of Mazateco Syllables," IJAL 13, 78-91. Cowan, George M. 1965. Some Aspects of the Lexical Structure of a Mazatec Historical Text. SIL 11.
Consonant system: (p) t k ʔ (b) ts č̣ č s ṣ̌ h β (ð) (ɣ) m n ñ l (ɾ) (r) Stops: (p) (b) t k ʔ Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: β (ð) s ṣ̌ (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN N-POSS
Number: 5021
Language: Mazatec Dialect: Jalapa de Diaz
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Schram, T. L. 1979. "Tense, Tense Embedding, and Theme in Discourse in Mazatec of Jalapa de Diaz," in DSML, 141-67.
Consonant system: t k kʷ ʔ d ɡ ɡʷ ts č dz ɡ̌ s š h m n ñ l r Stops: t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u o æ ɒ Front Vowels: i æ Back Vowels: o u ɒ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Tones: hi mid lo Articles: indef
Syntax: VSO AN/NA NG DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5022
Language: Mazatec Dialect: Huautla
Location: S Mexico
Population: 85,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Gudschinsky, Sarah C. 1959. "Discourse Analysis of a Mazatec Text," IJAL 25, 139-46.
Consonant system: (p) t k ʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) ts č̣ č s š h v m n ñ l ɾ (r) Stops: (p) (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo
Syntax: NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 5023
Language: Mazatec Dialect: Soyal Tepec
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Pike, Eunice V. 1956. "Tonally Differentiated Allomorphs in Soyal Tepec," IJAL 22, 57-71.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č̣ č s š h m n ñ l r ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo Stress: VSO NA ND NUM-N N-POSS
Number: 5024
Language: Mazatec Dialect: Chiquihuitlan
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 85,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 &111-30.
Consonant system:
Tones: tones
Gender: human/anim
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ha h=hum a=anim
Syntax: VSO NA NG NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5025
Language: Ixcatec
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Fernández de Miranda, Marı́a Teresa. 1959. Fonémica del ixcateco. Mecico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia. WPF
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s š h m n ñ l ɾ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi mid low
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 *6
Number: 5026
Language: Chocho
Location: Mexico (NW Oaxaca)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 & 111-30.
Consonant system:
Tones: yes
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3
Syntax: VSO NA NG NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5027
Language: Popoloc
Location: Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Popolocan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV/SVO/VSO/VOS [According to E the San Felipe Otlatepec is SVO; the San Juan Atzingo and San Marcos Tlalcoyalco dialects are VSO; the Highland dialect is VOS; and the Sayula dialect is SOV/VOS.]
Number: 5028
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Azumacin
Location: Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Consonant system:
Number: 5029
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Lalana
Location: Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5030
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Ojitlan
Location: Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Consonant system:
Number: 5031
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Palantla
Location: Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Merrifield, William R. 1963. "Palantla Chinantec Syllable Types," AL 5:5, 1-16.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz ɸ s h m n ŋ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɯ ʋ ɛ ɤ o a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ ʋ o ɤ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ (liɡht nasal) v̄̃ (heavy nasal) Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Tones: hi-lev mid-lev lo-fall lo-ris-to-mid lo-ris-to-hi
Syntax: VSO NA
Number: 5032
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Quiotepec
Location: S Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Robbins, Frank E. 1961. "Quiotepec Chinantec Syllable Patterning," IJAL 27, 237-50.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k kʷ ʔ mb nd̪ ñɟ ŋɡ t̪s f ṣ ç h ð ɣ m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ r̪ Stops: p mb t̪ nd̪ c ñɟ k ŋk kʷ ʔ Affricates: t̪s Fricatives: f ð ṣ ç ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants:Glides: j ʔj w ʔw
Vowel system: i y ɯ u ɛ ø o ɑ Front Vowels: i y ɛ ø Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɑ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ø Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable:
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo ris fall fall-ris-fall
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5033
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Usila
Location: S Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Skinner, Leo E. 1962. "Usila Chinantec Syllable Structure," IJAL 28, 251-5.
Consonant system: p t̪ c k ʔ b d̪ ɟ ɡ ts (ɸ) s h m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: (ɸ) s h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but u Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Nˈ
Tones: hi-lev hi-mid-lev mid-lev lo-mid-lev lo-fall hi-mid-fall mid-fall mid-ris lo-mid-ris
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5034
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Tepetotutla
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Westley, David O. 1971. "The Tepetotutla Chinantec Stressed Syllable," IJAL 37, 160-3.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts dz f s h m n ŋ l ɹ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɹ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ Nasal Vowels: ẽ ã (ũ) ɯ̃ õ
Tones: hi mid lo mid-ris lo-ris-to-mid lo-ris-to-hi hi-fall mid-fall
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5035
Language: Chinantec Dialect: High Chinantla
Location: S Mexico (NE Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Angula, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 &111-30.
Consonant system:
Tones: yes Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NA/(AN) NG ND NUM-N Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5036
Language: Chinantec Dialect: Sochiapan
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Chinantecan
Other Sources: Foris, David. 1973. "Sochiapan Chinantec Syllable Structure," IJAL 39, 232-5.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts (f) θ s h β ð m n ŋ l (ɾ) ṛ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: β (f) θ ð s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e (ɤ) o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o (ɤ) Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: ei au ɯe
Syllable: (C)(C)(G)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo mid-ris lo-ris hi-fall
Syntax: VSO NA
Number: 5037
Language: Proto-Zapotec
Location: S Mexico
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec Grammar: Fernández de Mirenda, Mária Teresa. 1961. Proto-Zapoteco. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia.
Other Sources: Swadesh, Morris. 1947. "The Phonemic Structure of Proto-Zapotec," IJAL 13, 220-30. Suarez, Jorge A. 1973. "On Proto-Zapotec Phonology," IJAL 39, 236-49.
Consonant system: p t k č s š n l r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s š Nasals: n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: õ ã Modified Vowels: vʔ (checked) vʔv (rearticulated)
Tones: tones Stress: phonemic
Number: 5038
Language: Chatino Dialect: Yaitepec
Location: S Mexico (SW Oaxaca)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: McKaughan, Howard P. 1954. "Chatino Formulas and Phonemes," IJAL 20, 23-7. Upson, Jessamine. 1960. "A Preliminary Structure of Chatino," AL 2:6, 22-9. Pride, Kitty. 1961. "Numerals in Chatino," AL 3:2, 1-106. Pride, Leslie. 1963. "Chatino Tonal Structure," AL 5:2, 19-28. Pride Kitty. 1965. Chatino Syntax. SIL 12. Upson, B. W. and Robert E. Longacre. 1965. "Proto-Chatino Phonology," IJAL 31, 312-22.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ d ɡ s š h m n l r Stops: p t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ õ
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo + 6 ris & fall tones Stress: final Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A+D
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5039
Language: Chatino Dialect: Tataltepec
Location: S Mexico (S Oaxaca)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec Dictionary: Pride, Leslie and Kitty Pride. 1970. Vocabulario chatino de Tataltepec. Mexico City: SIL.
Other Sources: Upson, B. W. and Robert E. Longacre. 1965. "Proto-Chatino Phonology," IJAL 31, 312-22.
Consonant system: t c k kʷ ʔ ts č s š h hʷ m n ñ l ʎ Stops: t c k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ũ õ
Tones: hi mid lo (others?) Stress: final Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfA 6 m f A=animal
Syntax: VSO NA NG NUM-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5040
Language: Chatino Dialect: Zenzontepec
Location: S Mexico (SC Oaxaca)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Upson, B. W. and Robert E. Longacre. 1965. "Proto-Chatino Phonology," IJAL 31, 312-22. E
Consonant system: t c k kʷ ʔ ts č s š h hj hʷ m n ñ l ʎ Stops: t c k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h hj hʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: tones
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5041
Language: Chatino Dialect: Papabuco
Location: S Mexico (C Oaxaca)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Upson, B. W. and Robert E. Longacre. 1965. "Proto-Chatino Phonology," IJAL 31, 312-22.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č s š n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š Nasals: n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels:
Tones: tones
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5042
Language: Chatino Dialect: Panixtlahuaca
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 & 111-30.
Consonant system:
Tones: tones
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND/DN NUM-N N-POSS Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5043
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Isthmus
Location: S Mexico (S Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec Dictionary: Pickett, Velma, et al. 1965. Vocabulario zapateco del Istmo. Mexico City: SIL.
Other Sources: Angulo, Jaime de and L. S. Freeland. 1935. "The Zapotekan Linguistic Group," IJAL 8, 1-38 & 111-30. Pickett, Velma. 1953, 1955. "Isthmus Zapotec Verb Analysis I-II," IJAL 19, 292-6; 21, 217-32.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č ̌ ɡ̌ (f) s š x (h) z ž m n (ñ) l B ɾ (r) B is a voiced bilabial trill Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z š ž x (h) Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: B (voiced bilabial trill) ɾ (r) Modified Consonants: c̄ n l r w Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (larynɡealized) all
Tones: hi lo lo-ris Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3hai 6hai h=hum a=anim i=inan
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5044
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Mitla
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec Grammar: Briggs, Elinor. 1961. Mitla Zapotec Grammar. Mexico City: SIL.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ (f) s ṣ̌ x h z ẓ̌ (m) n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Fricatives: (f) s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ x h Nasals: (m) n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ (fortis) m n l r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)
Tones: hi lo Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA(AN) NG NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 5045
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Villa Alta
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Pike, Eunice Victoria. 1948. "Problems in Zapotec Tone Analysis," IJAL 14, 161-70. Leal, Mary. 1950. "Patterns of Tone Substitution in Zapotec Morphology," IJAL 16, 132-6. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ č ̌ ɡ̌ (f) s ṣ s ̌ (x) (xʷ) z ẓ ž n l (ɾ) (r) ṛ ṛʷ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z ṣ ẓ š ž (x) (xʷ) Nasals: n Laterals: l Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) ṛ ṛʷ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n l Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o
Tones: hi mid lo ris fall
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfai politeness: fam/respect (3)
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5046
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Rincon
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Earl, Robert. 1968. "Rincon Zapotec Clause," IJAL 34, 269-74. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ (f) s š h z ž (m) n (ñ) l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s z š ž h Nasals: (m) n (ñ) Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Syntax: VOS NA NG ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5047
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Sierra
Location: S Mexico (N Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Nellis, Jane Goodner. 1947. "Sierra Zapotec Forms of Address," IJAL 13, 231-2. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ts č f θ s ṣ̌ x v ð ẓ̌ ɣ m n l ɾ r Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v θ ð s ṣ̌ ẓ̌ x ɣ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o u Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ũ
Tones: hi mid lo Stress: penult
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5048
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Coatlan
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec Grammar: Robinson, Dow F. 1963. Field Notes on Coatlan Zapotec. HSL 7.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ b mb d̪ nd̪ ɡ ŋɡ ɡʷ ŋɡʷ ts č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ s š z ž m n̪ ŋ l̪ (ɾ) Stops: p b mb t̪ d̪ nd̪ k ɡ ŋɡ kʷ ɡʷ ŋɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ ñɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Laterals:Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o u ɔ Long Vowels: ī ē ǣ ā ū ō ɔ̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ã ɔ̃ ı̃̄ ã̄ ũ̄ ɔ̃̄
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C)
Tones: hi mid lo hi-fall lo-ris mid-fall
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3hA 6gs h=hum A=animal g=general s=specific politeness: fam/respect (2)
Syntax: VSO AN/NA N-POSS
Number: 5049
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Choapan
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Lyman, Larry. 1964. "The Verb Syntegmemes of Choapan Zapotec," Linguistics 7, 16-41. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kj b d ɡ ɡʷ ɡj ts č dz ɡ̌ s š h z ž m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ kj ɡʷ ɡj Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Tones: hi mid low
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5050
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Lachixio
Location: S Mexico (NE Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Persons, David. 1979. "Plot Structure in Lachixio Zapotec Discourse," in DSML, 123-40.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ kj mb nd ŋɡ ts č f s š h β ð z nz ž m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ kj Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β f ð s z nz š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: vʔ (checked) all vʔv(interrupted): all
Tones: hi hi-mid lo-mid lo + glides
Syntax: VSO NG NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5051
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Yatzachi
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Population: 300,000
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Butler, Inez. 1976. "Reflexive Constructions of Yatzachi Zapotec," IJAL 42, 331-7.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ č ɡ̌ s ṣ̌ š x z ẓ̌ ž ʁ ʁʷ m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š ž x ʁ ʁʷ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ n l Glides: j
Vowel system: i e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3hai 6hai h=hum a=animate i=inanimate politeness: 3h & 6h have two forms each: (1)respectful, (2)familiar
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5052
Language: Zapotec Dialect: Juchitan-Tehauno
Location: S Mexico (Oaxaca)
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Zapotec
Other Sources: Radin, Paul. 1946. "Zapotec Texts: Dialect of Juchitan-Tehauno," IJAL 12, 152-72. E
Consonant system: p t k kj ʔ b d ɡ ɡj č ɡ̌ θ s š x β ð z ž ɣ m n ŋ l ɾ rž Stops: p b t d k ɡ kj ɡj ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β θ ð s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ rž
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̤ (ɡlottalized) all
Tones: hi lo mid
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5053
Language: Mangue
Location: Nicaragua
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Manguean
Consonant system:
Number: 5054
Language: Chiapanec
Location: S Mexico (Chiapas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Central: Oto-Manguean: Manguean
Other Sources: CTIL 11, 467. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ mb nd ŋɡ č ̌ ñɡ̌ s h m n l r Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Tones: tones

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Чибчанской семьи

Number: 5055
Language: Tarascan Alternate Name: Purépecha
Location: SW Mexico (Michoacán)
Population: 50,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan Dictionary: Swadesh, Mauricio. 1969. Elementos del tarasco antiguo. Mexico City: Univ Nacional Autónoma de México. Grammar: Foster, Mary Le Cron. 1969. The Tarascan Language. UCPL 56.
Other Sources: Foster, Mary Le Cron 1971 "Tarascan," in SAIL, 77-111. Friedrich, Paul. 1975. A Phonology of Tarascan. Chicago: Dept of Anthropology, Univ of Chicago.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh (b) (d̪) (ɡ) t̪s t̪sh č čh (f) s š x m n (ñ) (l) ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: p ph (b) t̪ t̪h (d̪) k kh (ɡ) Affricates: t̪s t̪sh č čh Fricatives: (f) s š x Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 [4=6]
Syntax: SVO AN GN/NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5056
Language: Cuitlatec
Location: Mexico (Guerrero)
Population: extinct (c. 1965)
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan Grammar: GD: Escalante Hernandez, Roberto. 1962 El Cuilateco. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Antropologı́a e Historia.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ č (f) (s) š h β ð ɣ m n l ɬ (ɾ) (r) Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β (f) ð (s) š ɣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: (ɾ) (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: phonemic
Number: 5057
Language: Xinca
Location: SE Guatemala
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan
Other Sources: McArthur, Harry. 1966. "Xinca," in LG, 309-12. Campbell, Lyle. 1972. "Mayan Loan Words in Xinca," IJAL 38, 187-90. CTIL 11, p. 468.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ tsʔ (č) ṣ h m n l ɬ ɾ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: tsʔ (č) Fricatives: ṣ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: on vowel before last consonant of word Articles: def
Syntax: VOS AN GN/NG DN
Prep/Post: PREP Comments: "quite moribund. . . known only by old people.''
Number: 5058
Language: Lenca
Location: SW Honduras
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan
Other Sources: Kaufman, Terrence. 1973. "Areal Linguistics and Middle America," CTIL 11, 459-83.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ s š m n l r Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penalt Articles: def
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5059
Language: Paya
Location: N Honduras
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5060
Language: Sanuma Alternate Name: Waica
Location: NW Brazil
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Yanomam
Other Sources: Borgman, Donald M. 1974. "Deep and Surface Case in Sanuma," Linguistics 132, 5-18.
Consonant system: p t k ts s h m n l Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Glides: w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Stress: antepenult
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 4i=5
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5061
Language: Sanuma Dialect: Aykamteli
Location: NW Brazil
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Yanomam
Other Sources: Albright, Sue. 1965. "Aykamteli Higher-Level Phonology," AL 7:7, 16-22. AMAZ
Consonant system: p t k f s š h m n ľ Stops: p t k Fricatives: f s š h Nasals: m n Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5062
Language: Yanomami
Location: N Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Yanomam
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5063
Language: Yanomamö
Location: N Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Yanomam
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5064
Language: Ninam Alternate Name: Shiriana
Location: SE Venezuela
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Yanomam
Other Sources: Borgman, Donald M. 1963. "Sentence and Clause Types in Central Waica (Shiriana)" IJAL 29, 222-229. Migliazza, Ernest and Joseph E. Grimes. 1961. "Shiriana Phonology" AL 3:6, 31-41. WPF
Consonant system: p t th k (č) (ɸ) s š h m n ɾ Stops: p t th k Affricates: (č) Fricatives: (ɸ) s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C), Nˈ Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3hH 6
Syntax: SOV NA DN POSS-N
Number: 5065
Language: Motilon
Location: N Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper: Western
Consonant system:
Number: 5066
Language: Cuna Alternate Name: Kuna
Location: Panama
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper: Western Grammar: Holmer, Nils M. 1946. "Outline of Cuna Grammar," IJAL 12, 185-97.
Other Sources: Forster, Keith. 1977. "The Narrative Folklore Discourse in Border Cuna," in DG II, 1-23.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ č s m n l r Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ all but s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: on-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5067
Language: Matagalpa
Location: Nicaragua
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Misumalpan
Consonant system:
Number: 5068
Language: Miskito
Location: Honduras
Population: 15,000 (1929)
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Misumalpan Dictionary: Heath, G. R. and W. G. Marx. 1953. Diccionario miskito-español, español-miskito. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Calderon.
Other Sources: Consemius, Edward. 1929. "Notes on the Miskito and Sumu Languages of Eastern Nicaragua and Honduras," IJAL 5, 57-115. Heath, G. R. 1950. "Miskito Glossary, With Ethnographic Commentary," IJAL 16, 20-34.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (ɡ̌) s x m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (ɡ̌) Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: ī ā ū Diphthongs: ai au Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N(3)/N-POSS(1,2)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5069
Language: Sumo
Location: Honduras
Population: 3,500 (1929)
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Misumalpan
Other Sources: Conzemius, Eduard. 1929. "Notes on the Miskito and Sumu Languages of Eastern Nicaragua and Honduras," IJAL 5, 57-115.
Consonant system:
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5070
Language: Rama
Location: Nicaragua
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Rama
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5071
Language: Guatuso
Location: N Costa Rica
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Rama
Consonant system:
Number: 5072
Language: Guetar
Location: Costa Rica
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Rama
Consonant system:
Number: 5073
Language: Cabecar
Location: SE Costa Rica
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Talamanca Dictionary: Arroyo, Victor Manuel. 1972. Lenguas indı́genas costarricenses. San José, Costa Rica: Educa.
Other Sources: Jones, Aziel W. and Marian Jones. 1959. "The Segmental Phonemes of Chirripó," Actas del XXXIII Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 2, 580-3. Jones, Aziel W. 1974. "La clave del verbo en la lengua cabécar," AI 34, 333-9.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b ts č ɡ̌ f s š x m n ñ ̌ l r Stops: p ph b t th k kh Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: ̌l Vibrants: r Glides: w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ã ũ õ
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5074
Language: Bribri Dialect: Lari
Location: S Costa Rica
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Talamanca Dictionary: Arroyo, Victor Manuel. 1972. Lenguas indı́genas costarricenses. San José, Costa Rica: Educa.
Other Sources: Schlabach, Raymond A. 1974. "Los fonemas del bribri del Valle de Talamanca," AI 34, 355-62.
Consonant system: p hp t̪ ht̪ c k hk (ʔ) b d̪ ts hts č hč ɡ̌ s š m n ñ (ŋ) ľ Nasal consonants are analyzed as allophones of b d ɡ̌. Stops: p hp b t̪ ht̪ d̪ c k hk (ʔ) Affricates: ts hts č hč ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n ñ (ŋ) (nasal consonants are analyzed as allophones of b d ɡ̌) Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o a Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but I ʋ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5075
Language: Bribri Dialect: Salitre
Location: S Costa Rica
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Talamanca Dictionary: Arroyo, Victor Manuel. 1972. Lenguas indı́genas costarricenses. San José, Costa Rica: Educa.
Other Sources: Wilson, Jack L. 1974. "Análisis fonológico del bribri," AI 34, 341-53. WPF
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d č ɡ̌ s š h m n ñ ɾ r ṛ Nasal consonants are analyzed as allophones of b d ɡ̌. Stops: p b t d k ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ (nasal consonants are analyzed as allophones of b d ɡ̌) Vibrants: ɾ r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e o a Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but I ʋ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 5076
Language: Teribe
Location: NW Panama (Bocas del Toro)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Talamanca Dictionary: Arroyo, Victor Manuel. 1972. Lenguas indı́genas costarricenses. San José: Costa Rica: Educa.
Other Sources: Koontz, Carol and Joanne Anderson. 1977. "Connectives in Teribe," in DG II, 95-131. Koontz, Carol. 1977. "Features of Dialogue within Narrative Discourse in Teribe," in DG III, 111-132. E
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č s š x z ž m n ñ ŋ l r ṛ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s z š ž x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I ʋ e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i I e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ o Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ã ũ õ Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4de 4i 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV/OVS NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5077
Language: Borunca
Location: S Costa Rica
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Talamanca Grammar: Arroyo, Victor Manuel. 1972. Lenguas indigenas costarricenses. San José, Costa Rica: Educa.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č s š x h m n ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o ɛ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: short vowels ĕ ă ŭ ŏ Nasal Vowels: ã
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: (PREP)/POST
Number: 5078
Language: Guaymi Alternate Name: Ngäbere
Location: N Panama
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Guaymi Grammar: GD: Alphonse, Ephraim S. 1956. Guaymı́ Grammar and Dictionary. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ č s x m n ñ ŋ l ɾ Stops: b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: s x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i y u e o ɔ a ɑ Front Vowels: i y e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ɑ
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 2 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+A+D
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5079
Language: Buglere
Location: W Panama
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Guaymi
Consonant system:
Number: 5080
Language: Katio
Location: NW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Antioquia
Consonant system:
Number: 5081
Language: Nutabe
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Antioquia
Consonant system:
Number: 5082
Language: Anserma
Location: W Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Antioquia
Consonant system:
Number: 5083
Language: Arma
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Antioquia
Consonant system:
Number: 5084
Language: Atanque
Location: N Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Consonant system:
Number: 5085
Language: Guamaca
Location: N Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Consonant system:
Number: 5086
Language: Ica Alternate Name: Ika, Arhuaco, Bintukua
Location: N Colombia
Population: 2500
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Other Sources: Tracy, Hubert P. and Stephen H. Levinsohn. 1977. "Partipant Reference in Ica Expository Discourse," in DG III, 3-23.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ b d̪ ɡ č ɡ̌ s̪ h β z̪ ž m n̪ ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s̪ z̪ ž h Nasals: m n̪ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV NA
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5087
Language: Cagaba Alternate Name: Cogui
Location: N Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5088
Language: Chimila
Location: N Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Other Sources: LAND WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5089
Language: Malayo
Location: N Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Aruak
Consonant system:
Number: 5090
Language: Proto-Chibchan
Location: Panama/Colombia?
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Other Sources: GSAIL, p. 30.
Consonant system: (p) t k kʷ b d ɡ ɡʷ ts č s h m n r Stops: (p) b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 5091
Language: Chibcha Alternate Name: Muisca
Location: NW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper Grammar: DG: Acosta Ortegon, Joaquin. 1938. El idioma chibcha. Bogotá.
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system: p t k b ɡ č f s š h v z m n l r Stops: p b t k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f v s z š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5092
Language: Sinsiga
Location: NW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 5093
Language: Duit
Location: NW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 5094
Language: Eastern Tunebo
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5095
Language: Central Tunebo
Location: NW Colombia
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Other Sources: Headland, Paul and Stephen H. Levinsohn. 1977. "Prominence and Cohesion in Tunebo Discourse," in DG II, 133-57.
Consonant system: t k kʷ ʔ b s š h m n r Stops: b t k kʷ ʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w w̃
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5096
Language: Western Tunebo
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Chibchan: Chibchan Proper
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Паэсской семьи

Number: 5097
Language: Timucua
Location: N Florida
Population: extinct (c. 1775)
Classification: Amerind: Paezan
Other Sources: Granberry, Julian. 1956. "Timucua I: Prosodics and Phonemics of the Mocama Dialect," IJAL 22, 97-105. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kʷ č f s h m n l ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: initial
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5098
Language: Warao Alternate Name: Caño Bagre
Location: E Venezuela (Monagas)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan Dictionary: Barral, Basilio M. de. 1957. Diccionario guarao-español, español-guarao. Caracas: Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales. Grammar: Vaquero, Antonio. 1965. Idioma Warao. Caracas: Sucre.
Other Sources: Osborn, Henry A. Jr. 1966-67. "Warao I-III," IJAL 32: 108-23 & 253-61; 33: 46-64. WALS
Consonant system: t k kw b (ɸ) s h m n ɾ Stops: b t k kw Fricatives: (ɸ) s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: ai au ei oi ua ui uai
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: penult (mostly)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: OSV NA GN DN/(ND) N-NUM POSS-N D+N+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5099
Language: Kunza Alternate Name: Atacameño
Location: C Chile
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5100
Language: Betoi
Location: NW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan
Consonant system:
Number: 5101
Language: Chimu Alternate Name: Yunca
Location: NW Peru
Population: extinct (c. 1965)
Classification: Amerind: Paezan Dictionary: Carrera, Fernando de la. 1921. La langua yunga e mochica. Lima. Grammar: Harrington, John P. 1945. "Yunka, Language of the Peruvian Coastal Culture," IJAL 11, 24-30.
Other Sources: Stark, Louisa R. 1972. "Maya-Yunga-Chipayan: A New Linguistic Alignment," IJAL 38, 119-35.
Consonant system: p t̪ k t̪s č čj f s̪ š šj x m n̪ ñ ŋ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: t̪s č čj Fricatives: f s̪ š šj x Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ ?
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: mostly penult, sometimes phonemic
Noun
Number: s (p) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV /(SVO) AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5102
Language: Itonama
Location: NE Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan Dictionary: Camp, Elizabeth and Millicent Liccardi. 1967. Itonama, castellano e ingles. Riberalta, Bolivia: SIL. Grammar: Camp, Elizabeth and Millicent Liccardi. 1967. "Itonama," in BIG II, 257-352.
Other Sources: Liccardi, Millicent and Joseph Grimes. 1968. "Itonama Intonation and Phonemes," Linguistics 38, 36-41.
Consonant system: p t tʔ tj k kʔ ʔ b d č čʔ s h m n l ɾ Stops: p b t tʔ tj d k kʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: aj
Syllable: (C)V(s,h,ʔ) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Noun Classes: 17 (5 pl): m, f, anim standing, anim seated, flat-round, oval, planted, liquid, long-winding, cloth, flowing, grains, pots, canoes Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1mf 4ie 2mf 5 3mf 6mf [4i=5] plain/polite (3f)
Syntax: SVO NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5103
Language: Allentiac
Location: WC Argentina
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Huarpe
Consonant system:
Number: 5104
Language: Millcayac
Location: WC Argentina
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Huarpe
Consonant system:
Number: 5105
Language: Ayoman
Location: NW Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Jirajaran
Consonant system:
Number: 5106
Language: Gayon
Location: NW Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Jirajaran
Consonant system:
Number: 5107
Language: Jirajara
Location: NW Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Jirajaran
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5108
Language: Mura Dialect: Pirahã
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Mura
Other Sources: Sheldon, Steven N. 1974. "Some Morphophonemic and Tone Perturbation Rules in Mura-Pirahã," IJAL 40, 279-82.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ɡ s h ? (No nasals, laterals or vibrants occur in the examples) ? ? Stops: p b t k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: ? (No nasals, laterals or vibrants occur in the examples) Laterals: ? Vibrants: ?
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Tones: hi mid low
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM
Number: 5109
Language: Matanawi
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Mura
Consonant system:
Number: 5110
Language: Andaqui
Location: W Colombia (Huila)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan
Consonant system:
Number: 5111
Language: Embera Alternate Name: Epena Dialect: Northern
Location: NW Colombia
Population: 11,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Other Sources: Loewen, Jacob A. 1963. "Choco I-II," IJAL 29, 239-63 & 357-71. E
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ b d ɡ č ̌ ɡ̌ s h z m n (l) ɾ r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5112
Language: Saija Alternate Name: Southern Embera, Epena Pedee
Location: NW Colombia
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Other Sources: Loewen, Jacob A. "Choco I-II," IJAL 29, 239-63 & 357-71. GSAIL WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ f s x m n l ɾ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: f s x Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5113
Language: Catio
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5114
Language: Caramanta
Location: Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5115
Language: Chami
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5116
Language: Tado
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5117
Language: Baudo
Location: NW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5118
Language: Waunana Alternate Name: Woun Meu
Location: W Colombia
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Other Sources: Loewen, Jacob A. 1963. "Choco I-II" IJAL 29, 239-63 & 357-71. Loewen, Jacob A. 1960. "Spanish Loanwords in Waunana," IJAL 26, 330-44. Binder, Ronald. 1977. "Thematic Linkage in Waunana," in DG II, 159-90.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d ɡ s š h m n (l) r ɾ̣ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: (v̄) Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: phonemic Articles: def
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5119
Language: Runa
Location: W Colombia (Choco)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Choco
Consonant system:
Number: 5120
Language: Guambiano Alternate Name: Moguez
Location: SW Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Inter-Andine
Other Sources: GSAIL, 37. LAND WPF
Consonant system: p t k ts č s š m n l ɾ r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4 2 ? 3mf 6mf
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5121
Language: Coconuco
Location: W Colombia (Cauca)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Inter-Andine
Consonant system:
Number: 5122
Language: Totoro
Location: W Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Inter-Andine
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3m? 6m?
Number: 5123
Language: Paez Alternate Name: Nasa Yuwe
Location: SW Colombia (Cauca)
Population: 40,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Inter-Andine
Other Sources: Gerdel, Florence. 1973. "Paez Phonemes," Linguistics 104, 28-48. Gerdel, Florence L. and Marianna C. Slocum. 1976. "Paez Discourse, Paragraph and Sentence Structure," in DG I, 259-445.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ mb nd ñɟ ŋɡ ts č (ɸ) ɸj s šj š ç x h β n ñž (ɣ) m n ñ l ʎ (ɾ) Stops: p mb t nd c ñɟ k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (ɸ) ɸj β s nz šj š ñž ç x (ɣ) h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) Stress: phonemic (accompanied by hi pitch)
Syntax: SOV AN/NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5124
Language: Popayan
Location: W Colombia (Cauca)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Inter-Andine
Consonant system:
Number: 5125
Language: Cuaiquer Alternate Name: Awa Pit
Location: SW Colombia (Nariсo)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Barbacoan
Other Sources: Henriksen, Lee A. and Stephen H. Levinsohn. 1977. "Progression and Prominence in Cuaiquer Discourse," in DG II, 43-67.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s š x β z ž ɣ m n ñ l r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s z š ž x ɣ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5126
Language: Barbacoas
Location: W Colombia (Nariсo)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Barbacoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5127
Language: Cayapa Alternate Name: Chachi
Location: NW Ecuador
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Barbacoan Dictionary: Lindskoog, John N. and Carrie A. Lindskoog. 1964. Vocabulario cayapa. Quito:SIL.
Other Sources: Lindskoog, John N. and Ruth M. Brend. 1962. "Cayapa Phonemics," in SEIL I, 31-44. Abrahamson Arne. 1962. "Cayapa: Grammatical Notes and Texts," in SEIL I, 217-47. Wiebe, Neil. 1977. "The Structure of Events and Participants in Cayapa Narrative Discourse," in DG II, 191-227.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ ts č ɸ s š h m n ñ ŋ l ʎ r Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: ɸ s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ʋ ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ʋ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ai ui ei
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: phonemic but usually on initial and heavy syllables
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5128
Language: Colorado Alternate Name: Tsafiki
Location: NW Ecuador
Population: 600
Classification: Amerind: Paezan: Nuclear Paezan: Barbacoan Dictionary: Moore, Bruce R. 1966. Diccionario castellaño-colorado : colorado-castellaño. Quito: SIL.
Other Sources: Moore, Bruce R. 1962. "Correspondences in South Barbacoan Chibcha," in SEIL I, 270-89. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ʔb ʔd ts f s h m n l r Stops: p ʔb t ʔd k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV

Краткие типологические обзоры языков Андской семьи

Number: 5129
Language: Culli
Location: W Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5130
Language: Sec
Location: NW Peru (Piura)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5131
Language: Leco
Location: W Bolivia
Population: 24
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5132
Language: Catacao
Location: SW Ecuador
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5133
Language: Colan
Location: W Ecuador
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5134
Language: Cholona Alternate Name: Cholon
Location: N Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Other Sources: LAND WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5135
Language: Hibito
Location: N Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5136
Language: Urarina Alternate Name: Simacu
Location: Peru
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Urarina-Waorani
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 5137
Language: Waorani Alternate Name: Auca
Location: NE Ecuador
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Urarina-Waorani Grammar: Peeke, M. Catherine. 1973. Preliminary Grammar of Auca. SIL 39.
Other Sources: Saint, Rachel and Kenneth L. Pike. 1962. "Auca Phonemics," in SEIL I, 2-30.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ (č) m n ñ ŋ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: (č) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Clicks: ʘ = emphatic negative Modified Consonants: m (inverse pulmonic nasal) = emphatic affirmative Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ ̌ e æ a Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ ̌ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3 *6d *6 special honorific forms for 1 2 & 3
Syntax: SOV DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5138
Language: Omurano
Location: N Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Urarina-Waorani
Consonant system:
Number: 5139
Language: Chayahuita Alternate Name: Cahuapana
Location: NC Peru
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Cahuapanan
Other Sources: E AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5140
Language: Jebero
Location: NC Peru
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Cahuapanan
Consonant system:
Number: 5141
Language: Zaparo
Location: E Ecuador
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Zaparoan Grammar: Peeke, Catherine. 1962. "Structural Summary of Zaparo," in SEIL I, 125-216.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č s š h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f non-personal
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3xX 6 x=personal X=impersonal
Syntax: SVO AN GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: All bilingual in Quechua.
Number: 5142
Language: Andoa Alternate Name: Shimigae
Location: Peru
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Zaparoan
Other Sources: Peeke, Catherine and Mary Sargent. 1959. "Pronombres personales en shimigae," in Estudios acerca de las lenguas huarani (auca), shimigae y zápara, Quito, 18-28.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ d ts č s š h m n r Stops: p t d k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: ṽ all
Number: 5143
Language: Arabela
Location: N Peru
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Zaparoan
Other Sources: Rich, Furne. 1963. "Arabela Phonemes and High-Level Phonology," SPIL I, 193-206. E
Consonant system: p t k s š h̃ m n ɾ Stops: p t k Fricatives: s š h̃ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u I o a Front Vowels: i I Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V(G) Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5144
Language: Cahuarano
Location: N Peru
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Zaparoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5145
Language: Iquito
Location: NE Peru
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Cahuapanan-Zaparoan: Zaparoan
Other Sources: Eastman, Robert and Elizabeth Eastman. 1963. "Iquito Syntax," SPIL I, 145-92.
Consonant system: p t k s h̃ m n r Stops: p t k Fricatives: s h̃ Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 1 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5146
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Puyo Pongo
Location: E Ecuador
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Dictionary: Orr, Carolyn and Betsy Wrisley. 1965. Vocabulario quichua. Quito: SIL.
Other Sources: Orr, Carolyn. 1962. "Ecuador Quichua Phonology," in SEIL I, 60-77.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ s š h m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p t k Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5147
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Inga
Location: SW Colombia
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: Levinsohn, Stephen H. 1976. The Inga Language. The Hague: Mouton.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (b) (d̪) (ɡ) (t̪s) č s̪ (š) m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ̣ Stops: p (b) t̪ (d̪) k (ɡ) Affricates: (t̪s) č Fricatives: s̪ (š) Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: "phonemic, but grammatically predictable." Levinsohn, p. 29. Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Most northern Quechua language in South America.
Number: 5148
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Cuzco
Location: SE Peru (Cuzco)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: Cusihuaman, Antonio G. 1976. Gramática quechua: Cuzco-Collao. Lima: Ministerio de Educacion.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) č čh čʔ s š x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p ph pʔ (b) t th tʔ (d) k kh kʔ (ɡ) q qh qʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5149
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Santiago del Estero
Location: N Argentina
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Dictionary: Bravo, Domingo A. 1967. Diccionario quichua santiagueño-castellano. Buenos Aires: Instituto Amigos del Libro Argentino.
Other Sources: GSAIL, 49.
Consonant system: p t k q d č s š h ž m n ñ l ɾ̣ Stops: p t d k q Affricates: č Fricatives: s š ž h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o)
Number: 5150
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Ayacucho
Location: S Peru
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: GD: Parker, Gary John. 1969. Ayacucho Quechua Grammar and Dictionary. The Hague: Mouton. Soto Ruiz, Clodoaldo. 1976. Gramática quechua: Ayacucho-chanca. Lima: Ministerio de Educacion.
Consonant system: p t k (b) (d) (ɡ) č (f) s x χ m n ñ l ʎ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) Affricates: č Fricatives: (f) s x χ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e)(o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5151
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: San Martin
Location: Peru
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: Coombs, David, Heidi Coombs and Robert Weber. 1976. Gramatica quechua San Martin. Lima: Ministerio de Educacion.
Consonant system: p t k (b) (d) (ɡ) č ̌ ɡ̌ (f) s š h m n ñ (l) ɾ (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 [4di] 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5152
Language: Quechua A Alternate Name: Southern Quechua Dialect: Bolivian
Location: Bolivia
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: GD: Urioste, Jorge and Joaquı́n Herrero. 1955. Gramatica de la lengua quechua y vocabulario quechua-castellano, castellano-quechua. La Paz: Canata.
TextBooks: Bills, Garland D., Bernardo Vallejo C. and Rudolphe C. Troike. 1969. An Introduction to Spoken Bolivian Quechua. Austin: Univ of Texas Press. Albo, Xavier. n.d. El quechua a su alcance, 2 vols. Bolivia: USAID.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ (b) (d̪) (ɡ) č čh čʔ (f) s̪ š h m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ ɾ (r) Stops: p ph pʔ (b) t̪ t̪h t̪ʔ (d̪) k kh kʔ (ɡ) q qh qʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: (f) s̪ š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5153
Language: Quechua B Alternate Name: Northern Quechua Dialect: Huancayo
Location: Peru (Huancayo)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan
Other Sources: Chacón, Sihuay Jorge. 1973. Quechua Wanka, vol. 1. Lima: Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Cerron, Rodolfo. 1967. "Fonologia del Wanka," in Quatro fonologias quechuas," Lima, Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 53-80. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ (b) (d) (ɡ) č̣ č (ɸ) s ṣ̌ š h ẓ̌ m n ñ l ʎ ɾ (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) ʔ Affricates: č̣ č Fricatives: (ɸ) s ṣ̌ ẓ̌ š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5154
Language: Quechua B Alternate Name: Northern Quechua Dialect: Caraz
Location: Peru
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan
Other Sources: Parker, Gary. 1967. "Fonologia y morfofonemica del quechua de Caraz," in Quatro fonologias quechuas," Lima, Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 25-40. E
Consonant system: p t k q (b) (d) (ɡ) ts č (f) s š h m n (ñ) l ʎ ɾ ɹ̣ Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) q Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n (ñ) Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5155
Language: Quechua B Alternate Name: Northern Quechua Dialect: Ancash
Location: Peru (Ancash)
Population: 3 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Quechuan Grammar: Parker, Gary J. 1976. Gramatica quechua qncash-quailas. Lima: Ministerio de Educacion.
Consonant system: p t k q (b) (d) (ɡ) ts č̣ č (f) s š h m n ñ l ʎ ɾ (r) Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) q Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: (f) s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ (r) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4: this/that/yonder/far away
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5156
Language: Aymara
Location: Bolivia
Population: 1 million
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Aymaran Dictionary: Miranda, Pedro. 1970. Diccionario breve: castellaño-aymara, aymara-castellaño. La Paz: El Siglo. Grammar: GD: Ebbing, Juan Enrique. 1965. Gramatica y diccionario aimara. La Paz: Don Bosco. Tarifa Ascarrunz, Erasmo. 1969. Gramatica de la langua aymara. La Paz: Don Bosco.
TextBooks: Grondin, Marcelo N. 1973. Metodo de aymara. Oruro, Bolivia: Rodriguez-Muriel.
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ č čh čʔ s χ h m n ñ l ʎ r Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ Affricates: č čh čʔ Fricatives: s χ h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u (o) Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: au eu iu aj uj ja ju Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 4: this/that/that yonder/that far away Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5157
Language: Jaqaru
Location: C Peru
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Aymaran Grammar: Hardman, M. J. 1966. Jaqaru. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system: p ph pʔ t th tʔ c ch cʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ ts tsh tsʔ č̣ č̣h č̣ʔ č čh čʔ s š h m n ñ ŋ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p ph pʔ t th tʔ c ch cʔ k kh kʔ q qh qʔ Affricates: ts tsh tsʔ č̣ č̣h č̣ʔ č čh čʔ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s (p) (pl is emphatic and optional) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 1=4e, 2=5, 3=6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N N-POSS D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5158
Language: Puelche Alternate Name: Pampa
Location: Argentina (Pampas)
Population: 5
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Puelche Grammar: Barbará, Federico. 1944. Manual o vocabulario de al lengua pampa. Buenos Aires: Emecé.
Consonant system: p t k d ɡ č f s š ɣ h m n̪ ñ l̪ ʎ r Stops: p t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s š ɣ h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l̪ ʎ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: non-phonemic (penult or final)
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 *3
Syntax: AN/(NA) NUM-N POSS-N/(N-POSS)
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 5159
Language: Mapudungu Alternate Name: Araucanian
Location: Chile (Cantнn)
Population: 208,000
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Mapudungu Dictionary: Erize, Esteban. 1960. Diccionario comentado mapuche-español. Buenos Aires: Cuadernos del Sur.
Other Sources: Suárez, Jorge A. 1959. "The Phonemes of an Araucanian DIalect," IJAL 25. 177-81. Echeverrı́a Weasson, Sergio. 1963. Descripcı́on fonológica del mapuche. Concepción, Chile: Univ of Concepcı́on. Echeverrı́a, Max S. and Heles Contreras. 1965. "Araucanian Phonemics," IJAL 31, 132-5. Fontanella, Marı́a Beatriz. 1967. "Componential Analysis of Personal Affixes in Araucanian," IJAL 33, 305-8.
Consonant system: p t̪ t k ṭr č ɸ θ s m n̪ n ñ ŋ l̪ l ʎ ɹ̣ Stops: p t̪ t k Affricates: ṭr č Fricatives: ɸ θ s Nasals: m n̪ n ñ ŋ Laterals: l̪ l ʎ Vibrants: ɹ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: 2nd syllable
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SVO AN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 5160
Language: Huilliche
Location: S Chile (Valdivia)
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Mapudungu
Consonant system:
Number: 5161
Language: Qawasqar Alternate Name: Alacaluf
Location: S Chile
Population: 47
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Qawasqar-Yamana
Other Sources: Clairis, Christos. 1977. "Première approche du qawasqar: Indentification et phonologie," La linguistique 13:1, 145-58. Clairis, Christos. 1978. "La lengua qawasqar," Vicus Cuadernos. Lingüı́stica 2, 29-43. Clairis, Christos. 1979. "Les grands traits de la syntaxe du qawasqar (alakaluf)," in Linguistique fonctionnelle, ed. by Mortéza Mahmoudian, Paris, PUF, 203-11. LAND
Consonant system: p t tʔ q qʔ (ʔ) č čʔ f š χ m n l ɾ Stops: p t tʔ q qʔ (ʔ) Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: f š χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ǝ a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u Stress: penult
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5162
Language: Yamana Alternate Name: Yahgan
Location: S Chile
Population: 3
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Qawasqar-Yamana Dictionary: Bridges, Thomas. 1933. Yamana-English Dictionary. Mödling, Austria.
Other Sources: Hustermann-Hamburg, Ferd. 1929. "Das Pronomen im Yámana," IJAL 5, 150-79. Goodbar, Perla Golbert de. 1977-8. "Yagan: I-II," Vicus Cuadernos. Lingüı́stica 1: 5-60; 2: 87-102. LAND
Consonant system: ph th kh čh f s š x h m n l̪ l r Stops: ph th kh Affricates: čh Fricatives: f s š x h Nasals: m n Laterals: l̪ l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ
Noun
Number: s d p (animate only) Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV/SVO AN GN DN/(ND) NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST

Краткие типологические обзоры языков семьи Макро-пано

Number: 5163
Language: Tehuelche Alternate Name: Gununa-Kena
Location: N Argentina
Population: nearly extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Patagonian
Other Sources: Gerzenstein, Ana. 1968. Fonologı́a de la lengua gününa-këna. Buenos Aires: Univ de Buenos Aires. Suarez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54. LAND
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ɡ G č čʔ s š x χ m n l r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ q qʔ G ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s š x χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (ɡlottalized) all v̰̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: lev fall
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5164
Language: Teushen
Location: S Argentina
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Patagonian
Consonant system:
Number: 5165
Language: Selknam Alternate Name: Ona
Location: S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego)
Population: 3
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Patagonian
Other Sources: Najlis, Elena L. 1971. "Disambiguation in Selknam," IJAL 37, 46-7. Suárez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54. LAND
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ č čʔ s š x χ m n l r Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s š x χ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (ɡlottalized) all v̰̄ all
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5166
Language: Haush
Location: S Argentina (Tierra del Fuego)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Andean: Southern: Patagonian
Consonant system:
Number: 5167
Language: Auishiri Alternate Name: Sabela
Location: N Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5168
Language: Canichana
Location: NE Bolivia
Population: 25
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5169
Language: Capishana
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5170
Language: Gamella
Location: NE Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5171
Language: Iranshe Alternate Name: Iranxe
Location: W Brazil (N Mato Grosso)
Population: 45
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan Grammar: GD: Meader, Robert E. 1967. Iranxe: Notas Gramaticais e Lista Vocabular. Rio de Janeiro: Univ Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Consonant system: p pʷ t k ʔ b bʷ (d) ṣ š h m mʷ n l ɾ Stops: p pʷ b bʷ t (d) k ʔ Fricatives: ṣ š h Nasals: m mʷ n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj t k Glides: j w (w̥)
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Diphthongs: ɨi ai oi
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Number: 5172
Language: Koaia
Location: W Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5173
Language: Movima
Location: NC Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan Dictionary: Judy, Roberto and Judit Emerich de Judy. 1962. Movima y castellano. Cochabamba: SIL. Grammar: Judy, Robert A. and Judith E. Judy. 1967. "Movima," in BIG 2, 353-408. [also in GELB II, 131-222.]
Other Sources: Judy, Roberto and Judit Emerich de Judy. 1962. "Fonemas del movima," Notas Lingüı́sticas de Bolivia, No.5, Cochabamba, SIL. Judy, Roberto A. 1965. "Pronoun Introducers in Movima Clauses," AL 7:7, 5-9. Judy, Judith. 1965. "Independent Verbs in Movima," AL 7:7, 10-15.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ ɓ ɗ č s h β m ʔm n ʔn l ɬ ɾ Stops: p ɓ t ɗ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m ʔm n ʔn Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5174
Language: Muniche
Location: Peru (Paranapura River)
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan Grammar: Gibson, Michael Luke. 1996. El munishe: Un idioma que se extingue. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ d ɡ č s ṣ ç m n ñ r Stops: p t d c k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s ṣ ç Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ
Syntax: AN
Number: 5175
Language: Natu
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5176
Language: Pankararu
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5177
Language: Shukuru
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5178
Language: Uman
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5179
Language: Catawishi
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5180
Language: Bendiapa
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5181
Language: Burua
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5182
Language: Canamari
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: 850
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Other Sources: Groth, Christa. 1977. "Here and There in Canamarı́," AL 19, 203-15.
Consonant system: p t̪ k (ʔ) mb nd̪ ts dz h m n̪ ñ ɾ Stops: p mb t̪ nd̪ k (ʔ) Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ǝ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ā ū ō Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: ai au oi Stress: final Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV DN
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5183
Language: Catuquina1
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Number: 5184
Language: Parawa
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5185
Language: Taware
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5186
Language: Tucundiapa
Location: W Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Catuquinan
Consonant system:
Number: 5187
Language: Huari
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Huari
Consonant system:
Number: 5188
Language: Masaca
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Huari
Consonant system:
Number: 5189
Language: Arutani
Location: N Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Arutani-Sape
Consonant system:
Number: 5190
Language: Sape
Location: SE Venezuela (Bolivar)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Arutani-Sape
Consonant system:
Number: 5191
Language: Macu
Location: SC Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Arutani-Sape
Consonant system:
Number: 5192
Language: Macu
Location: N Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Arutani-Sape
Consonant system:
Number: 5193
Language: Northern Nambikuara
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Nambikuaran
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5194
Language: Southern Nambikuara
Location: W Brazil (NW Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Nambikuaran Dictionary: Boglaar, Lajós. 1960. Nambikuara Vocabulary. Acta Ethnographica (Budapest) 9, 89-117.
Other Sources: Kroeker, Babara J. 1972. "Morphophonemics of Nambiquara," AL 14, 19-22. Price, P. David. 1976. "Southern Nambiquara Phonology," IJAL 42, 338-48. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ s h n ľ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: n Laterals: ľ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̰ all ṽ̰ all Diphthongs: ai au ãi ãu a̰i a̰u a̰ĩ a̰ũ
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)
Tones: level ris fall Articles: def
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5195
Language: Sabanes
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Nambikuaran
Consonant system:
Number: 5196
Language: Sarare
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Nambikuaran
Consonant system:
Number: 5197
Language: Puinave
Location: E Colombia
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Other Sources: Caudmont, Jean. 1954. "Fonologia puinave," Revista Colombiana de Antropologı́a 3, 265-76.
Consonant system: p pʷ t k ʔ b bʷ d ɡ s h m mʷ n r Stops: p pʷ b bʷ t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m mʷ n Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: cj t d s n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 5198
Language: Hupda
Location: NW Brazil
Population: 1,150
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Other Sources: Moore, Barbara J. 1977. "Some Discourse Features of Hupda Macu," in DG II, 25-42. AMAZ
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č h m n ñ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o æ a ɔ Front Vowels: i e æ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5199
Language: Guariba
Location: NW Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Consonant system:
Number: 5200
Language: Nadëb
Location: NW Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5201
Language: Yahup Alternate Name: Yuhup
Location: NW Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5202
Language: Cacua Alternate Name: Macu
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Puinave-Maku
Other Sources: Rivet, P., P. Kok and C. Tastevin. 1925. "Nouvelle contribution à l'étude de la langue makú," IJAL 3, 133-92. Cathcart, Marilyn E. and Stephen H. Levinsohn. 1977. "The Encoding of Chronological Progression in Cacua Narratives," in DG II, 69-94. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č h m n ñ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: w w̥
Vowel system: i ɨ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all?
Tones: hi-slo-downglide hi-fast-downglide mid low
Syntax: SOV/OSV
Number: 5203
Language: Ticuna Alternate Name: Tucuna
Location: NE Peru
Population: 15,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Ticuna-Yuri Dictionary: Anderson, Lambert. 1958. "Vocabulario breve del idioma ticuna," Tradición 21 (Cuzco).
TextBooks: Anderson, Doris G. 1962. Conversational Ticuna. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Other Sources: Anderson, Lambert. 1966. "The Structure and Distribution of Ticuna Independent Clauses," Linguistics 20, 5-30.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ č ̌ ɡ̌ f (s) m n ñ ŋ (l) ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f (s) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ Modified Vowels: v̰ (larynɡealized) all ṽ̰ i e o only Diphthongs: ai au
Tones: hi hi-mid mid lo-mid lo hi-fall lo-mid-lev-(2-3) lo-mid-ris-(2-5) mid-ris Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3mf 6 + indef & ref 3 has 5 forms: (1) he/she/it, (2) he-distant, (3) he-previously referred to, (4) he/she/it-familiar, (5) she
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5204
Language: Yuri
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Ticuna-Yuri
Consonant system:
Number: 5205
Language: Proto-Tucanoan
Location: S Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan
Other Sources: Waltz, Nathan E. and Alva Wheeler. 1972. "Proto-Tucanoan," in Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages, The Hague, Mouton, 119-49.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ b d ɡ ɡʷ č ̌ ɡ̌ s š h z ž m n Stops: p b t d k ɡ kʷ ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ Stress: phonemic
Number: 5206
Language: Miriti
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5207
Language: Tucano
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Northern Dictionary: Gallo, Carlos I. M. 1972. Diccionario tucano-castellano. Vaupés, Colombia: Prefectura Apostolica.
Other Sources: West, Birdie and Betty Welch. 1967. "Phonemic System of Tucano,' in PSCL, 11-24. Welch, Betty. 1977. "Tucano Discourse, Paragraph, and Information Distribution," in DG II, 229-52. West, Birdie. 1977. "Results of a Tucanoan Syntax Questionnaire Pilot Study," in DG III, 339-75.
Consonant system: p t k ɡ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ W&W 1967 analyze m n ŋ as allophones of /mb nd ŋɡ/: (1) mb nd ŋɡ before vowels; m n ŋ before nasal vowels. Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ (W&W 1967 analyze m n ŋ as allophones of ǀmb nd ŋɡǀ: (1) mb nd ŋɡ before vowels; m n ŋ before nasal vowels.) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Tones: hi mid low Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST Comments: Used as a lingua franca by speakers of other Tucanoan languages.
Number: 5208
Language: Guanano
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 800
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Northern
Other Sources: Waltz, Nathan and Carolyn Waltz. 1967. "Guanano Phonemics," in PSCL, 25-36. Waltz, Nathan E. 1976. "Discourse Functions of Guanano Sentence and Paragraph," in DG I, 21-145. Waltz, Carolyn H. 1977. "Some Obervations on Guanano Dialogue," in DG III, 67-109.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d ɡ čh s h m n ñ ŋ ɾ Nasals analyzed as allophones of voiced stops. Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: čh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ (Nasals analyzed as allophones of voiced stops) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ ʋ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ʋ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (s)(C)V(ʔ) Stress: phonemic, but grammatically predictable: final syllable of stem for nouns, verbs and adjectives.
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5209
Language: Piratapuyo
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 450
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5210
Language: Tuyuca
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5211
Language: Desano
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5212
Language: Siriano
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5213
Language: Tatuyo
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Other Sources: Whisler, Dave. 1977. "Some Aspects of Tatuyo Discourse," in DG III, 207-52.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ h m n ñ ŋ r m n ñ ŋ r̃ are treated as allophones of /b d j ɡ r/ respectively. Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ (m n ñ ŋ r̃ are treated as allophones of ǀb d j ɡ rǀ respectively. Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SOV NA DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5214
Language: Carapana
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5215
Language: Yuruti
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5216
Language: Macuna
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Southern
Other Sources: E AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 5217
Language: Northern Barasano Alternate Name: Waimaha
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Southern
Other Sources: Stolte, Joel and Nancy Stolte. 1971. "A Description of Northern Barasano Phonology," Linguistics 75, 86-92. E
Consonant system: p t k mb nd ŋɡ (s) h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ Fricatives: (s) h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: hi pitch and stress occur simultaneously
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5218
Language: Southern Barasano Alternate Name: Barasana
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 800
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Eastern: Southern
Other Sources: Smith, Richard and Connie Smith. 1971. "Southern Barasano Phonemics," Linguistics 75, 80-85. Smith, Richard. 1977. "Southern Barasano Sentence Structure," in DG III, 175-205. E
Consonant system: (p) t k (ʔ) mb nd ŋɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: (p) mb t nd k ŋɡ (ʔ) Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: OVS NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5219
Language: Cubeo Dialect: Dyuremawa
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 1,700
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Central
Other Sources: Salser, J. K., Jr. 1971. "Cubeo Phonemics," Linguistics 75, 74-9. Salser, J. K. and Neva Salser. 1977. "Some Features of Cubeo Discourse and Sentence Structure," in DG, 253-72. WALS WPF
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) mb nd ñɟ č h v ð m n ñ ľ Stops: p mb t nd ñɟ k (ʔ) Affricates: č Fricatives: v ð h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals:
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: on first hi-pitched syllable of word
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: OVS AN POSS-N
Number: 5220
Language: Tanimuca Alternate Name: Retuarã
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5221
Language: Coreguaje
Location: SW Colombia
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5222
Language: Tetete
Location: NE Ecuador
Population: 2
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5223
Language: Tama
Location: SW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5224
Language: Siona
Location: NE Ecuador
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern: Siona-Secoya
Other Sources: Wheeler, Alva and Margaret Wheeler. 1962. "Siona Phonemics (Western Tucanoan)," in SEIL I, 96-111. Wheeler, Alva. 1962. "A Siona Text Morphologically Analyzed," in SEIL I, 248-68.
Consonant system: p pʔ t ṭʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ č s sʔ h hʷ m n Stops: p pʔ t ṭʔ k kʔ kʷ kʔʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s sʔ h hʷ Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ĩ æ̃ ɨ̃ ã ũ õ
Syllable: CV(ʔ) Stress: phonemic Articles: def
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5225
Language: Secoya
Location: NE Ecuador
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern: Siona-Secoya
Other Sources: Johnson, Orville E. and Catherine Peeke. 1962. "Phonemic Units in the Secoya Word," in SEIL I, 78-95. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ d č s h m n Stops: p t d k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ)
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5226
Language: Macaguaje
Location: SW Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Northern: Siona-Secoya
Consonant system:
Number: 5227
Language: Orejon
Location: NE Peru
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Tucanoan: Tucanoan: Western: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 5228
Language: Cayuvava
Location: N Bolivia
Population: 900 in ethnic group; the language is extinct.
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Other Sources: Créqui-Montfort, G. de and P. Rivet. 1920. "La langue kayuvava," IJAL 1, 245-65. Key, Harold. 1961. "Phonotactics of Cayuvava," IJAL 27, 143-50. Key, Harold. 1967. Morphology of Cayuvava. The Hague: Mouton. WALS
Consonant system: p t k b d č ɡ̌ s š h β m n ñ ɾ Stops: p b t d k Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: β s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u o ɛ ɔ æ a Front Vowels: i ɛ æ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)(C)V Stress: phonemic, but usually antepenult
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: VOS AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5229
Language: Camsa
Location: SW Colombia
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Other Sources: Howard, Linda. 1967. "Camsa Phonology," in PSCL, 73-87. Howard, Linda. 1977. "Camsa: Certain Features of Verb Inflection as Related to Paragraph Types," in DG II, 273-96.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ ts ṭs č (ɸ) s ṣ š x m n ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: ts ṭs č Fricatives: (ɸ) s ṣ š x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ai oi ui ua ue ia io ie
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V Stress: mostly penult, sometimes final
Syntax: SVO/SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5230
Language: Taruma
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Consonant system:
Number: 5231
Language: Trumai
Location: C Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Other Sources: Monod, Aurore. 1971. "Quelques informations sur le trumai," in La dénomination des couleurs chez les mbay de moı̈ssala, by Jean-Pierre Caprile, Paris, SELAF, 106-109. AMAZ
Consonant system: p t̪ t k ʔ d ts f s š x h̃ m n l r Stops: p t̪ t d k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: f s š x h̃ Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Noun
Number: s d p
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN
Number: 5232
Language: Tusha
Location: E Brazil (Pernambuco)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Consonant system:
Number: 5233
Language: Yuracare
Location: C Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial
Other Sources: Suárez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54. LAND
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č s ṣ š m n ñ l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s ṣ š Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: ̏v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic (penult in nouns)
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5234
Language: Saliba
Location: EC Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Piaroa-Saliba
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5235
Language: Piaroa
Location: SC Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Piaroa-Saliba
Consonant system:
Number: 5236
Language: Cuica
Location: NW Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Timote
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5237
Language: Timote
Location: NW Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Timote
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5238
Language: Cofan
Location: NE Ecuador
Population: 600
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan
Other Sources: Borman, M. B. 1962. "Cofan Phonemes," in SEIL I, 45-59. Borman, M. B. 1977. "Cofan Paragraph Structure and Function," in DG III, 289-338. WPF
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh ʔ b d ɡ ts tsh č čh dz ɡ̌ f s š h β ɣ m n ñ ɾ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: β f s š r h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: CV(ʔ) Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5239
Language: Esmeralda
Location: W Ecuador
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan
Consonant system:
Number: 5240
Language: Yaruro
Location: S Venezuela
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan
Other Sources: Mosonyi, Esteban Emilio. 1966. Morfologia del verbo yaruro. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Consonant system: p ph t̪ t̪h k kh b d̪ ɡ č čh ɡ̌ h β m n̪ ñ ŋ ɾ ɾ̃ Stops: p ph b t̪ t̪h d̪ k kh ɡ Affricates: č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n̪ ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̃ Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ã ũ ɯ̃ õ Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Syntax: SOV/(SVO) GN DN/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5241
Language: Candoshi
Location: N Peru
Population: 2,500
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Candoshi
Other Sources: Anderson, Lorrie and Mary Ruth Wise. 1963. "Contrastive Features of Candoshi Clause Types," in SPIL I, 67-102.
Consonant system: p t k ts č̣ č s ṣ̌ š m n ɾ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5242
Language: Candoshi Dialect: Loreto
Location: N Peru
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Candoshi Dictionary: Tuggy, Juan. 1966. Vocabulario Candoshi de Loreto. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ mb nd ŋɡ ts č̣ č ndz ñɡ̣̌ ñɡ̌ s ṣ̌ š h m n ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ts ndz č̣ ñɡ̣̌ č ñɡ̌ Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ǝ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ā ō Diphthongs: ia oa Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 + indef
Syntax: SOV NA N-NUM POSS-N(3)/N-POSS(1,2,4,5)
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5243
Language: Taushiro
Location: N Peru
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Candoshi
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5244
Language: Achuar
Location: SE Ecuador
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Jivaro Proper
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5245
Language: Shuar Alternate Name: Jivaro
Location: SE Ecuador
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Jivaro Proper
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5246
Language: Huambisa Alternate Name: Jivaro
Location: N Peru
Population: 40,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Jivaro Proper Grammar: Pellizzaro, Siro M. 1969. Shuar: apuntes de gramatica. Quito: offsetec.
Other Sources: Beasley, David and Kenneth L. Pike. 1957. "Notes on Huambisa Phonemics," Lingua Posnaniensis 6, 1-8. Turner, Glen D. 1958. "Alternate Phonemicizing in Jivaro," IJAL 24, 87-94.
Consonant system: p (pʔ) t k ʔ ts č s š x m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p (pʔ) t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š x Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5247
Language: Aguaruna
Location: N Peru
Population: 40,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Jivaroan: Jivaro Proper Dictionary: Larson, Mildred L. 1966. Vocabulario aguaruna de Amazonas. Peru: SIL.
TextBooks: Fast, Gerhard and Mildred L. Larson. 1974. Introduccion al idioma aguaruna. SIL.
Other Sources: Larson, Mildred L. 1963. "Emic Classes which Manifest the Obligatory Tagmemes in Major Independent Clause Types of Aguaruna (Jivaro)," in SPIL I, 1-36. Mori, Angel Corbera. 1978. Fonologı́a aguaruna (jı́baro). Lima, Peru: Centro de Investigación de Lingüı́stica Aplicada, Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ts č s ṣ̌ h m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s ṣ̌ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5248
Language: Ayoreo
Location: E Bolivia
Population: 1,700
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Zamucoan
Other Sources: Briggs, Janet R. 1973. "Ayoré Narrative Analysis," IJAL 39, 155-63.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č s h m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ r Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Articles: indef
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5249
Language: Chamacoco
Location: Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Zamucoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5250
Language: Dzubucua
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Kariri
Consonant system:
Number: 5251
Language: Kamaru
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Kariri
Consonant system:
Number: 5252
Language: Kiriri Alternate Name: Kipea
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Kariri
Other Sources: WALS
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5253
Language: Sapuya
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Kariri
Consonant system:
Number: 5254
Language: Purubora
Location: Brazil (Rondфnia)
Population: 75
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 3=5=6
Number: 5255
Language: Yuqui
Location: C Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi
Consonant system:
Number: 5256
Language: Arikem
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Arikem
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5257
Language: Kabishiana
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Arikem
Consonant system:
Number: 5258
Language: Karitiana
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Arikem
Other Sources: E AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5259
Language: Arua1
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Monde
Consonant system:
Number: 5260
Language: Gavião
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Monde
Consonant system:
Number: 5261
Language: Surui
Location: W Brazil (E Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Monde
Other Sources: E AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5262
Language: Monde
Location: W Brazil (SE Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Monde
Consonant system:
Number: 5263
Language: Digüt
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Monde
Consonant system:
Number: 5264
Language: Arara1
Location: W Brazil (Rondonia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Ramarama
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5265
Language: Ramarama Alternate Name: Karo
Location: W Brazil (W Mato Grosso)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Ramarama
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5266
Language: Uruku
Location: W Brazil (W Mato Grosso)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Ramarama
Consonant system:
Number: 5267
Language: Urumi
Location: W Brazil (W Mato Grosso)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Ramarama
Consonant system:
Number: 5268
Language: Yuruna
Location: W Brazil (N Mato Grosso)
Population: 700
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Yuruna
Consonant system:
Number: 5269
Language: Manitsawa
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Yuruna
Consonant system:
Number: 5270
Language: Shipaya
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Yuruna
Consonant system:
Number: 5271
Language: Guarategaya Alternate Name: Mekens, Kanoe
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupari
Other Sources: Hanke, Wanda, Morris Swadish and Arion D. Rodrigues. 1958. "Notas de fonologia mekens," in Miscellanea Paul Rivet Octogenario Dicata, vol. 2, 187-217. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ts č m n ñ r Stops: p t k kʷ Affricates: ts č Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5272
Language: Kepkiriwat
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupari
Consonant system:
Number: 5273
Language: Makurapi
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupari
Consonant system:
Number: 5274
Language: Tupari
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupari
Consonant system:
Number: 5275
Language: Wayoro
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupari
Consonant system:
Number: 5276
Language: Guayaki Alternate Name: Ache
Location: Paraguay
Population: 900
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 3
Number: 5277
Language: Juma Alternate Name: Kawahip
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani
Other Sources: E WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5278
Language: Apiaca
Location: W Brazil (N Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5279
Language: Aweti
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 50
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5280
Language: Ava
Location: C Brazil (N Goias)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5281
Language: Kamayura Alternate Name: Kamaiura
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5282
Language: Kayabi
Location: C Brazil (SE Amazonas)
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5283
Language: Emerillon
Location: SW French Guiana
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5284
Language: Karipuna
Location: NC Brazil (N Amapa)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5285
Language: Oyampi Alternate Name: Wayampi
Location: SW French Guiana
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5286
Language: Pauserna
Location: E Bolivia
Population: 25
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5287
Language: Sheta
Location: S Brazil (N Parana)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5288
Language: Takunape
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5289
Language: Tapirape
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I
Consonant system:
Number: 5290
Language: Paranawat
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Kawahib
Consonant system:
Number: 5291
Language: Tenharim Alternate Name: Kawaib
Location: C Brazil (SE Amazonas)
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Kawahib
Other Sources: Pease, Helen and LaVera Betts. 1971. "Parintintin Phonology," in TS, 1-14. E
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ č h β m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5292
Language: Tukumanfed
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Kawahib
Consonant system:
Number: 5293
Language: Wirafed
Location: W Brazil (Rondфnia)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Kawahib
Consonant system:
Number: 5294
Language: Amanaye
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Consonant system:
Number: 5295
Language: Anambe
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Consonant system:
Number: 5296
Language: Tembe
Location: NE Brazil (Maranhao)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Number: 5297
Language: Guajajara Alternate Name: Tenetehara
Location: NE Brazil (Maranhao)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara Grammar: Bendor-Samuel, David. 1972. Hierarchical Structures in Guajajara. SIL 37.
Consonant system: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ ts h z m n ŋ ŋʷ ɾ Stops: p t̪ k kʷ ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: z h Nasals: m n ŋ ŋʷ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ ǝ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: final Demonstratives: 4: near/remote/high/low
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 3=6
Syntax: VSO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5298
Language: Guaja
Location: NE Brazil (Maranhao)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Consonant system:
Number: 5299
Language: Asurini Alternate Name: Tenetehara
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Other Sources: Harrison, Carl H. 1971. "The Morphophonology of Asurini Words," in TS, 21-71. Lukesch, Anton. 1976. Bearded Indians of the Tropical Forest. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- u Verlag Sanstalt. WALS
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ č h m n ŋ r Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6 [3=6]
Syntax: OVS POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5300
Language: Arawete
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Consonant system:
Number: 5301
Language: Parakanã
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Consonant system:
Number: 5302
Language: Urubu Alternate Name: Urubú-Kaapor
Location: NE Brazil (Maranhao)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tenetehara
Other Sources: WALS E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV/OSV
Number: 5303
Language: Guarani Dialect: Paraguayan
Location: Paraguay
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi Dictionary: Jover Peralta, Anselmo and Tomas Osuna. 1952. Diccionario guarani-español y español-guarani. Buenos Aires: Tupa. Grammar: Guasch, Antonio. 1956. El idioma guaranı́: Gramatica y antologı́a de prosa y verso. Asuncion: Casa América.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ mb nd ɡ ŋɡ ɡ̌ s š h v m n ñ (l) ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ɡ ŋɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (l) Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ a o u only Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: v̄̃ e only Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5304
Language: Guarani Dialect: Bolivian
Location: SE Bolivian (Cordillera)
Population: 2.5 million
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi Grammar: Rosbottom, Harry. 1967. "Guarani," in BIG II, 99-194. [also in GELB I, 121-278] Gregores, Emma and Jorge A. Suárez. 1967. A Description of Colloquial Guarani. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: Rosbottom, Harry. 1968. "Phonemes of the Guarani Language,' Linguistics 41, 109-13.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ɡʷ č s h β m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k ɡʷ ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: SVO NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: POST Comments: "The Guarani of Bolivia and that of Paraguay are less alike than Spanish and Portuguese." Rosbottom 1968, p. 109. There are only 15,000 speakers of Guarani in Bolivia. It is not clear to what extent the differences between the two phonological systems displayed here result from questions of interpretation and to what extent they represent genuine differences between the dialects (languages?). MR
Number: 5305
Language: Kaiwa
Location: W Brazil (Mato Grasso)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi
Other Sources: Bridgeman, Loraine I. 1961. "Kaiwa (Guarani) Phonology," IJAL 27, 329-34. Harrison, Carl H. 1971. "Nasalization in Kaiwá," in TS, 15-20. AMAZ
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ mb nd ŋɡ ŋɡʷ ñɡ̌ s š h v m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ ɾ Stops: p mb t nd k ŋɡ kʷ ŋɡʷ ʔ Affricates: ñɡ̌ Fricatives: v s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ ŋʷ Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)V Stress: final
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5306
Language: Tapiete
Location: NW Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi
Consonant system:
Number: 5307
Language: Guarayu
Location: EC Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5308
Language: Nhengatu Alternate Name: Icua Tupi
Location: NW Brazil (Amazonas)
Population: 30,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi Grammar: Fernandes, Adaucto. 1960. Gramática Tupi. Rio de Janeiro: A. Coelho Branco.
Other Sources: Abrahamson, Arne. 1968. "Contrastive Distribution of Phoneme Classes in Içuã Tupi," AL 10:6, 11-21.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ ɡ̌ h m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j ȷ̃ w w̃
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(G)V(G) Stress: phonemic (mostly penult, also antepenult) Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: NA POSS-N
Number: 5309
Language: Potiguara
Location: EC Brazil (Rio Grande do Norte)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group I: Tupi
Consonant system:
Number: 5310
Language: Cocama
Location: NE Peru
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group II Dictionary: Wille, Norma Faust. 1959. "Vocabulario breve del idioma cocama (tupi)," Perú Indı́gena 18-19, 150-8.
Other Sources: Faust, Norma. 1971. "Cocama Clause Types,' in TS, 73-105. E
Consonant system: p t k (b) (d) (ɡ) ts č (f) s š (h) m n (l) r Stops: p (b) t (d) k (ɡ) Affricates: ts č Fricatives: (f) s š (h) Nasals: m n Laterals: (l) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u (e) (o) a Front Vowels: i (e) Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u (o)
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: final/penult
Syntax: SOV GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5311
Language: Omagua
Location: N Peru
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group II
Consonant system:
Number: 5312
Language: Mawe Alternate Name: Maue
Location: C Brazil (Pará)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group III
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5313
Language: Munduruku
Location: C Brazil (Pará)
Population: 1,250
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group III
Other Sources: Braun, Ilse and Marjorie Crofts. 1965. "Munduruku Phonology," AL 7:7, 23-39. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b č ɡ̌ s š h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t k ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɨ ʋ ɛ ǝ a Front Vowels: I ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: ʋ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi mid lo lo-glott
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5314
Language: Siriono
Location: NE Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 600
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group III Dictionary: Schermair, Anselmo E. 1958,1962. Vocabulario sirionó-castellano, Vocabulario castellano-sirionó. Innsbruck: Univ Innsbruck. Grammar: Firestone, Homer L. 1965. Description and Classification of Siriono. The Hague: Mouton. Priest, Perry N. and Anne M. Priest. 1967. "Siriono," in BIG 2, 195-255. [also in GELB I, 281-373.]
Other Sources: Priest, Perry. 1968. "Phonemes of the Sirionó Language," Linguistics 41, 102-8.
Consonant system: p t k kj b č s š h m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t k kj Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but u v̄̃
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic (but mostly penult) Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV/(SVO) NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5315
Language: Kuruaya
Location: NC Brazil (Pará)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Tupi: Tupi-Guarani: Group III
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 ? 3 6
Number: 5316
Language: Katembri
Location: E Brazil (Alagoas)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5317
Language: Otomaco
Location: C Venezuela (Apure)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5318
Language: Tinigua
Location: E Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Tiniguan
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5319
Language: Pamigua
Location: E Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Tiniguan
Consonant system:
Number: 5320
Language: Churuya
Location: E Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Consonant system:
Number: 5321
Language: Guahibo Alternate Name: Sikuani
Location: E Colombia
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Other Sources: Kondo, Victor and Riena Kondo. 1967. "Guahibo Phonemes," in PSCL, 89-98. Kondo, Victor F. 1977. "Participant Reference in Guahibo Narrative Discourse," in DG III, 25-44.
Consonant system: p t̪h t k (ʔ) b d ts ɸ s x h v m n ḷ̌ r Stops: p b t̪h t d k (ʔ) Affricates: ts Fricatives: ɸ v s x h Nasals: m n Laterals: ḷ̌ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic (hi pitch on stressed syllables)
Syntax: SOV DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5322
Language: Cuiba
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Consonant system:
Number: 5323
Language: Cuiba
Location: NE Colombia
Population: 25,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Other Sources: Kerr, Isabel. 1977. "The Centrality of Dialogue in Cuiva Discourse Structure,' in DG III, 133-73.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ts č s h m n Stops: p ph b t th d k kh Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: ae
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: SOV AN GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5324
Language: Guayabero
Location: SC Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5325
Language: Macaguan
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Consonant system:
Number: 5326
Language: Playero
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Guahiban
Consonant system:
Number: 5327
Language: Proto-Arawakan
Location: SE Peru
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan
Other Sources: Noble, G. Kingsley. 1965. Proto-Arawakan and Its Descendants. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Matteson, Esther. 1972. "Proto Arawakan," in Comparative Studies in Amerindian Languages, The Hague, Mouton, 160-242. LAND
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh b d ɡ ts č ɡ̌ f s h m n l ʎ ɾ Stops: p ph b t th d k kh ɡ Affricates: ts č ɡ̌ Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ
Syntax: SOV Comments: Proto-Arawakan began to break up c. 3300 years ago. Maipuran branched off c. 2800 years ago.
Number: 5328
Language: Guamo
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5329
Language: Taino
Location: Bahamas
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5330
Language: Chamicuro
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5331
Language: Arawa
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5332
Language: Culina
Location: Brazil
Population: 575
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 ? 6
Number: 5333
Language: Culina Alternate Name: Madiha
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5334
Language: Pama
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5335
Language: Paumari
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS/(SVO)
Number: 5336
Language: Sewacu
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5337
Language: Sipo
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5338
Language: Deni
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5339
Language: Yamamadi Alternate Name: Jamamadi
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: OSV
Number: 5340
Language: Yuberi
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5341
Language: Banawa
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Arawan
Consonant system:
Number: 5342
Language: Chipaya
Location: Bolivia
Population: 750
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chipayan
Other Sources: Olson, Ronald D. 1967. "The Syllable in Chipaya," IJAL 33, 300-4. E
Consonant system: p t k q ts č̣ č s ṣ ṣ̌ x xʷ χ χʷ m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p t k q Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: s ṣ ṣ̌ x xʷ χ χʷ Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: A ɡlottalized series (pʔ tʔ kʔ qʔ tsʔ č̣ čʔ) and kʷ qʷ ŋ ʎ occur in loans. Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C), but no CCCV
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5343
Language: Uru
Location: N Bolivia
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chipayan
Consonant system:
Number: 5344
Language: Callahuaya
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chipayan
Consonant system:
Number: 5345
Language: Caranga
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chipayan
Consonant system:
Number: 5346
Language: Chapacura
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Chapacura
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5347
Language: Itene
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Chapacura
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5348
Language: Quitemoca
Location: NE Bolivia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Chapacura
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: VOS
Number: 5349
Language: Cabishi
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5350
Language: Cujuna
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5351
Language: Cumana
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5352
Language: Mataua
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5353
Language: Wanyam
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5354
Language: Urunamacan
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Guapore: Wanyam
Consonant system:
Number: 5355
Language: Pakaasnovos Alternate Name: Wari'
Location: W Brazil (W Rondonia)
Population: 1,800
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Madeira
Other Sources: Everett, Daniel L. 2005. "Periphrastic Pronouns in Wari'," IJAL 71: 303-26.
Consonant system: p t k kʷ ʔ tB č h hʷ m mʔ n nʔ ɾ Stops: p t k kʷ ʔ Affricates: tB č Fricatives: h hʷ Nasals: m mʔ n nʔ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i Y e ɵ o a Front Vowels: i Y e Central Vowels: ɵ a Back Vowels: o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3mfn 6f
Syntax: VOS ND N-POSS
Number: 5356
Language: Tora
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Madeira
Consonant system:
Number: 5357
Language: Urupa
Location: NE Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Madeira
Consonant system:
Number: 5358
Language: Herisobocono
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Ocorono
Consonant system:
Number: 5359
Language: Ocorono
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Ocorono
Consonant system:
Number: 5360
Language: San Ignacio
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Chapacuran: Ocorono
Consonant system:
Number: 5361
Language: Shebayo
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran
Consonant system:
Number: 5362
Language: Baniva
Location: E Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Baniva-Yavitero
Consonant system:
Number: 5363
Language: Yavitero
Location: E Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Baniva-Yavitero
Consonant system:
Number: 5364
Language: Paressi Alternate Name: Parecis
Location: Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Paressi-Saraveca
Other Sources: Rowan, Orland. 1972. "Some Features of Paressi Discourse structure,' AL, 14, 131-46 E
Consonant system: p t c k ts č š h m n l r Stops: p t c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Diphthongs: ao ai Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2
Syntax: SOV/OVS AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5365
Language: Paressi
Location: Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Paressi-Saraveca
Other Sources: Rowan, Orland. 1972. "Some Features of Paressi Discourse Structure," AL 14, 131-46. E
Consonant system: p t c k ts č š h m n l r Stops: p t c k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Diphthongs: ao ai Stress: phonemic Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 *3 *6
Syntax: SOV/OVS AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5366
Language: Saraveca
Location: Bolivia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Paressi-Saraveca
Consonant system:
Number: 5367
Language: Amuesha Alternate Name: Yanesha'
Location: C Peru
Population: 4,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine Dictionary: Wise, Mary Ruth and Martha Duff. 1958. "Vocabulario breve del idioma amuesha," Tradición (Cuzco) 21.
Other Sources: Fast, Peter W. 1953. "Amuesha (Arawak) Phonemes," IJAL 19, 191-4. Duff, Martha. 1957. "A Syntactical Analysis of an Amuesha (Arawak) Text," IJAL 23, 171-8. E
Consonant system: p t k d ts č̣ č β s ẓ̌ š x ɣ m n ɾ Stops: p t d k Affricates: ts č̣ č Fricatives: β s ẓ̌ š x ɣ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: cj p č m n l Glides: j w
Vowel system: e o a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all Modified Vowels: v̰ (larynɡealized) all
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C)
Tones: phonemic, but tends toward penult
Syntax: VSO AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 5368
Language: Marawa
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Amazonian
Consonant system:
Number: 5369
Language: Waraicu
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Amazonian
Consonant system:
Number: 5370
Language: Cushichineri
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Cutinana
Consonant system:
Number: 5371
Language: Cuniba
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Cutinana
Consonant system:
Number: 5372
Language: Cutinana
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Cutinana
Consonant system:
Number: 5373
Language: Casharari
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Consonant system:
Number: 5374
Language: Catiana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Consonant system:
Number: 5375
Language: Inapari
Location: Peru
Population: 4
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Consonant system:
Number: 5376
Language: Apurina
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Other Sources: WALS E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO/OSV
Number: 5377
Language: Maniteneri
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Consonant system:
Number: 5378
Language: Wainamari
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Jurua-Purus
Consonant system:
Number: 5379
Language: Piro Alternate Name: Yine
Location: C New Mexico
Population: extinct (20th century)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana
Other Sources: Leap, William L. 1971. "Who were the Piro," AL 13, 321-30.
Consonant system: p t k ts dz f h v m n l ɬ r Stops: p t k Affricates: ts dz Fricatives: f v h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: ? cʔ k m n f j Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ
Number: 5380
Language: Piro Alternate Name: Yine
Location: SE Peru
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana Grammar: GD: Matteson, Esther. 1965. The Piro (Arawakan) Language. UCPL 42.
Consonant system: p t k ts č tx s s ̌ x h̃ m n ľ ɾ̣ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č tx Fricatives: s š x h̃ Nasals: m n Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ̣ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n j w only Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)(C)CV Demonstratives: 4 (3 + that distant heard, but not seen) Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5381
Language: Piro Alternate Name: Yine
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana
Consonant system:
Number: 5382
Language: Pucapacuri
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana
Consonant system:
Number: 5383
Language: Puncuri
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana
Consonant system:
Number: 5384
Language: Sirimeri
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana
Consonant system:
Number: 5385
Language: Ashaninca Alternate Name: Campa
Location: C Peru
Population: 33,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa
Other Sources: Dirks, Sylvester. 1953. "Campa (Arawak) Phonemes," IJAL 19, 302-304. Pike, Kenneth L. and Willard Kindberg. 1956. "A Problem in Multiple Stresses," Word 12, 415-28. E
Consonant system: p t (tj) k (ʔ) ts č s š h β m n ñ ɾ Stops: p t (tj) k (ʔ) Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V(C)(C) Stress: phonemic, but tends toward penult
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5386
Language: Asheninca
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5387
Language: Pajonal
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa
Consonant system:
Number: 5388
Language: Caquinte
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa
Consonant system:
Number: 5389
Language: Machiguenga
Location: SE Peru (Cuzco)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa Dictionary: Elkins de Shell, Betty. 1974. Machiguenga: Fonologia y vocabulario breve. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Other Sources: Snell, Betty A. and Mary Ruth Wise. 1963. "Noncontingent Declarative Clauses in Machiguenga (Arawak)," in SPIL, 103-44. Solis, Gustavo F. 1973. Fonologia machiguenga (arawak). Lima: Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Consonant system: p t̪ k t̪s č s š h̃ β ɣ m n ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Affricates: t̪s č Fricatives: β s š ɣ h̃ Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ e o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ Back Vowels: o ɑ
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: VSO NA/AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 5390
Language: Nomatsiguenga
Location: SE Peru
Population: 3,300
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Campa
Other Sources: Wise, Mary Ruth. 1971. Identification of Participants in Discourse: A Study of Aspects of Form and Meaning in Nomatsiguenga. SIL 28.
Consonant system: p t k ts s h β ɣ m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts Fricatives: β s ɣ h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ɛ ǝ ɑ Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ Back Vowels: u ɑ
Tones: hi low
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 ? 3mf ?
Syntax: VSO NA NG DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5391
Language: Amarakaeri Alternate Name: Masco
Location: S Peru (Madre de Dios)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Harakmbet
Other Sources: Hart, Raymond E. 1963. "Semantic Components of Shape in Amarakaeri Grammar," AL 5:9, 1-7.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b s h m n ŋ r Stops: p b t k ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: SOV NA GN
Number: 5392
Language: Huachipaeri Dialect: Toyeri
Location: Peru
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Pre-Andine: Montana: Harakmbet
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5393
Language: Wapishana
Location: S Guyana
Population: 6,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Wapishanan
Other Sources: Tracy, Frances V. 1972. "Wapishana Phonology," in LOG, 78-84. Tracy, Frances V. 1974. "An Introduction to Wapishana Verb Morphology," IJAL 40, 120-5.
Consonant system: ph th kh ʔ ʔb d ʔd ɡ čh s š (h) ʔẓ m n ɾ Stops: ph ʔb th d ʔd kh ɡ ʔ Affricates: čh Fricatives: s ʔẓ š (h) Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: w
Vowel system: i ɨ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Modified Vowels: nasal harmony Diphthongs: ai aɨ au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: final/penult
Noun
Number: s p
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5394
Language: Chane
Location: Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Parana
Consonant system:
Number: 5395
Language: Guana1
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Parana
Consonant system:
Number: 5396
Language: Terena
Location: SW Brazil (SW Mato Grosso)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Parana
Other Sources: Harden, Margaret. 1946. "Syllable Structure of Terena," IJAL 12, 60-3. Ekdahl, Muriel and Joseph E. Grimes. 1964. "Terena Verb Inflection," IJAL 30, 261-8. Eastlack, Charles L . 1968. "Terena (Arawakan) Pronouns," IJAL 34, 1-8. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s š ç h m n ñ l ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s š ç h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V Stress: phonemic ? Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5
Syntax: VOS NG DN/ND POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 5397
Language: Baure
Location: NE Bolivia
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian Grammar: Baptista, Priscilla and Ruth Wallin. 1967. "Baure" in BIG I, 27-83.
Other Sources: Baptista, Priscilla and Ruth Wallin. 1964. "Fonemas del baure, con atención especial a la supresión de la vocal," Notas Lingüı́sticas de Bolivia, No.7. Cochamba: SIL. Baptista, Priscilla and Ruth Wallin. 1968. "Baure Vowel Elision," Linguistics 38, 5-11. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s š h β m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: β s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VOS NA NG DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+N+A
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5398
Language: Cashiniti
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian
Consonant system:
Number: 5399
Language: Chiquito1
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian
Number: 5400
Language: Cozarini
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian
Consonant system:
Number: 5401
Language: Ignaciano Alternate Name: Moxo
Location: NC Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian Grammar: Ott, Willis G. and Rebecca H. Ott. 1967. "Ignaciano," in BIG I, 85-137. [also in GELB III, 99-180.]
Other Sources: Ott, Wills and Rebecca Ott. 1967. "Phonemes of the Ignaciano Language," Linguistics 35, 56-60.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č β s š h m n ñ ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u
Syllable: (C)V(s) Stress: phonemic, but mostly on second syllable Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mfn 6
Syntax: VSO/SVO NA NG DN NUM-N/N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5402
Language: Trinitario
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Southern: Bolivian
Consonant system:
Number: 5403
Language: Palicur
Location: Brazil
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Eastern
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5404
Language: Custenau
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Eastern: Xingu
Consonant system:
Number: 5405
Language: Yawalapiti
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Eastern: Xingu
Consonant system:
Number: 5406
Language: Mehinaku
Location: Brazil
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Eastern: Xingu
Consonant system:
Number: 5407
Language: Waura
Location: Brazil
Population: 250
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Eastern: Xingu
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5408
Language: Island Carib Alternate Name: Garifuna Dialect: Hopkins
Location: Belize
Population: 30,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern
Other Sources: Taylor, Douglas 1955. "Phonemes of the Hopkins (British Honduras) Dialect of Island Carib," IJAL 21, 233-41. Taylor, Douglas. 1956-8. "Island Carib II-IV," IJAL 22, 1-44, 138-50; 24, 36-60. Fleming, Ilah. 1966. "Carib," in LG 303-8.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č f s h m n l ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č Fricatives: f s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ɤ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɤ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p [pl for anim only]
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: VSO NA NG ND NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5409
Language: Island Carib Dialect: Dominica Island
Location: Dominica Island
Population: 30,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern
Other Sources: Taylor, Douglas. 1978. "Four Consonantal Patterns in Northern Arawakan," IJAL 44, 121-30.
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh s h m n n̥ l r Stops: p ph t th k kh Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n n̥ Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i ɨ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o
Number: 5410
Language: Arua2
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5411
Language: Jaoi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5412
Language: Resigaro
Location: NE Peru
Population: 10
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Macro-Arawakan: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern Grammar: GD: Allin, Trevor R. 1976. A Gramar of Resı́garo. Buckinghamshire, Eng: SIL.
Consonant system: p ph t th c k kh ʔ (m)b (n)d ɟ (ŋ)ɡ ts tsh č čh dz ɡ̌ ɸ s š (x) h β ž m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ (ɾ) Stops: p ph (m)b t th (n)d c ɟ k kh (ŋ)ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts tsh dz č čh ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š ž (x) h Nasals: m m̥ n n̥ ñ ñ̥ Vibrants: (ɾ) Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all?
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo
Noun
Number: s d p
Noun Classes: hum (m f), anim (non-hum), body parts, ... Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4dim 4dif 4dem 4def 4ie 2 5dmf 5 3mf 6dmf 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N D+Num+A+N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5413
Language: Achagua
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Caquetion
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5414
Language: Caquetio
Location: Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Caquetion
Consonant system:
Number: 5415
Language: Sae
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Guayupean
Consonant system:
Number: 5416
Language: Guarequena Alternate Name: Warekena
Location: Brazil (Amazonas)
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Orinoco
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5417
Language: Bare
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Orinoco
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5418
Language: Guinao
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Orinoco
Consonant system:
Number: 5419
Language: Mawacua
Location: Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Orinoco
Consonant system:
Number: 5420
Language: Maipure
Location: Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Orinoco
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5421
Language: Piapoco
Location: Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Piapocoan
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5422
Language: Goajiro
Location: N Colombia
Population: 60,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Ta-Arawakan Dictionary: Hildebrandt, Martha. 1963. Diccionario guajiro-español. Caracas: Comisión Indigenista. Grammar: Holmer, Nils M. 1949. "Goajiro I-IV," IJAL 15, 45-56,110-20,145-57 & 232-5.
Other Sources: Mansen, Richard. 1967. "Guajiro Phonemes," in PSCL, 49-59. Mansen, Richard and Karis Mansen. 1976. "The Structure of Sentence and Paragraph in Guajiro Narrative Discourse," in DG I, 147-258.
Consonant system: p t̪ k ʔ č s š h m n̪ ñ ľ r Stops: p t̪ k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals:Vibrants: r Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic (mostly second)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: masc non-masc (=women, females, inanimate) Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mM 6 M=non-masc
Syntax: VSO AN/(NA) NG (DN)/ND NUM-N POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: PREP/POST Comments: The largest Indian group in Colombia.
Number: 5423
Language: Guanebucan
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Ta-Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5424
Language: Arawak
Location: Surinam
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Ta-Arawakan Grammar: Goeje, C. H. de. 1928. The Arawak Language of Guiana. Amsterdam.
Other Sources: Taylor, Douglas. 1969. "A Preliminary View of Arawak Phonology," IJAL 35, 234-8. Taylor, Douglas. 1970. "Arawak Grammatical Categories and Translation," IJAL 36, 199-204. WALS
Consonant system: (p) t th k kh b d ɸ s h m n l r Stops: (p) b t th d k kh Fricatives: ɸ s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i ɨ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: ī ɛ̄ ɨ̄ ɑ̄ ō Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO GN POSS-N
Number: 5425
Language: Paraujano
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Ta-Arawakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5426
Language: Baniwa
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5427
Language: Curripaco
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5428
Language: Pacu
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5429
Language: Cuati
Location: Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5430
Language: Mapanai
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5431
Language: Moriwene
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5432
Language: Izaneni
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Izaneni
Consonant system:
Number: 5433
Language: Cabiyari
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Maritiparana
Consonant system:
Number: 5434
Language: Matapi
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Maritiparana
Consonant system: Comments: "The Matapı́ language has been lost except for a few words that have been retained by some of the elders of the tribe. The Matapies are almost completely assimilated into Yucuna culture." Stanley and Junia Schauer, "Yucuna Phonemics," PSCL, p. 62.
Number: 5435
Language: Yucuna
Location: SE Colombia
Population: 450
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Maritiparana
Other Sources: Schauer, Stanley and Junia Schauer. 1967. "Yucuna Phonemics," in PSCL, 61-71. E
Consonant system: p ph t th k ʔ č s h m n ñ ľ ɾ Stops: p ph t th k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals:Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: (ṽ) Modified Vowels: vowel harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: phonemic
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3mf 6
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5436
Language: Wirina
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Wirina
Consonant system:
Number: 5437
Language: Yabaana
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Wirina
Consonant system:
Number: 5438
Language: Itayaine
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Tarianon
Consonant system:
Number: 5439
Language: Tariano Alternate Name: Tariana
Location: Brazil
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Tarianon
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5440
Language: Mariate
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura A
Consonant system:
Number: 5441
Language: Wainuma
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura A
Consonant system:
Number: 5442
Language: Cawishana
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura B
Consonant system:
Number: 5443
Language: Yumana
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura B
Consonant system:
Number: 5444
Language: Passe
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura B
Consonant system:
Number: 5445
Language: Manao
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Equatorial: Arawakan: Maipuran: Northern: Rio Negro: Yapura B
Consonant system:
Number: 5446
Language: Andoke
Location: S Colombia
Population: 100
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib
Other Sources: Witte Paul. 1977. "Functions of the Andoke Copulative in Discourse and Sentence Structure," in DG III, 253-88. WPF
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ̌ ɸ s x m n ñ ľ Stops: p b t d k ʔ Affricates: ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ s x Nasals: m n ñ Laterals:
Vowel system: i ɨ ɯ u e ɤ o ɔ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ẽ ã õ ɤ̃ ɔ̃
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5447
Language: Cucura
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib
Consonant system:
Number: 5448
Language: Peba
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Peba-Yaguan
Consonant system:
Number: 5449
Language: Yameo
Location: Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Peba-Yaguan
Consonant system:
Number: 5450
Language: Yagua
Location: NE Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Peba-Yaguan
Other Sources: Fejos, Paul. 1943. Ethnography of the Yagua. New York: Viking Fund. Powlison, Esther. 1971. "The Suprehierachical and Hierarchical Structures of Yagua Phonology," Linguistics 75, 43-73. E
Consonant system: p t k (ʔ) ts h m n r Stops: p t k (ʔ) Affricates: ts Fricatives: h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5451
Language: Bora
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Boran
Other Sources: Mibeco, Julia N., Eduardo P. Soria and Eva Anderson de Thiesen. 1975. Textos folkloricos de los bora. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL. E
Consonant system: p ph t th k kh kw ʔ ts tsh č čh h β m n ñ r Stops: p ph t th k kh kw ʔ Affricates: ts tsh č čh Fricatives: β h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ɯ o
Tones: hi lo
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5452
Language: Faai
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Boran
Consonant system:
Number: 5453
Language: Imihita
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Boran
Consonant system:
Number: 5454
Language: Muinane
Location: SE Colombia (Amazonas)
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Boran Dictionary: Minor, Eugene E. and Dorothy Hendrich de Minor. 1971. Vocabulario Huitoto Muinane. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Other Sources: Walton, James and Janice Walton. 1967. "Phonemes of Muinane," in PSCL 37-47. Walton, James. 1977. "Participant Reference and Introducers in Muinane Clause and Paragraph," in DG III, 45-65.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b d ɟ ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ s š x β m n ñ r rj Stops: p b t d c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š x Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r rj Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɨ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)V
Tones: hi lo Stress: initial
Noun
Number: s d p
Syntax: SOV/OSV AN GN DN N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5455
Language: Fitita
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5456
Language: Ocaina
Location: NE Peru
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Other Sources: Agnew, Arlene and Evelyn G. Pike. 1957. "Phonemes of Ocaina (Huitoto)," IJAL 23, 24-27. Pike, Kenneth L.. 1961. "Compound Affixes in Ocaina," Lg 37, 570-81.
Consonant system: p t c k ʔ b ɟ ɡ ts č dz ɡ̌ ɸ s š x h β ž m n ñ ɾ Stops: p b t c ɟ k ɡ ʔ Affricates: ts dz č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β s š ž x h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ m n ñ
Vowel system: i ɯ ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ ? Nasal Vowels: ṽ all but ɛ
Syllable: (C)V(ʔ))
Tones: hi lo
Pronouns: 1 4dmf 4 2 5dmf 5 3ai 6dmf 6
Syntax: NA
Number: 5457
Language: Nonuya
Location: SE Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5458
Language: Orejone
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5459
Language: Miranya
Location: SE Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5460
Language: Coeruna
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Consonant system:
Number: 5461
Language: Meneca Alternate Name: Huitoto
Location: NE Peru
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Other Sources: Minor, Eugene E. 1956. "Witoto Vowel Clusters," IJAL 22, 131-137. Minor, Eugene E. and Eugene E. Loos. 1963. "The Structure and Contexts of Witoto Predicates in Narrative Speech," In Studies on Peruvian Indian Languages, Norman, SIL #9, 37-66.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b ʔb d ʔd ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ h m n ñ ŋ r Stops: p b ʔb t d ʔd k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: r Glides: j ɨ̯ w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ui ue ua ai aɯ oi oɯ ie ia io iu iɯ ɯi ae ɯe ɯa ɯu ei
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s d p
Gender: m f [some stems]
Pronouns: 1 4d 4 2 5d 5 3 6d 6 These are verbal affixes.
Syntax: SOV AN NG DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: PREP/POST
Number: 5462
Language: Murui Alternate Name: Witoto
Location: N Peru
Population: 5,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Witotoan
Other Sources: Burtch, Bryan and Mary Ruth Wise. 1968. "Murui (Witotoan) Clause Structures," Linguistics 38, 12-29.
Consonant system: t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ ɸ θ h β m n ñ r Stops: b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: ɸ β θ h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ
Pronouns: 1 4dmf 4 2 5dmf 5 3 6dmf 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5463
Language: Chayma
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Venezuelan
Consonant system:
Number: 5464
Language: Cumanagoto
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Venezuelan
Consonant system:
Number: 5465
Language: Yao
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Venezuelan
Consonant system:
Number: 5466
Language: Tamanaco
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Venezuelan
Consonant system:
Number: 5467
Language: Japreria
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Sierra de Perija
Consonant system:
Number: 5468
Language: Yukpa Alternate Name: Macoa
Location: Venezuela
Population: 250
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Sierra de Perija
Other Sources: Hildebrandt, Martha. 1958. Sistema fonémico del macoı́ta. Caracas: Ministerio de Justicia. LAND
Consonant system: p t k č š m n ñ r Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: š Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5469
Language: Yukpa Alternate Name: Motilon
Location: N Colombia (NE Magdalena)
Population: 3,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Sierra de Perija
Other Sources: Hanes, Leonard C. 1952. "Phonemes of Motilone (Carib)," IJAL 18, 146-9. LAND
Consonant system: ph th kh ʔ č̣h čh s š m n Stops: ph th kh ʔ Affricates: č̣h čh Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C), Nˈ Stress: phonemic (generaly on long vowel; if no long vowel, then penult)
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5470
Language: Opone
Location: Colombia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Opone-Carare
Consonant system:
Number: 5471
Language: Carare
Location: Venezuela
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Coastal: Opone-Carare
Consonant system:
Number: 5472
Language: Mapoyo
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Western Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5473
Language: Yabarana
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Western Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5474
Language: Panare Alternate Name: Eñepa
Location: WC Venezuela
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Western Guiana
Other Sources: E AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 5475
Language: Quaca
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Western Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5476
Language: Pareca
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Western Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5477
Language: Galibi Alternate Name: Carib
Location: NC Surinam
Population: 6,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Galibi Grammar: Hoff, B. J. 1968. The Carib Language. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Other Sources: Peasgood, Edward T. 1972. "Carib Phonology," in LOG, 35-41.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ s h m n ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: au ai ei oi ɯi ui ou
Syllable: (C)V(C) Stress: non-phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Articles: def indef
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV/(OVS) AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5478
Language: Wayana
Location: S Surinam
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 1 Grammar: Jackson, Walter S. 1972. "A Wayana Grammar," in LOG, 47-77.
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system: p t k s h m n ŋ ľ Stops: p t k Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ŋ Laterals:Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4di 4ie 2 5 *3 6ai
Syntax: OVS POSS-N
Noun Incorporation: noun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5479
Language: Apalai
Location: Brazil (Pará)
Population: 175
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 1
Other Sources: Koehn, Edward Henry. 1976. "The Historical Tense in Apalaı́ Narrative," IJAL 42, 243-52. AMAZ
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s š h z m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s z š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syntax: OVS NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5480
Language: Roucouyene
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 1
Consonant system:
Number: 5481
Language: Aracaju
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 1
Consonant system:
Number: 5482
Language: Trio Alternate Name: Tiriyo
Location: Surinam
Population: 800
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 1
Other Sources: Jones, Morgan W. 1972. "Trio Phonology," in LOG, 42-6. WALS
Consonant system: p t̪ k s̪ h m n ɾ Stops: p t̪ k Fricatives: s̪ h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ǝ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Diphthongs: ae ai ao au eu ei iu oi oe ui ǝu ǝe ɯi ǝi oa
Syllable: (C)V(C), Nˈ
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: OVS POSS-N
Number: 5483
Language: Wama
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5484
Language: Urukuyana
Location: Surinam
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5485
Language: Triometesen
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5486
Language: Kumayena
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5487
Language: Pianakoto
Location: Guyana
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5488
Language: Saluma
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5489
Language: Paushi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5490
Language: Cashuena
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5491
Language: Chikena
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5492
Language: Waiwai
Location: N Brazil
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 3
Other Sources: Hawkins, W. Neil and Robert E. Hawkins. 1953. "Verb Inflections in Waiwai (Carib)," IJAL 19, 201-11.
Consonant system: t k č ɸ s š h m n ñ ɾ ɾ̣ Stops: t k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ ɾ̣ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Stress: phonemic
Number: 5493
Language: Paravilhana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5494
Language: Wabui
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5495
Language: Sapara
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5496
Language: Yauapery
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5497
Language: Waimiri
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5498
Language: Crichana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5499
Language: Paushiana
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5500
Language: Bonari
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 4
Consonant system:
Number: 5501
Language: Makushi
Location: N Brazil
Population: 3,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 5 Grammar: GD: William, James. 1932. Grammar Notes and Vocabulary of the Language of the Makuchi Indians of Guiana. St Gabriel-Mödling. Austria: Anthropos.
Other Sources: Hawkins, W. Neil. 1950. "Patterns of Vowel Loss in Macushi (Carib)," IJAL 16, 87-90. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ s š m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: anim inan Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 *3 6
Syntax: OVS/SOV AN GN DN NUM-N POSS-N/N-POSS
Noun Incorporation: pronoun incorp
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5502
Language: Pemon Alternate Name: Arecuna
Location: W Guayana
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 5
Other Sources: Edward, Walter F. 1978. "A Preliminary Sketch of Arekuna (Carib) Phonology," IJAL 44, 223-7. E
Consonant system: p t k č s m n ɾ Stops: p t k Affricates: č Fricatives: s Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Diphthongs: aI au eI
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C), but no CCVC
Noun
Number: s p
Syntax: OVS
Number: 5503
Language: Patamona
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 5
Consonant system:
Number: 5504
Language: Akawaio
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 5
Consonant system:
Number: 5505
Language: Arinagoto
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: East-West Guiana: Group 5
Consonant system:
Number: 5506
Language: Palmella
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 1
Consonant system:
Number: 5507
Language: Pimenteira
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 1
Consonant system:
Number: 5508
Language: Yaruma
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5509
Language: Chicão
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 2
Consonant system:
Number: 5510
Language: Pariri
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5511
Language: Apiaka
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5512
Language: Arara2
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5513
Language: Yuma2
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Northern: Northern Brazil: Group 3
Consonant system:
Number: 5514
Language: Hianacoto
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southeastern Colombia
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: OVS
Number: 5515
Language: Guaque
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southeastern Colombia
Consonant system:
Number: 5516
Language: Carijona
Location: Colombia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southeastern Colombia
Consonant system:
Number: 5517
Language: Bakairi
Location: WC Brazil
Population: 250
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Xingu Basin
Other Sources: Wheatley, James. 1969. "Bakairi Verb Structure," Linguistics 47, 80-100. Wheatley, James. 1973. "Pronouns and Nominal Elements in Bacairi Discourse," Linguistics 104, 105-15. E
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ s š h z ž m n l r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Fricatives: s z š ž h Nasals: m n Laterals: l Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3ai 6
Syntax: SOV/OVS
Number: 5518
Language: Nahukwa
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Xingu Basin
Consonant system:
Number: 5519
Language: Ye'cuana Alternate Name: Carib (De'kwana)
Location: Venezuela
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southern Guiana
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5520
Language: Wayumara
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southern Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5521
Language: Parukoto
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southern Guiana
Consonant system:
Number: 5522
Language: Hishkaryana
Location: N Brazil (Pará)
Population: 350
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southern Guiana
Other Sources: Derbyshire, Desmond. 1961. "Hishkaryana (Carib) Syntax Structure I-II," IJAL 27, 125-42 & 226-36. Derbyshire, Desmond. 1965. Textos Hixkaryâna. Belém, Brazil: Museu Paraense Emı́lio Goeldi. Derbyshire, Desmond C. 1977a. "Word Order Universals and the Existence of OVS Languages,' Linguistic Inquiry 8, 590-9. Derbyshire, Desmond C. 1977b. "Discourse Redundancy in Hixkaryana," IJAL 43, 176-88.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɟ č ɸ s š h m n ñ B ɾ ɾ̌ B is a bilabial trill and ɾ̌ is an alveopalatal flap with lateral release. Stops: p b t d ɟ k Affricates: č Fricatives: ɸ s š h Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: B = bilabial trill ɾ ɾ̌ (alveopalatal flap with lateral release) Glides: j w
Vowel system: ɯ u e ɔ a Front Vowels: e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ ɔ Demonstratives: 3
Syntax: OVS NA GN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5523
Language: Kashuyana
Location: N Brazil (Pará)
Population: 40
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Carib: Carib: Southern: Southern Guiana
Other Sources: Wallace de Garcia Paula, Ruth. 1976. "Harmonia Vocálica nos Afixos de Posse na Lı́ngua Kaxuyâna," Revista Brasileira de Lingüı́stica 3:2, 42-50.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č s h m n r Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: u o Modified Vowels: vowel harmony Stress: phonemic
Syntax: POSS-N/N-POSS
Number: 5524
Language: Charrua
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Charruan
Consonant system:
Number: 5525
Language: Chana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Charruan
Consonant system:
Number: 5526
Language: Güenoa
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Charruan
Consonant system:
Number: 5527
Language: Lule
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Lule-Vilela
Consonant system:
Number: 5528
Language: Vilela
Location: Argentina (Gran Chaco)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Lule-Vilela
Other Sources: Lozano, Elena. 1977. "Cuentos secretos vilelas: la mujer tigre," Vicus Cuadernos. Lingüı́stica 1, 93-116.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ q qʔ ʔ b d ɡ G č čʔ s h m n l ɬ r Stops: p pʔ b t tʔ d k kʔ ɡ q qʔ G ʔ Affricates: č čʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o
Syntax: SOV NA GN NUM-N POSS-N
Number: 5529
Language: Guana2
Location: Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mascoian
Consonant system:
Number: 5530
Language: Northern Lengua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mascoian
Consonant system:
Number: 5531
Language: Southern Lengua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mascoian
Consonant system:
Number: 5532
Language: Sanapana
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mascoian
Consonant system:
Number: 5533
Language: Emok
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mascoian
Consonant system:
Number: 5534
Language: Chimane Alternate Name: Moseten
Location: NW Bolivia
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Moseten Grammar: GD: Bibolotti, Benigno. 1917. Moseteno Vocabulary and Treatises. Evanston: Northwestern Univ.
Other Sources: Suárez, Jorge A. 1969. "Moseten and Pano-Tacanan," Al 11, 255-66. Suárez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54.
Consonant system: p t k b d ts č f s š x v m n ñ r Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: f v s š x Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: r Glides: j
Vowel system: i ɯ u e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o Long Vowels:
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO AN GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5535
Language: Abipon
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5536
Language: Kadiweu
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Other Sources: WALS WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 5C 3 6 6C C=collective
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5537
Language: Guaicuru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Consonant system:
Number: 5538
Language: Guachi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Consonant system:
Number: 5539
Language: Mocovi
Location: N Argentina
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5540
Language: Toba
Location: N Argentina
Population: 20,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan Dictionary: Vellard, Jehan A. 1969. Vocabulario toba. Buenos Aires: Univ de Buenos Aires. Bruno, Lidia N. and Elena L. Naulis. 1965. Estudio comparativo de vocabularios tobas y pilagas. Buenos Aires: Univ de Buenos Aires. Grammar: Klein, Harriet E. Manelis. 1973. A Grammar of Argentine Toba. New York: Columbia Univ Diss.
Other Sources: Henry Jules. 1939. "The Linguistics Position of the Ashluslay Indians," IJAL 10, 86-91. Gasquet, Ana Marı́a Martirena de. 1977. "Fonologia de la lengua toba," Vicus Cuadernos. Lingüı́stica 1, 61-91. LAND
Consonant system: ph t̪h kh qh ʔ (b) (d̪) ɡ G č ɡ̌ s š h m n̪ ñ l ʎ ɾ Stops: ph (b) t̪h (d̪) kh ɡ qh G ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n̪ ñ Laterals: l ʎ Vibrants: ɾ Modified Consonants: c̄ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɛ o a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o Long Vowels: v̄ all
Syllable: (C)CV(C)(C) Stress: final
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SVO GN NUM-N POSS-N.
Number: 5541
Language: Pilaga
Location: Argentina
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Guaycuruan
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SVO
Number: 5542
Language: Chulupi Alternate Name: Ashushlay
Location: Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco
Other Sources: Henry, Jules. 1939. "The Linguistic Position of the Ashluslay Indians," IJAL 10, 86-91. Binda, Ricardo and Antonio Tovar. 1959. "Algunas notas sobre un idioma del chaco: el chulupi," Quaderni dell'Instituto di Glottologia dell'Università di Bologna 4, 55-58.
Consonant system: p t tʔ k kʔ ʔ ts tsʔ č fʷ s š x xʷ h m n l ɬ Stops: p t tʔ k kʔ ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č Fricatives: fʷ s š x xʷ h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Modified Consonants: cj tʔ kʔ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Long Vowels: v̄ all but ǝ
Noun
Number: s p
Gender: m f
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: POSS-N
Number: 5543
Language: Chorote
Location: N Argentina
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco
Other Sources: GSAIL, 94.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č fʷ s š h m n n̥ l l̥ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: fʷ s š h Nasals: m n n̥ Laterals: l l̥ Modified Consonants: cj p t k fʷ n n̥ l s Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Number: 5544
Language: Nocten
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco
Consonant system:
Number: 5545
Language: Vejoz Alternate Name: Mataco
Location: N Argentina (Chaco)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco Dictionary: Hunt, R. J. n.d. Mataco-English and English-Mataco. n.p Grammar: Hunt, R. J. 1940. Mataco Grammar. Tucuman, Argentina: Univ Nacional de Tucuman.
Other Sources: Viñas Urquiza, Maria Teresa. 1970. Fonologia de la lengua mataca. Buenos Aires: Univ de Buenos Aires, Centro de Estudios Linguisticos. Tovar, Antonio. 1958. "Notas de campo sobre el idioma mataco," Revista del Instituto de Antropologı́a 9.2, 7-18. Tucuman: Univ Nacional de Tucuman. Harrington, John P. 1948. "Mataco of the Gran Chaco," IJAL 14, 25-28.
Consonant system: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kw ʔ ts tsʔ č čʔ fʷ s x xw h m n l ɬ Stops: p pʔ t tʔ k kʔ kw ʔ Affricates: ts tsʔ č čʔ Fricatives: fʷ s x xw h Nasals: m n Laterals: l ɬ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u e o a ɑ Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u o ɑ Diphthongs: ai oi au
Syllable: (C)(C)V(C)(C) Stress: mostly final
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 6 this/that/that further away/that yonder/that furthest away/that moving + ref Articles: DEF
Pronouns: 1 4* 2 5 3 6 *There are two 4 pronouns: (1) we (general) (2) we (of the family, few)
Syntax: SVO NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N N+D+A
Prep/Post: PREP
Number: 5546
Language: Vejoz Dialect: Mataguayo
Location: Argentina
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco
Consonant system:
Number: 5547
Language: Maca
Location: Paraguay
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Mataco
Consonant system:
Number: 5548
Language: Proto-Panoan
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan
Other Sources: Shell, Olive A. 1975. Estudios panos III: las languas panos y su reconstruccion. Yarinchcha, Peru: SIL. Suárez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54. LAND
Consonant system: p t k kw ʔ ts č s ṣ̌ š β m n r Stops: p t k kw ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s ṣ̌ š Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi low
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5549
Language: Chacobo
Location: NE Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 150
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Southern Grammar: Prost, Gilbert R. 1967. "Chacobo" in BIG 1, 285-359.
Other Sources: Prost, Gilbert R. 1962. "Signaling of Transitive and Intransitive in Chacobo (Pano)," IJAL 28, 108-18. Prost, Gilbert R. 1967. "Phonemes of the Chacobo Language," Linguistics 35, 61-5.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č s ṣ̌ š h β m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o Nasal Vowels: (ṽ)
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi low
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 2
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5550
Language: Pacahuara
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Southern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5551
Language: Caripuna
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Southern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5552
Language: Sinabo
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Southern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5553
Language: Zurina
Location: Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Southern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5554
Language: Amahuaca
Location: E Peru
Population: 3,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central Dictionary: d'Ans, André-Marcel and Els Van den Eynde. 1972. Lexico amahuaca (Pano). Lima: Univ Nacional Mayor de San Macros.
Other Sources: Osborn, Henry. 1948. "Amahuaca Phonemes," IJAL 14, 188-190. Shell, Olive A. 1975. Estudios Panos III: Las lenguas panos y su reconstruccion. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č θ s x h m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: θ s x h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi low Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5555
Language: Parquenahua Alternate Name: Yora
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5556
Language: Yaminahua
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5557
Language: Poyanawa
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5558
Language: Shipinawa
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5559
Language: Tushinawa
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5560
Language: Sharanahua Alternate Name: Marinawa
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Central
Other Sources: Pike, Eunice and Eugene Scott. 1962. "The Phonological Hierarchy of Marinahua," Phonetics 8, 1-8. Shell, Olive A. 1975. Estudios panos III: Las lenguas panos y su reconstruccion. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL. Scott, Eugene and Donald G. Frantz. 1974. "Sharanahua Questions and Proposed Constraints on Question Movement," Linguistics 132, 75-86.
Consonant system: p t k ts č ɸ s ṣ̌ š h m n ɾ Stops: p t k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: ɸ s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃
Syllable: (C)(C)V
Tones: hi low
Syntax: SOV NA DN N-NUM POSS-N
Number: 5561
Language: Cashinahua
Location: SE Peru (Loreto)
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Eastern
Other Sources: Kensinger, Kenneth M. 1963. "The Phonological Hierarchy of Cashinahua (Pano)," in SPIL I, 207-17. Cromack, Robert Earl. 1968. Language Systems and Discourse Structure in Cashinawa, 2 vols. HSL 23.
Consonant system: p t k b d ts č s ṣ̌ š h m n Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ u a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Tones: hi lo Demonstratives: 2 + ref
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 + indef
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN N-NUM POSS-N D+N+A+Num
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5562
Language: Morunahua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Eastern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5563
Language: Catuquina2
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Eastern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5564
Language: Shahuanahua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Eastern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5565
Language: Camanahua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: South-Eastern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5566
Language: Cashibo
Location: SE Peru
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Western Dictionary: Shell, Olive A. 1959. Vocabulario cashibo-castellano. Peru: SIL.
Other Sources: Shell, Olive A. 1950. "Cashibo I: Phonemes," IJAL 16, 198-202.
Consonant system: p t k kw ʔ ts č s ṣ̌ š β m n ñ ɾ Stops: p t k kw ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s ṣ̌ š Nasals: m n ñ Vibrants: ɾ
Vowel system: i ɨ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV GN POSS-N
Number: 5567
Language: Capanahua
Location: EC Peru
Population: 400
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central Grammar: Loos, Eugene Emil. 1969. The Phonology of Capanahua and Its Grammatical Basis. SIL 20.
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č s ṣ̌ š h β m n ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɯ o a Front Vowels: i Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o
Tones: hi mid low
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3
Syntax: SOV NA GN NUM-N POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5568
Language: Shipibo Alternate Name: Shipibo-Konibo
Location: Peru
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: Lauriault, James. 1948. "Alternate-Mora Timing in Shipibo," IJAL 14, 22-24. Shell, Olive A. 1975. Estudios panos III: Las lenguas panos y su reconstruccion. Yarincocha, Peru: SIL. WALS
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts č s ṣ̌ š h β m n rž Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β s ṣ̌ š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: rž Glides: j w
Vowel system: I ɨ ɤ a Front Vowels: I Central Vowels: ɨ a Back Vowels: ɤ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all Stress: phonemic
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5569
Language: Isconahua
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5570
Language: Remo
Location: Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5571
Language: Marubo
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5572
Language: Capuibo
Location: Bolivia
Population: 30
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5573
Language: Sensi
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5574
Language: Niarawa
Location: Peru
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5575
Language: Pichobo
Location: Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5576
Language: Araua
Location: Peru
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5577
Language: Atsahuaca
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: North-Central
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5578
Language: Matses Alternate Name: Mayoruna
Location: E Peru
Population: 700
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Northern
TextBooks: Kneeland, Harriet. 1979. Lecciones para el aprendizaje del idioma mayoruna. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Other Sources: Fields, Herriet L. and William R. Merrifield. 1976. Parentesco mayoruna (pano) Comunidades y culturas Peruanas, No.9. Yarinacocha, Peru: SIL.
Consonant system: p t k b d ts č s š m n Stops: p b t d k Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š Nasals: m n Glides: j
Vowel system: i u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ǝ a Back Vowels: u o
Pronouns: 1 4ie 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5579
Language: Mayubo
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Northern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5580
Language: Rëmoxbo
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Northern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5581
Language: Pisabo
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Northern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5582
Language: Kasharari
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Panoan: Eastern
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5583
Language: Proto-Tacanan
Location: NW Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan
Other Sources: Key, Mary Ritchie. 1971. "Response to Girard on Tacanan," IJAL 37, 196-201. Suárez, Jorge A. 1973. "Macro-Pano-Tacanan," IJAL 39, 137-54. LAND
Consonant system: p t k kw ʔ b d ts ṭs č s ṣ š m n r ṛ Stops: p b t d k kw ʔ Affricates: ts ṭs č Fricatives: s ṣ š Nasals: m n Vibrants: r ṛ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5584
Language: Yamaluba
Location: S Peru
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5585
Language: Arasa
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5586
Language: Guariza
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5587
Language: Maropa
Location: Bolivia
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Chirigua
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5588
Language: Chumana
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Chirigua
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5589
Language: Sapiboca
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Chirigua
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5590
Language: Ese'ejja Alternate Name: Chama, Ese Ejja
Location: NW Bolivia (Beni)
Population: 1,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Tiatinagua Dictionary: Wyma, Richard and Lucille Pitkin de Wyma. 1962. Ese'ejja. Cochabamba, Bolivia: SIL. Grammar: Shoemaker, Jack S. and Nola K. Shoemaker. 1967. "Essejja," in BIG I, 209-83. [also in GELB III, 181 -306.]
Other Sources: Firestone, Homer L. 1955. "Chama Phonology," IJAL 21, 52-5 .
Consonant system: p t k kw ʔ ɓ ɗ č s š x h m n ñ Stops: p ɓ t ɗ k kw ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: s š x h Nasals: m n ñ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V Stress: phonemic
Noun
Number: s p Demonstratives: 3 Articles: def
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6 + 'member of tribe'
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN/ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5591
Language: Huarayo
Location: S Peru
Population: 1,600
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Tiatinagua
Other Sources: Chavarrı́a Mendoza, Marı́a Clotilde. 1973. Esbozo fonologico del eseʔexa o "huarayo" (tacana). Lima: Univ Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Consonant system: p t k kw ʔ b d s š x xw h m n Stops: p b t d k kw ʔ Fricatives: s š x xw h Nasals: m n Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o ɑ Front Vowels: i e Back Vowels: o ɑ
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5592
Language: Capachene
Location: Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Araona
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5593
Language: Mabenaro
Location: Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Araona
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5594
Language: Araona
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Araona
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5595
Language: Cavineña
Location: NW Bolivia
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Cavineña Dictionary: Key, Mary Ritchie de. 1963. Cavineña y castellaño. Cochabamba, Bolivia: SIL.
Other Sources: Key, Mary Ritchie. 1968. Comparative Tacanan Phonology. The Hague: Mouton. E
Consonant system: p t c k kw ʔ b d ɟ ts č s š h m n ñ (ʎ) ɾ Stops: p b t d c ɟ k kw ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: s š h Nasals: m n ñ Laterals: (ʎ) Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: o
Syllable: (C)V Stress: penult
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5596
Language: Tacana
Location: NW Bolivia (La Paz)
Population: 3,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Tacana Proper Dictionary: Wynen, Donald van and Mabel Garrard de van Wynen. 1962. Tacana y castellaño. Cochabamba, Bolivia: SIL. Grammar: Ottaviano, John C. and Ida Ottaviano. 1967. "Tacana," in BIG 1, 139-207. [also in Gelb III, 309-417.]
Other Sources: Wynen, Donaldo van and Mabel Garrard de van Wynen. 1962. "Fonemas tacana y modelos de acentuacion," Notas Lingüı́sticas de Bolivia 6. Cochabamba, Bolivia: SIL.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ts č s š h β ð m n r rž Stops: p b t d k ʔ Affricates: ts č Fricatives: β ð s š h Nasals: m n Vibrants: r rž Glides: j w
Vowel system: i u ɛ a Front Vowels: i ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u Stress: penult
Noun
Number: s d p Demonstratives: 3
Pronouns: 1 4die 4ie 2 5d 5 3 6d 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN DN NUM-N POSS-N Ergative: erg
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5597
Language: Reyesano
Location: NW Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Tacana Proper
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5598
Language: Toromono
Location: Bolivia
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Panoan: Tacanan: Tacana Proper
Other Sources: LAND
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV

Краткие типологические обзоры языков семьи Макро-же

Number: 5599
Language: Rikbaktsa
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5600
Language: Fulnio Alternate Name: Yate
Location: Brazil (Pernambuco)
Population: 1,500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5601
Language: Guato
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: VSO
Number: 5602
Language: Opaye
Location: SW Brazil (S Mato Grosso)
Population: few
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Consonant system:
Number: 5603
Language: Oti
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Consonant system:
Number: 5604
Language: Caraja
Location: Brazil (Pará)
Population: 750
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Consonant system:
Number: 5605
Language: Caraja Alternate Name: Karaja Dialect: Javahe, Javae
Location: Brazil
Population: 350
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5606
Language: Bororo Dialect: Eastern
Location: SW Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: 750
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Bororo Proper Dictionary: Albisetti, César and Angelo Jayme Venturelli. 1962. Enciclopédia Bororo, vol. 1. Campo Grande, Brazil: Instituto de Pesquisas Etnográficas.
Other Sources: Huestis, George. 1963. "Bororo Clause Structure," IJAL 29, 230-8. Crowell, Thomas H. 1973. "Cohesion in Bororo Discourse," Linguistics 104, 15-27.
Consonant system: p t k b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n r Stops: p b t d k ɡ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o Stress: penult Demonstratives: ref
Syntax: SOV NA POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5607
Language: Bororo Dialect: Western
Location: SW Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Bororo Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 5608
Language: Umotina
Location: SW Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Bororo Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 5609
Language: Aravira
Location: SW Brazil (Mato Grosso)
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Bororo Proper
Consonant system:
Number: 5610
Language: Otuke
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Otuke
Consonant system:
Number: 5611
Language: Covare
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Otuke
Consonant system:
Number: 5612
Language: Coraveca
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Otuke
Consonant system:
Number: 5613
Language: Curucane
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Otuke
Consonant system:
Number: 5614
Language: Tapii
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Bororo: Otuke
Consonant system:
Number: 5615
Language: Botocudo Alternate Name: Krenak Dialect: Chonvugn
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Botocudo
Other Sources: AMAZ
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5616
Language: Botocudo Dialect: Nacnhanuc
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Botocudo
Consonant system:
Number: 5617
Language: Botocudo Dialect: Nacrehe
Location: Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Botocudo
Consonant system:
Number: 5618
Language: Chiquito2
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Chiquito
Consonant system:
Number: 5619
Language: Chiquito2
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Chiquito
Consonant system:
Number: 5620
Language: Kutasho
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kamakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5621
Language: Masacara
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kamakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5622
Language: Menien
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kamakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5623
Language: Mongoyo
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kamakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5624
Language: Kamakan
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kamakan
Consonant system:
Number: 5625
Language: Puri
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Puri
Consonant system:
Number: 5626
Language: Coroado
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Puri
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5627
Language: Coropo
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Puri
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5628
Language: Aricapu
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Yabuti
Consonant system:
Number: 5629
Language: Yabuti Alternate Name: Jabuti
Location: Brazil (Rondonia)
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Yabuti
Other Sources: WALS
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5630
Language: Mashakali
Location: Brazil (NE Minas Gerais)
Population: 300
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Mashakali
Other Sources: Gudschinsky, Sarah C., Harold Popovich and Frances Popovich. 1970. "Native Reaction and Phonetic Similarity in Maxakalı́ Phonology," Lg 46, 77-88. E
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ŋɡ š h m n ñ Stops: p t k ŋɡ ʔ Fricatives: š h Nasals: m n ñ
Vowel system: i ɯ e o a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: ɯ o Nasal Vowels: ĩ (ẽ) ã ɯ̃ õ Modified Vowels: nasal harmony
Syllable: (C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV NA
Number: 5631
Language: Mashakali Dialect: Monocho
Location: Brazil (Minas Gerais)
Population: 250
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Mashakali
Consonant system:
Number: 5632
Language: Dorin
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang
Consonant system:
Number: 5633
Language: Kaingang
Location: SE Brazil (Paraná)
Population: 7,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Northern Grammar: Henry, Jules. 1948. "The Kaingang Language," IJAL 14, 194-204. Wiesemann, Ursula. 1972. Die phonologische und grammatische Struktur der Kaingáng-Sprache. The Hague: Mouton.
Other Sources: Henry, Jules. 1935. "A Kaingang Text," IJAL 8, 172-218.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ɸ š h m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p t k ʔ Fricatives: ɸ š h Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Nasal Vowels: ĩ æ̃ ǝ̃ ã õ Diphthongs: diphthonɡs
Syllable: (C)CV(C)
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3fF 6 [2=5] f=fem F=non-fem
Syntax: SOV/(OVS) NA GN ND N-NUM POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5634
Language: Xokleng
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Northern
Other Sources: E
Consonant system:
Syntax: SOV
Number: 5635
Language: Chiqui
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Northern
Consonant system:
Number: 5636
Language: Amho
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 5637
Language: Ingain
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 5638
Language: Gualachi
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Kaingang: Southern
Consonant system:
Number: 5639
Language: Acroa
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5640
Language: Aricobe
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5641
Language: Guegue
Location: E Brazil
Population: extinct
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Central
Consonant system:
Number: 5642
Language: Chavante
Location: WC Brazil
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Central
Other Sources: McLeod, Ruth. 1974. "Paragraph, Aspect and Participant in Xavante," Linguistics 132, 51-74.
Consonant system: p t ʔ b d s h m n ñ r Nasals analyzed as allophones; they also occurs in loans. Stops: p b t d ʔ Fricatives: s h Nasals: m n ñ (Nasals analyzed as allophones; they also occurs in loans.) Vibrants: r Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ Long Vowels: v̄ all Nasal Vowels: ṽ all v̄̃ all Stress: final
Syntax: OSV NA POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5643
Language: Cherente
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Central
Other Sources: WPF
Consonant system:
Pronouns: 1 4 2 5 3 6
Number: 5644
Language: Apinaye
Location: NC Brazil (Goias)
Population: 200
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Other Sources: Ham, Patricia. 1965. "Multilevel Influence on Apinayé Multidimensional Clause Structure," Linguistics 15, 50-32. Burgess, Eunice and Patricia Ham. 1968. "Multilevel Conditioning of Phoneme Varients in Apinaye," Linguistics 41, 5-18.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ č (s) (h) v ž m n ñ ŋ ɾ̣ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: č Fricatives: v (s) ž (h) Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ̣
Vowel system: i ɯ u e ɤ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: a Back Vowels: u ɯ o ɤ ɔ ʌ Long Vowels: v̄ Nasal Vowels: ı̃ ɛ̃ ã ũ ɯ̃ õ ʌ̃
Syllable: (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)
Syntax: SOV NA ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5645
Language: Suya
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5646
Language: Kreen-Akarore
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5647
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Caraho
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5648
Language: Cayapo Alternate Name: Kayapo Dialect: North
Location: C Brazil (S Pará)
Population: 10,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Other Sources: Stout, Mickey and Ruth Thomson. 1971. "Kayapó Narrative," IJAL 37, 150-6.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ b d ɡ č ɡ̌ m n ñ ŋ ɾ Stops: p b t d k ɡ ʔ Affricates: č ɡ̌ Nasals: m n ñ ŋ Vibrants: ɾ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u e ǝ o ɛ ʌ ɔ a Front Vowels: i e ɛ Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u o ɔ ʌ Nasal Vowels: ĩ ẽ ɨ̃ ã ũ õ ʌ̃
Syntax: SOV NA GN ND POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5649
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Cruatire
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5650
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Curupite
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5651
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Duludi
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5652
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Gorotire
Location: E Brazil
Population: 250
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5653
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Gradahó
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5654
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Pau d'Arco
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5655
Language: Cayapo Dialect: Uchicrin
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5656
Language: Canela Dialect: Apanhecra
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5657
Language: Canela Dialect: Augutge
Location: E Brazil
Population: 2,000
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5658
Language: Canela Dialect: Craho, Kraho
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest Grammar: Shell, Olive. 1952. "Grammatical Outline of Kraho (Ge Family)," IJAL 18, 115-29.
Consonant system: p t k ʔ ts h m n ŋ Stops: p t k ʔ Affricates: ts Fricatives: h Nasals: m n ŋ Glides: j w
Vowel system: i ɨ u ʋ e ǝ a Front Vowels: i e Central Vowels: ɨ ǝ a Back Vowels: u ʋ Nasal Vowels: ṽ all
Pronouns: 1 4di 4 2 5 3 6
Syntax: SOV NA GN POSS-N
Prep/Post: POST
Number: 5659
Language: Canela Dialect: Creapimcatage
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5660
Language: Canela Dialect: Creye
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5661
Language: Canela Dialect: Cricatage
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5662
Language: Canela Dialect: Gurupy
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5663
Language: Canela Dialect: Macamecran
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5664
Language: Canela Dialect: Nucoecamecran
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5665
Language: Canela Dialect: Piocobge
Location: E Brazil
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:
Number: 5666
Language: Canela Dialect: Ramcocamecra
Location: E Brazil
Population: 500
Classification: Amerind: Macro-Ge: Ge: Northwest
Consonant system:

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